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The purposes of this study were to review the successive background, to pursue the succession, and to find out the historical significance of Nam-Myung's educational thought. This study investigated the formed background, successive character and successive background of Nam-Myung's educatinal thought. The formed background of Nam-Myung's educational thought could be explained through the political situation, the trend of thought, and the regional condition. At that time, the political situation went through the party strife(黨爭) and Sahwa(士禍-A massacre of confucian scholars). The thought of Hsing-ri-hsuch(性理學) accepted end in Koryo(高麗) and formed early in Chosun(朝鮮) was being in the process of settlement of the learning system by the middle time of Chosun Dynasty(朝鮮王朝). At those days, the geographical and environmental characters of Kyung-sang right province(慶尙右道) had been important factors by which the educational thought of Nam-Myung brought into distinctively prominent. The disciples of Nam-Myung's were one hundred thirty five members according to Degchunsawooyenwonrog(『德川師友淵源錄』), and they were taught by Nam-Myung at Sanhae-jong(山海亭) of Kim-hea(金海), Neryong-jong(雷龍亭) of Hab-chun(陜川), Sanchon-jae(山天齋) of Dug-san(德山) and so on. After he died, they had been studying Nam-Myung' thought. This study investigated Learner Centered Education(學習者 中心 敎育) which was successive of individual difference. In the process of settlement of Hsing-ri-hsuch(性理學) in the middle of Chosun, Group Centered Education had not considered learner-individual difference(個人差). But it could have been known that Nam-Myung's learner centered education considered learner-individual differences. As discussed, this study found out the successive aspects in the educational thoughts of Nam-Myung Cho-Sik according to the disciple's various characteristics by his teaching. This succession was prominent in studying the Nam-Myung's disciples.
Since 1974, Yoo Ik-Seo has been announcing 10 full-length novels and 70 short novels or so. Four novels of them are classified with an artist-novel. They are 『Saenam Sori』, 『Mingot Sori』, 「Mt. Song(sori) Image」 and 「Pyo Poong」. Traditional Aesthetics and imagination are literary conviction to him. An artist-novel is the novel which examines the self-consciousness of an artist and relation between life and art, depicting the growing-up progress which undergoes the mastery of the artistic techniques. The purpose of this study is to catch characteristics in Yoo Ik-Seo`s artist- novels, by examining artist`s tragic fate, isolation, and desire which completes arts. Characteristics in his artist-novels are as follows: Firstly, his artist-novels` theme is about our traditional arts. Most of people don`t value our traditional arts and artists. Yoo emphasizes that traditional arts are more valuable than those of European and we have to protect traditional arts from European arts. Secondly, Artists in his artist-novels were born with tragic fate and they suffered many hardships. Among them, especially, Myung-Jae distressed himself between art and real life. His internal attitude (artistic attitude) was entirely more stronger than external attitude (social attitude), so he suffered social isolation. However, it`s important that their tragic fate and isolation are the process that turn towards "Complete Art". Especially, they are artists who have a "Visionary ``Soul of Art``". This nickname is on the basis of ``the Theory of Art of Freud``. Artist`s vision was dealt with by Freud, who believed artists in his artist-novels were able to sublimate "Suppressed Desires". Thirdly, the majority of them killed themselves - ``Nam Yeon`` in 『Saenam Sori』, ``Jeong Myung-Jae`` and ``Choi Yang-Soo`` in 『Mingot Sori』. They committed a suicide due to "Frustration about Art". Although they chose death, the consequence of death was "Complete Art" and their "Soul of Art" was greatly intensified. In conclusion, the best significant implication in Yoo`s artist-novels, in which artists have "Visionary ``Soul of Art``", is to wake up people to the realization of ``traditional art``. It`s a pity that this study doesn`t cover all the artists` psychology except ``Jeong Myung-Jae`` in 『Mingot Sori』. If the artist`s psychology is understood obviously, we will be able to discover other characteristics in Yoo`s artist- novels. This work needs to be examined further.
The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse several Bible expositions (Matthew, Daniels, Songs of Solomon, Romans, Ruth, Hosea, Revelation) written by Lee, Myung-Chick during 1920s. Rev. Lee has been called the father of the Holiness Church for long time. He had been the chief administrator of the Holiness Church and the principal of the Kyung-Sung Bible School (now, Seoul Theological University) for several decades. However, he was also the famous Bible expositor in Korean Church. He wrote many Bible expositions in his life and published them in monthly the Living Water. His exposition of the Bible had influenced the Holiness Church as well as the Korean church in general. In 1920s, Korean society confronted secularization of western culture, communism from Russia, and liberal theology of western church. In this context, Lee had tried to maintain the Full (or pure) Gospel of the Bible. He had criticized secularization very strongly, considered communism as anti-Christ, and attacked liberal theology as a threat of Christianity. After description and analysis of the Bible exposition, the writer concludes the main characteristics of the Bible expositions by Lee, Myung-Chick as followings. First, Rev. Lee tried to read the Old Testament from Christological perspectives. He found many Christological figure in the Old Testament. Second, he stood in the tradition of the Wesleyan Holiness movement, key teaching of which is the Holiness experience by the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. Third, his framework of the Bible interpretation is premillennialism. For Rev. Lee, Chiristian should live in the shadow of the second coming of Christ. Fourth, his emphasis on holiness and the second coming of Christ led to attack secularization as anti-Christ. Christian should not follow this world. Here Holiness movement considered as anti-secularization movement. Finally, Rev. Lee explained the Bible from woman's perspectives. Of course, Rev. Lee is not feminist. However, all Christian should be a bride of the coming Christ, the bridegroom of all believers. For him, Daniels, Ruth, and the woman of Solomon in the Songs were the examples of true bride of Christ. Church history sometimes considers as history of the Bible interpretation. The Bible interpretation principles of Rev. Lee had heavily influenced the Korean Holiness Church.
with Ketamine HCl and Tiletamine-Zolazepam in Cynomolgus MonkeysJae-il Lee, Sung-hyeok Hong, Soo-jin Lee, Young-suk Kim and Myung-cheol Kim*Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, KoreaReceived March 4, 2003 / Accepted July 2, 2003J. Vet. Sci. (2003), 4(2), 187-191JOURNAL OFVeterinaryScience*Corresponding author: Myung-cheol Kim Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea Tel: +82-42-821-6757, Fax: +82-42-822-4216 E-mail: email@example.com
이명구 ( Myung Goo Lee ), 김명빈 ( Myung Bin Kim ), 김진환 ( Jin Hwan Kim ), 윤택중 ( Taek Joong Yun ), 최정은 ( Jeong Eun Choi ), 김동환 ( Dong Hwan Kim ), 모은경 ( Eun Kyung Mo ), 박명재 ( Myung Jae Park ), 현인규 ( In Gyu Hyun ), 정기석) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 1996 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.43 No.3
이 논문은 노무현 정부와 이명박 정부가 한국 민주주의 발전에 어떤 기여를 했으며 또 어떤 문제점을 남겼는지를 탐구한다. 노무현 정부에서는 젊은 세대의 정치세력이 등장하여 한국 정치의 일인 지배 구조와 권위주의적 행태를 타파하였고, 정치제도 개혁을 통해 민주주의 발전에 이바지하였다. 또 진보세력이 국회에 진출하여 한국 정치에 새로운 장을 열었다. 그러나 대통령의 권위 부족과 집권세력의 대결지향적인 행태 및 민생 발전을 도외시한 빗나간 의제 선정으로 당파싸움을 증폭시켰다. 노무현 정부의 인기가 하락하자 그 반사효과로 등장한 이명박 정부는 친기업 정책과 대북 강경 정책으로 노무현 정부의 정책들을 역전시키고자 하였다. 그러나 취임 약속이었던 경제살리기에 실패하고 오히려 사회적 양극화를 부추겼다. 그리고 인권 문제를 등한시하는 등 민주주의의 후퇴를 야기하였다. 두 정부는 이념상 대척점에 있는 것처럼 보였지만, 실제로 그 차이는 크지 않았다. 둘은 모두 가상의 적을 지나치게 과장하였으며, 정치 지도력이 미숙하였고, 타협보다는 대결 지향적으로 나아갔다. 또 진보와 보수를 각각 표방한 두 정부의 정책들은 세부적인 차이가 있었으나 결국 중도우의 방향으로 수렴되었다. 이렇게 보면 한국 정치 갈등의 근본 원인은 이념 차이 자체보다는 작은 이념 차이를 극복하지 못하고 대결로만 치닫는 정치적 미숙함과 통합적 지도력의 부재에 있다고 할 수 있다. 따라서 한국 민주주의의 발전은 결국 이념과 정책의 차이를 극복하고 당파이익을 조정할 타협 문화와 통합적 지도력의 개발에 달려있다고 할 것이다. This article investigates the contributions and problems of the two recent Koreangovernments?the Roh Moo-hyun government and the Yi Myung-bak government?in the development of Korean democracy. The Roh government ushered in a new era in Korean democracy, ending the post-three Kim politics, i.e., one-man rule based upon regional factions. It also overcame authoritarian practices and introduced new democratic procedures to a certain extent while the progressive political forces took seats in the National Assembly for the first time in several decades. In spite of these democratic achievements, the Roh government exacerbated factional strife rampant in Korean politics, a good part of which stemmed from the incumbent`s lack of political leadership and from strife-stricken behaviors. Yi utilized Roh`s failure to be elected as the next president, promising to revitalize the Korean economy. The new government and supporting conservative forces attempted to reverse what they saw as “leftist” policies of the previous government, but soon their policies changed, culminating in more or less center-right ones not dissimilar to Roh`s policies. Yi also failed: He did not revitalize the Korean economy and social polarization worsened; and his anti-North Korean policies contributed nothing in either improving South-North Korean relations or changing the North Korean regime. What is worse, Yi`s contribution to the development of Korean democracy was next to nil: He rather despised democratic political procedures, so political freedom and human rights records worsened during his incumbency. The two governments look very dissimilar at first glance, with the former being “left” and the latter being “right,” but the realty was not exactly so. They shared meaningful commonalities: They both exaggerated the would-be enemies; they both lacked political leadership; they were both strife-oriented rather than compromise-oriented. Their ideological positions may have been different but their policies, especially in socio-economic matters, eventually converged. In this regard, we may conclude that the real problems in Korean politics do not lie with ideological polarization as usually considered but more in the lack of integrative political leadership and compromising political culture, found both in the political and civil societies of Korea. The measures to improve these political assets should be found and the study of Korean democracy needs to be more concerned on this issue.