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친환경농업에 많이 사용되고 있는 바닷물을 살포하여 토양의 화학성과 마늘의 무기성분 흡수량의 변화를 조사하였다. 바닷물 원액을 토양에 살포한 직후에는 전기전도도, 치환성 나트륨, 염소이온, 나트륨 흡착비 등이 높아졌다. 그리고, 바닷물의 살포횟수가 증가할수록 토양의 전기전도도, 치환성 나트륨, 염소이온 그리고 나트륨 흡착비가 증가하였다. 바닷물로 투입된 성분들은 표토에 대부분 분포하였으며 수확기에는 심토로의 용탈이 일어나 작물이 생육하는 근권에서는 감소하였다. 그리고 바닷물 원액을 작물체에 살포했을 때 마늘 중의 무기성분인 질소, 칼슘, 마그네슘, 나트륨, 미량원소인 철, 망간, 아연 등의 함량은 줄어들었고 염소이온 함량은 처리횟수가 3회일 경우 유의성 있게 증가되었다 (p<0.05). This study was conducted at the organic farming fields which garlics were planted. The treatments were as follows; water of 3,850 L ha<SUP>-1</SUP> (Control), plots applied 1 time, 2 times and 3 times with sea water of 3,850 L ha<SUP>-1</SUP>. In 3 times sea water treatment plot, the level of EC, Exch. Na and Cl- were 1.1, 2.1, and 3.3 times higher than control plot, respectively. Due to seawater application, the contents of inorganic elements such as T-N, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, and Zn in garlic were generally lower than Control, but not significant.
In this study, we inquire what is the rules which is implicitly used by the adolescent group about bullying phenomenon. We inquire how to interpret the phenomenon from the adolesents' viewpoint and their opinions of how appearance and clothing determine the extent of bullying. After we discuss this problem, we propose an indirect solution to the cause of bullying. We selected a middle school boy by reason that boys have been more experienced than others according to a previous study and are at a keen adolescent stage of development. Moreover, "ichime" phenomenon is seriously reported at a middle school student stage in the case of Japan. The purpose of the study was to analyze the following : 1. Research on an actual case of bullying in a middle school student. 2. the adolescents' viewpoint on characteristics of school bullying. 3. The cause of violence and injry from school bullying. 4. How appearance and clothing affect bullying. 5. The preference and uses of clothing worn by adolescents. The process of this study brought a substantially between quantitative and qualitative research. These questionnaires were administered to 320 middle school students in Seoul from the 14th to the 25th of June. The data totaled up to 280 subjects, which consist of 121 male students and 159 female students except for invalid data.
임파구의 염색체이상 빈도로부터 피폭자의 흡수선량을 구하는 방법은 사고로 인해 급성피폭을 받는 경우 유용하게 사용될 수 있다. 그러나 방사선 피폭 후 시간이 경과함에 따라 불안정 염색체이상을 가진 임파구는 감소하게 된다. 이에 방사선 치료후 시간 경과에 따른 불안정 염색체이상 빈도의 변화를 규명하고자 한다. 전골반에 50.4 Gy의 방사선 치료를 받은 총 20명의 자궁경부암 또는 자궁내막암 환자를 대상으로 41개의 검체를 얻었다. 채혈의 시기는 방사선 치료후 1일 3주, 6주, 12주, 24주, 52주, 104주, 156주, 208주, 520주로 하였다. 이들 말초혈액의 임파구에 대해 전혈미세배양을 실시한 후 임파구의 불안정 염색체이상을 관찰하여 Ydr, Qdr, Qdra를 얻었다. Ydr 값은 방사선 치료가 끝난 직후부터 3주까지 plateau를 보였고 이후 감소하는 경향이었다. Ydr의 평균값은 치료후 3주에 0.29에서 급격히 감소하여 2년후 0.05로 감소하였으며 이후 5년까지 서서히 감소하였다. 회귀분석을 실시한바 Ydr = 0.259×exp(-0.0429T)+0.0560×exp(-0.00106T)(time in weeks)로 나타났다. Qdr값은 치료 직후부터 24주까지 1.51 전후로 거의 변화가 없었으며 이후 감소하여 52주 이후에는 1.17 전후로 거의 일정하였다. Qdra 값은 치료 직후부터 12주까지 1.10 전후이며 이후 감소하여 52주 이후에는 0.81 전후였다. 피폭 후 시간경과에 따른 Ydr 값의 감소는 두 component exponential 모델을 잘 맞고 이 식을 이용하여 생물학적 선량측정이 가능하다. Qdr 값 및 Qdra 값은 피폭후 시간경과가 짧은 경우 피폭선량을 추정하는 지료로 사용할 수 있다. It is good method to use frequency of chromosome aberration in lymphocytes for a biological dosimetry in cases of accidental exposure to radiation. But in cases of past edposure, biological dosimetry is limited because the friquency of aberration decreases by time after exposure. To provide a basic data for estimationof past radiation exposure, the changing pattern of frequency of unstable chromosome aberration by time interbal after exposure was studied. Observation was made on peripheral lymphocytes of 41 blood samples from 20 patients treated for uterine cervical carcinoma and endometrial caricinoma. The patients received 50.4 Gy radiation to whole pelvis. Elapsed times after the completion of radiation therapy were 1 day, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 52, 104, 156, 208, 260 and 520 weeks. All the blood sample were microcultured. The Ydr, Qdr and Qdra were calculated form frequency of unstable aberration. Ydr did not decrease for 3 weeks after radiation therapy, and thereafter, decreased very rapidly and reached 0.05 at two years after radiation therapy and decreased very slowly until 5 years after radiation therapy. Relationship between unstable chromosome aberration and time interval after radiation therapy was described as Ydr = 0.2590.259×exp(-0.0429T)+0.0560×exp(-0.00106T)(time in weeks) Qdr remained constant at 1.51 until 24 weeks after radiation therapy and then decreased to 1.17 at 52 weeks. Therafter, it did not change. Qdra remained constant at 1.10 for 12 weeks after radiation therapy and decreased to 0.81 at 52 weeks. Thereafter, it remanined constant. Two superimposed exponential Ydr disappearance rate wuggests that it is possible to calculate the past exposure dose. When the elapsed time after exposure is short, Qdr and Qdra are useful papameters for biological dosimetry for past radiation exposure.
To investigate the effects of ethanol on the lipid metabolism in blood and liver, twenty one male Sprague Dawley rats had orally taken the 25% alcohol and 50% alcohol by 5g per Kg of weight during 3 weeks after the adjusting period. For the energy balance, 85% sucrose and 45% sucrose was added in control group and 25% alcohol group each. The weight was reduced by alcohol treatment according to the levels, otherwise the weight of liver and heart was little increased in alcohol groups rather than in control without significance. Moreover, RBC, WBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit were increased by alcohol treatment according to the levels without significance. Otherwise, adjusted bilirubin levels by 100g of weight was significantly increased by alcohol treatment dose dependently. Alcohol induced RBC degradation and increased circulated bilirubin because of liver damage. For blood lipid profiles, blood cholesterol was increased in 50% of alcohol group compared to that of 25% and control groups, otherwise, blood triglycerides (TG) was increased by 30% in 25% alcohol groups rather than in control but not significantly different. The hepatic lipid composition, cholesterol levels in alcohol treatment groups was lower than those in control. The hepatic TG was not influenced by alcohol treatment. The two reasons of decreasing hepatic lipids were suggested by 85% sucrose of control for energy balance more synthesized cholesterol and TG than those in 25 or 50% alcohol groups, and by cholesterol and TG could not be synthesized because of liver damage from alcohol.
This study defines attributes of the Korean costume culture, focussed on hair, shoes and accessories which express sex-roles, encapsulated in the term, "be like...". A group of 362 male and female university students from Seoul and Gyeonggi area was surveyed for the study. The statistical analysis of SPSS 10.0 was applied for analyzing the data, and the significant variances were reviewed by the basic statistics and t-test. The results are as follows. First, short hair is perceived as the typical hair style that symbolizes male, both from male and female university students. Hair colors in warm color such as brown, wine, purple, lemon and orange, and the style of hair such as bobbed, long, and perm are perceived as definite clues that symbolized female. Second, when it concerns the types of shoes, both male and female university students cited oxford as the typical clue that symbolizes male, whereas pumps and sandal were cited for female. Third, in terms of types of accessories, both male and female university students perceived necklace, earring, bracelet, hair pin and band, scarf, and muffler as very feminine. Among these, hair pin and band, and scarf are evaluated as the typical clues that signify the role of females Necktie is perceived as the typical clue that signify male role.
Whether Korean peninsular's dividing cause from the dividing of 38 degree line according to the "General order No 1" in 1945 or from the "Armistice Agreement" in 1953, that was not our will but outside's power. We can not say that reunification of our country would depend on foreign power because its dividing caused by outside power. Enter-Korea have been hostilize each other regarding as irregular group under dividing seatus. It is certain that our facing problem and ultimate objective is reunification not the naturalization of dividing. Accordingly, we have to consider sincerely reunification of our country considering enough inner or outer conditions given to us. Not only South Korea but North have a ability to take a reunification treaty with domestic law and international. The problem of future is when and how we will have to pursuit discussion first procedure. Our country require earnestly our wisidom and wit than ever for reunification. The responsible offiser of reunification policy have to decide sincerely reunification policy according to the high opinion of the export and many people working every parts.
Background and Purposes: Over the past three decades, numerous studies performed in Korea have reported that job stress is a determinant risk factor for chronic diseases and work disability. Every society has its own culture and occupational climate particular to their organizations, and hence experiences different occupational stress. An occupational stress measurement tool therefore needs to be developed to estimate it objectively. The purpose of this study is to develop and standardize the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) which is considered to be unique and specific occupational stressors in Korean employees. Subjects and Methods: Data were obtained from the National Study for Development and Standardization of Occupational Stress (NSDSOS Project: 2002-2004). A total of 12,631 employees from a nationwide sample proportional to the Korean Standard Industrial Classification and the Korean Standard Occupational Classification were administered. The KOSS was developed for 2 years (2002-2004). In the first year, we collected 255 items from the most popular job stress measurement tools such as JCQ, ERI, NIOSH and OSI, and 44 items derived from the a qualitative study (depth interview). Forty-three items of KOSS, in the second year, were retained for use in the final version of the KOSS by using Delphi and factor analysis. Items were scored using conventional 1-2-3-4 Likert scores for the response categories. Results: We developed eight subscales by using factor analysis and validation process: physical environment (3 items), job demand (8 items), insufficient job control (5 items), interpersonal conflict (4 items), job insecurity (6 items), organizational system (7 items), lack of reward (6 items), and occupational climate (4 items). Together they explained 50.0% of total variance. Internal consistency alpha scores were ranged from 0.51 to 0.82. Twenty-four items of the short form of the KOSS (KOSS-SF) were also developed to estimate job stress in the work setting. Because the levels of the subscales of occupational stress were gender dependent, gender-specific standard norms for both the 43-item full version and the 24-item short form using a quartile for the subscales of KOSS were presented. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that KOSS might be an appropriate measurement scale to estimate occupational stress of Korean employees. Further and more detailed study needs to be conducted to improve the validity of this scale.