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The purposes of this study were to review the successive background, to pursue the succession, and to find out the historical significance of Nam-Myung's educational thought. This study investigated the formed background, successive character and successive background of Nam-Myung's educatinal thought. The formed background of Nam-Myung's educational thought could be explained through the political situation, the trend of thought, and the regional condition. At that time, the political situation went through the party strife(黨爭) and Sahwa(士禍-A massacre of confucian scholars). The thought of Hsing-ri-hsuch(性理學) accepted end in Koryo(高麗) and formed early in Chosun(朝鮮) was being in the process of settlement of the learning system by the middle time of Chosun Dynasty(朝鮮王朝). At those days, the geographical and environmental characters of Kyung-sang right province(慶尙右道) had been important factors by which the educational thought of Nam-Myung brought into distinctively prominent. The disciples of Nam-Myung's were one hundred thirty five members according to Degchunsawooyenwonrog(『德川師友淵源錄』), and they were taught by Nam-Myung at Sanhae-jong(山海亭) of Kim-hea(金海), Neryong-jong(雷龍亭) of Hab-chun(陜川), Sanchon-jae(山天齋) of Dug-san(德山) and so on. After he died, they had been studying Nam-Myung' thought. This study investigated Learner Centered Education(學習者 中心 敎育) which was successive of individual difference. In the process of settlement of Hsing-ri-hsuch(性理學) in the middle of Chosun, Group Centered Education had not considered learner-individual difference(個人差). But it could have been known that Nam-Myung's learner centered education considered learner-individual differences. As discussed, this study found out the successive aspects in the educational thoughts of Nam-Myung Cho-Sik according to the disciple's various characteristics by his teaching. This succession was prominent in studying the Nam-Myung's disciples.
Since 1974, Yoo Ik-Seo has been announcing 10 full-length novels and 70 short novels or so. Four novels of them are classified with an artist-novel. They are 『Saenam Sori』, 『Mingot Sori』, 「Mt. Song(sori) Image」 and 「Pyo Poong」. Traditional Aesthetics and imagination are literary conviction to him. An artist-novel is the novel which examines the self-consciousness of an artist and relation between life and art, depicting the growing-up progress which undergoes the mastery of the artistic techniques. The purpose of this study is to catch characteristics in Yoo Ik-Seo`s artist- novels, by examining artist`s tragic fate, isolation, and desire which completes arts. Characteristics in his artist-novels are as follows: Firstly, his artist-novels` theme is about our traditional arts. Most of people don`t value our traditional arts and artists. Yoo emphasizes that traditional arts are more valuable than those of European and we have to protect traditional arts from European arts. Secondly, Artists in his artist-novels were born with tragic fate and they suffered many hardships. Among them, especially, Myung-Jae distressed himself between art and real life. His internal attitude (artistic attitude) was entirely more stronger than external attitude (social attitude), so he suffered social isolation. However, it`s important that their tragic fate and isolation are the process that turn towards "Complete Art". Especially, they are artists who have a "Visionary ``Soul of Art``". This nickname is on the basis of ``the Theory of Art of Freud``. Artist`s vision was dealt with by Freud, who believed artists in his artist-novels were able to sublimate "Suppressed Desires". Thirdly, the majority of them killed themselves - ``Nam Yeon`` in 『Saenam Sori』, ``Jeong Myung-Jae`` and ``Choi Yang-Soo`` in 『Mingot Sori』. They committed a suicide due to "Frustration about Art". Although they chose death, the consequence of death was "Complete Art" and their "Soul of Art" was greatly intensified. In conclusion, the best significant implication in Yoo`s artist-novels, in which artists have "Visionary ``Soul of Art``", is to wake up people to the realization of ``traditional art``. It`s a pity that this study doesn`t cover all the artists` psychology except ``Jeong Myung-Jae`` in 『Mingot Sori』. If the artist`s psychology is understood obviously, we will be able to discover other characteristics in Yoo`s artist- novels. This work needs to be examined further.
The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse several Bible expositions (Matthew, Daniels, Songs of Solomon, Romans, Ruth, Hosea, Revelation) written by Lee, Myung-Chick during 1920s. Rev. Lee has been called the father of the Holiness Church for long time. He had been the chief administrator of the Holiness Church and the principal of the Kyung-Sung Bible School (now, Seoul Theological University) for several decades. However, he was also the famous Bible expositor in Korean Church. He wrote many Bible expositions in his life and published them in monthly the Living Water. His exposition of the Bible had influenced the Holiness Church as well as the Korean church in general. In 1920s, Korean society confronted secularization of western culture, communism from Russia, and liberal theology of western church. In this context, Lee had tried to maintain the Full (or pure) Gospel of the Bible. He had criticized secularization very strongly, considered communism as anti-Christ, and attacked liberal theology as a threat of Christianity. After description and analysis of the Bible exposition, the writer concludes the main characteristics of the Bible expositions by Lee, Myung-Chick as followings. First, Rev. Lee tried to read the Old Testament from Christological perspectives. He found many Christological figure in the Old Testament. Second, he stood in the tradition of the Wesleyan Holiness movement, key teaching of which is the Holiness experience by the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. Third, his framework of the Bible interpretation is premillennialism. For Rev. Lee, Chiristian should live in the shadow of the second coming of Christ. Fourth, his emphasis on holiness and the second coming of Christ led to attack secularization as anti-Christ. Christian should not follow this world. Here Holiness movement considered as anti-secularization movement. Finally, Rev. Lee explained the Bible from woman's perspectives. Of course, Rev. Lee is not feminist. However, all Christian should be a bride of the coming Christ, the bridegroom of all believers. For him, Daniels, Ruth, and the woman of Solomon in the Songs were the examples of true bride of Christ. Church history sometimes considers as history of the Bible interpretation. The Bible interpretation principles of Rev. Lee had heavily influenced the Korean Holiness Church.
with Ketamine HCl and Tiletamine-Zolazepam in Cynomolgus MonkeysJae-il Lee, Sung-hyeok Hong, Soo-jin Lee, Young-suk Kim and Myung-cheol Kim*Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, KoreaReceived March 4, 2003 / Accepted July 2, 2003J. Vet. Sci. (2003), 4(2), 187-191JOURNAL OFVeterinaryScience*Corresponding author: Myung-cheol Kim Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea Tel: +82-42-821-6757, Fax: +82-42-822-4216 E-mail: email@example.com
이명구 ( Myung Goo Lee ), 김명빈 ( Myung Bin Kim ), 김진환 ( Jin Hwan Kim ), 윤택중 ( Taek Joong Yun ), 최정은 ( Jeong Eun Choi ), 김동환 ( Dong Hwan Kim ), 모은경 ( Eun Kyung Mo ), 박명재 ( Myung Jae Park ), 현인규 ( In Gyu Hyun ), 정기석) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 1996 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.43 No.3
Network disconnection problems are defined from a network attacker's point of view. In a centralized network where flows are supplied from a source node to the other nodes, called demand nodes, a network attacker aims to block the supply to demand nodes by destroying edges. As destroying edges incurs expenses, an attacker considers the following three different strategies. The first problem, denoted by (NOP1), is to maximize the unsatisfied flow demands while keeping the total cost of destroying the edges no more than a given budget. The second problem, denoted by (NOP2), is to minimize the edge destruction cost needed to make a certain amount of demand unsatisfied. The last problem, denoted by (NOP3), is to minimize the ratio of the edge destruction cost to the unsatisfied demand. In this paper, we derive the properties of the optimal solutions for the above three problems and show that the last one and the linear programming relaxations of the first two ones can be solved in a strongly polynomial time by using a parametric network flow algorithm. To design a more survivable network, i.e., less vulnerable to network attacks, is one of the most important issues in constructing present-day communication networks. Cosares et al.  noted that survivable networks are generally more expensive than those with less robust designs, and thus it is essential to quantify the trade-offs between cost and survivability. Wu  and Grotschel, Monma, and Stoer  also identified network survivability as one of the most significant issues to be considered when designing communication networks. Therefore, network disconnection problems are useful to design a survivable network for a centralized network. The first problem, (NOP1), has been addressed by Martel et al.  and has been shown that (NOP1) with unit costs and weights is NP-hard. Myung and Kim  present an integer programming formulation of (NOP1) and develop an algorithm that includes a preprocessing procedure and lower and upper bounding strategies. For (NOP2), no known research has been found but (NOP2) is closely related with (NOP1). For example, the decision versions of (NOP1) and (NOP2) are equivalent, which implies that (NOP2) is also NP-hard. The last problem, (NOP3), is a specific case of the sparsest cut problem. In the sparsest cut problem, each demand node is supplied from its own source node while all source nodes are identical in (NOP3). Although the sparsest cut problem is NP-hard, (NOP3) can be solved in polynomial time. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research has dealt with this specific case. A couple of problems, not identical but similar to the network disconnection problems, have been introduced in the literature. Cunningham  and Gusfield  have considered a problem of minimizing the ratio of the edge destruction cost to the number of disconnected components. They have presented strongly polynomial time algorithms for this problem. Myung and Kim  have dealt with (NOP1) on a distributed network that has unit edge destruction cost. For the sparsest cut problem, many researchers have developed approximation algorithms. For surveys on these researches, see Shmoys  and Vazirani . In this paper, we present our findings on the network disconnection problems. We investigate the properties of the optimal solutions and present integer programming formulations for the problems. Then we show that a parametric network flow algorithm solves in a strongly polynomial time the linear programming(LP) relaxations of the formulations for (NDP1) and (NDP2) and also show that the same algorithm finds an optimal solution of (NDP3) in the same time bound.