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      • 서울의 Penicillinase Producing Neisseria Gonorrhoeae 발생빈도(1996)

        김재홍,황동규,전재홍,김윤석,김중환,김용준,이창균,임동진,김현수,조창근,김경문,박상훈,전우형,김희성,이호정,차명수,김갑형,김형석,김석우,황지환,박병순,권오상,이민수,송기훈,성소영,이인섭,부태성 대한화학요법학회 1999 대한화학요법학회지 Vol.17 No.2

        Background : In recent years, gonorrhea has been panedemic and remains one of the most commom STDs in the world, especially in developing countries. Objective & Methods: For the detection of a more effective therapeutic regimen and assessing the prevalence of PPNG, we have been trying to study the patients who have visited the VD Clinic of Choong-Ku Public Health Center in Seoul since 1980 by means of the chromogenic cephalosporin method. Results: In 1996, 139 strains of N. gonorrhoeae were isolated, among which 53(39.0%) were PPNG. Conclusion: Our results suggests that after a peak of 74.3% in 1993, the prevalence of PPNG in Seoul is gradually declining.

      • KCI등재후보

        김균진의 신학과 신학적 공헌

        김명용 연세대학교 신과대학 2009 신학논단 Vol.56 No.-

        Kyun Jin Kim is one of very important modem theologians in Korea. He was president of Korean society of systematic theology and is now president of Korean society for Karl Barth's theology. He has served more than 30 years as professor of systematic theology at Yonsei university. He has made a big impact on Korean theology. I. Kyun Jin Kim' theological characteristics 1. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a theology of the kingdom of God. Although soul salvation plays a big role in Kim' theology, the kingdom of God is the core of his theology. He has written his doctrine of systematic theology in the light of the kingdom of God. It is the purpose of his theology to establish the kingdom of God on the earth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim' theology is a messianic theology. According to Kim, it is important to know that Christ was the messiah. Kim denies that the concept messiah is interpreted only spiritually. He can be a political messiah, although he doesn't want to rule the world with coercive power. He is the messiah who saves not only our souls, but also the world and the earth. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a holistic theology. He is not interested in a biased theology. He loves holistic theological view. According to Kim, Korean Min Jung theology lacks this holistic view, although it shows us very important field to establish the kingdom of God. Ⅱ. Kyun Jin Kim's theological contributions 1. Kyun Jin Kim's first theological contribution to Korean theology is his five books of systematic theology. He accomplished his doctrine of systematic theology. His five books of systematic theology can be valued in Korean like Church Dogmatics of Karl Barth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is very academic. His theology is a very high level theology which can compete with european theologies. It is important to know that european theologians should learn from his theology. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's third theological contribution is his translation of many books of J. Moltmann. He translated into Korean the crucified God, Trinity and Kingdom of God, the Way of Jesus Christ, Sprit of life, the coming God etc. 4. Kyun Jin Kim's forth theological contribution is his contribution to the theology of life. He develops a very high level theology of life in Korea.

      • 면양에서 개량된 제1위 누관 형성술 1례

        김명철,김종만,김용국,김덕환,이영원 충남대학교 수의과대학 동물의과학연구소 1999 動物醫科學硏究誌 Vol.7 No.-

        We performed rumen fistula operation in a sheep. In sheep, the procedure for a rumen fistula is quite successful, but choice of an appropriate cannula is of prime importance. The sheep was anesthetized by xylazine(0.1 ㎎/㎏ IM) administration 5 minutes after administration of atropine sulfate(0.1 ㎎/㎏ IM). We inserted rubber cannula in rumen incised and put rubber ring after employing purse-string suture in rumen. We marked the area for the puncture incision in the body wall through which the cannula is drawn. We drew the cannula as near the transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae as possible to minimize leakage. We isolated the cannula by fixing the stainless washer which has small holes. The sheep was given postoperative penicillin(20,000 IU/㎏ IM) to prevent secondary infection for 3 days. There were not observed the leakage of rumen contents, the entering of rubber cannula into abdominal cavity, and necrosis on incision site and skin, over months after surgery.

      • KCI등재

        두경부 마사지가 중환자실 환자의 수면과 불안에 미치는 효과

        김미용,전선영,송윤희,최은진,김재희,김미성,주명순,김남선 병원간호사회 2006 임상간호연구 Vol.11 No.2

        Purpose: This study was to apply head and neck massage to patients in intensive care unit and to inventigate the effect of that massage on sleep and state anxiety. Method: The subjects in this study were 27 patients who were admitted in medical intensive care unit. The study was performed from June thru September of 2005 on the One-group pretest-posttest design and the sleep, state anxiety of the subjects were measured before and after head and neck massage. For data analysis, paired t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were utilized. Result: The first hypothesis that the subjects might have a better sleep after being exposed to head and neck massage was accepted. The second hypothesis that the subjects might feel less state anxiety afrer being exposed to head and neck massage was accepted. The third hypothesis that the sleep of the ICU patients maight be correlated to their anxiety was accepted, as there appeared correlation between their sleep and anxiety. Conclusion: Head and neck massage is identified as one of independent nursing interwentions to improve the sleep of ICU patients and ease their anxiety, and it is necessary to apply it to clinical practices.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        한국인 제1형 당뇨병에서 체도 세포질 항체의 양성률 : 항GAD항체, 항ICA512항체, 항phogrin항체의 조합 측정으로의 대체 가능성 Possible Replacement with Combined Measurement of Anti-GAD, Anti-ICA512, and Anti-phogrin Antibodies

        김경아,김동준,정재훈,민용기,이문규,김광원,진동규,고경수,김상진,이명식 대한당뇨병학회 2002 Diabetes and Metabolism Journal Vol.25 No.6

        연구배경:최근 당뇨병의 분류를 새로 제정함에 있어 자가항체가 양성이면 임상형에 상관없이 제1형 당뇨병으로 분류하자는 제안이 나옴으로써 자가항체의 중요성은 더욱 커질 것으로 예상된다. 특히 우리나라와 같이 비비만형인 제2형 당뇨병이 많은 나라에서는 당뇨병의 병인 규명에 자가항체가 중요한 위치를 차지할 것으로 사료된다. 자가항체 중에서 전통적으로 측정되어온 췌도 세포질 항체(ICA)는 표준화하기 어렵고 기술적으로 제한점이 많으며 현실적으로도 췌장 공여자가 적은 점 등이 문제로 알려져 있다. ICA의 대응 항원들로는 GAD(glutamic acid decarboxylase), IA­2(islet­associaated antigen­2;ICA512), IA­2β(phogrin)등이 있다. 이러한 대응 항원에 대한 특이적인 자가항체의 측정은 ICA에 비해 표준화되었으며 최근에는 방사면역측정법(radioimmunoassay;RIA)키드까지 등장하여 손쉽고 정확히 이를 측정할 수 있게 되었다. 연구자들은 한국인 제1형 당뇨병에서 측정법이 표준화 되어 있는 항GAD항체 및 항ICA512항체 조합(combimation)의 조합으로 ICA의 측정을 대신할 수 있는지를 조사하였고 더 나아가 항phogrin항체의 조합 측정으로 임상적 유용성이 있는지 보고자 하였다. 방법: ICA는 면역조직화학 염색법을 이용하였다. 항 GAD항체는 상업화 된 키드(RSR??, United Kingdom)를 이용하였다. 항 ICA512항체와 항phogrin항체의 측정은 in vitro transcription&translation한 후 이를 이용해 방사면역 침전법을 이용하였다. 대상 환자로는 전형적 제1형 당뇨병 76명, 지진형 제1형 당뇨병 22명, 제2형 당뇨병 39명이었으며 각 군간의 연령은 각각 22.8±14.0, 37.9±13.9, 45.3±12.3세였다. 결과:1)전형적인 제1형 당뇨병에서는 ICA의 양성률이 30%, RIA조합만의(항GAD항체 또는 항 ICA512항체 또는 항phgrin항체 한가지에라도 양성인 경우)양성률이 57%이었다. 지진형 제1형 당뇨병에서는 각각 18%, 50%이었다. 제2형 당뇨병에서는 각각 7.7%, 5.1%이었다. 2)각 군에서 ICA가 양성인 군에서 RIA조합 양성률을 보면 전형적 제1형 당뇨병에서는 96%, 지진형 제1형 당뇨병에서는 100%에서 양성이었고 제2형 당뇨병에서는 RIA 조합 양성이 없었다. 각 군에서 ICA가 음성인 군에서도 RIA 조합시 전형적 제1형 당뇨병에서는 40%, 지진형 제1형 당뇨병에서는 39%에서 양성이었고, 제2형 당뇨병에서는 5.6%에서 양성이었다. 3)전형적 제1형 당뇨병에서 ICA가 양성인 군(n=23)에서 96%가 RIA조합 양성이었는데 이때 각각의 RIA유형을 보면 항GAD항체 양성이 87%였다. 한편 항 ICA512항체 양성이 48%, 항phogrin항체 양성이 44%이고 항GAD항체 도는 항ICA512항체 양성이 96%를 차지한다. 지진형 제1형 당뇨병에서는 ICA가 양성인 군(n=4)에서는 항 GAD항체 양성이 3명, 항ICA512항체 양성이 1명이었다. 따라서 기존의 ICA를 RIA조합으로 대체할 수 있을 것으로 사료되었는데 이때 항GAD항체와 항ICA512항체의 조합이 도움이 되겠고 항phogrin항체의 추가적인 검사는 일부의 환자에서만 도움이 되리라 사료된다. 4)이환 기간에 따라 ICA와 RIA조합을 비교시 ICA는 차이가 없었으나 RIA조합의 양성률은 지진형 제1형 당뇨병에서 4년 이상의 이환 기간이 지나면 그 이전보다 떨어졌다. 5)발병 연령에 따라 ICA와 RIA조합을 비교시 ICA 양성률이 전형적 제1형 당뇨병에서 15세 이전에 발병한 그룹에서 그 이후에 발병한 그룹보다 유의하게 높았다. 결론:이상의 결과를 요약하면 항GAD항체 및 항ICA512항체 측정의 조합은 ICA보다 민감도가 높아 기존의 ICA를 대체함은 물론 임상적 이용에서 현격한 우월성을 보이며, 성인에서 발병한 비전형적인 당뇨병의 분류에도 도움이 될 것으로 사료되었다. 추가적인 항phogrin항체의 측정은 임상적 유용성이 없었다. Background : Type 1 diabetes includes all forms of autoimmune-mediated and idiopathic beta-cell destruction leading to an absolute insulin deficiency. Evidence of an autoimune pathogenesis was assessed by studying cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies (ICA), antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), antibodies reacting with an islet tyrosine phosphatase-related molecule referred to as ICA 512 (ICA 512A), or its homologue phogrin (phogrin-A). In comparison with ICA, the best validation to assess the risk of type 1 diabetes, shows that a combination of antibodies to GADA with ICA 512A has the power to detect a majority of ICA and 97 ~ 100% of subjects who progressed to overt diabetes. These findings suggest the possibility of replacing the laborious ICA test in the screening programs to identify subjects at risk of progressing to type 1 diabetes or for classifying the stage of diabetes at the time of diagnosis. Up to now, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to the slowly progressive type 1 diabetes that appears to be more prevalent in Asian than in western countries. The prevalence of combined autoantibody testing (1≥ of GADA, ICA512A, or phogrin-A) was investigated in the patients with type 1 diabetes (typical and slowly progressive) and type 2 diabetes, and compared with that of ICA which is a more laborious and insensitive test. Methods : The ICA assay was performed using immunoenzymatic staining of frozen human (blood group O) pancreatic sections with serial dilutions of serum samples with peroxidase-labeled protein A. For the GADA determination, commercially available GADA radiommunoassay kits utilizing the ^125I-labeled recombinant GAD65 (RSR®, United Kingdom) as an antigen was used. Either ICA512A or phogrin-A were detected by a radioligand-binding assay after in vitro transcription and translation using the clone ICA512bdc or phogrin c DNA. Serum was obtained from 76 patients with type 1 diabetes(mean age 45.3± 12.3 years). Typical and slowly progressive type 1 diabetes patients had the disease for between 4.0±4.6 and 10.1±9.5 years, respectively at the earliest serum sampling. Results: 1) In typicaltype 1 diabetes, 30% of patients tested positive for ICA and 57% for the combined autoantibody test. In type 2 diabetes, 7.7% and 5.1% tested positive, respectively. 2) Ninety-six percent of ICA-positive patients expressed one or more of the 3 auto-antibody specificities in typicaltype 1 diabetes. Among the 53 ICA-negative patients with typicaltype 1 diabetes, 40% had one or more of these auto-antibodies. In the slowly pregressive type 1 diabetes, 100% of the ICA-positive and 39% of the ICA-negative patients expressed one or more of the 3 autoantibody specificities. 3) Of the 23 patients with ICA-positive typical type 1 diabetes patients, 87% had a positive result for GADA, 48% FOR ICA512A, 44% for phogrin-A, and 96% for GADA or ICA512A. Of the 4 patients with ICA-positive slowly progressive type 1 diabetes, three had a positive result for GADA, and 1 for ICA512A. 4) When the prevalence of combined autoantibody testing was analyzed according to the duration of diabetes, the prevalence in patients tested within 4 years after the diagnosis and more than 4 years after the diagnosis was 61% and 52%, respectively in typical type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, that for the ICA was 37% and 21%, respectively. In the slowly progressive type 1 diabetes, the prevalence of combined auto-antibody testing was 88% and 25%, respectively (p<0.05), while that of ICA was 25% and 13%, respectively. 5) In typical type 1 diabetes, ICA were detected more frequently in patients younger than 15 years of age (48%) than in older patients (23%) (p<0.05), while the prevalence of combined auto-antibody testing -was not different according to the onset age(65% vs 53%). Conclusion : Combined autoantibody testing for GADA and ICA512A is more sensitive that ICA in type 1 diabetes. Therefore, it could replace the laborious ICA measurement and may be useful for discriminating the etiology of adult onset a typical diabetes(J Kor Diabetes Asso 25 :430~445, 2001).

      • 한국인 갑상선 수질암 환자에서 RET 원종양유전자 점돌연변이 양상

        김형훈,김현진,정윤재,민용기,이명식,이문규,김광원,기창석,김종원,정재훈 대한내분비학회 2003 Endocrinology and metabolism Vol.18 No.4

        연구배경: 갑상선 수질암의 25∼30%는 유전성으로 발현되는데, MEN 2A, MEN 2B 또는 가족성 수질암의 형태로 나타난다. RET 원종양유전자의 점돌연변이가 유전성 갑상선 수질암의 발생에 중요한 역할을 하므로, 진단 당시의 연령이나 가족력 유무에 관계없이 모든 갑상선 수질암 환자나 또는 RET 변이가 발견된 수질암 환자의 가족 구성원들에서 RET 변이 검색을 하여야 한다. 또한 일부 문헌에서 RET 변이의 양상에따라 임상상이 다르게 표현됨이 보고된 바 있다. 이에 저자들은 한국인 갑상선 수질암 환자에서 RET 원종양유전자의 점돌연변이의 양성률을 알아보고, 변이 양상에 따른 임상상의 차이가 있는지를 알아보고자 본 연구를 시행하였다. 방법: 치근 7년간 본원에서 갑상선절제술을 통해 갑상선 수질암으로 진단받은 29예에서 RET 원종양유전자의 점돌연변이 검사를 시행하였다. 29예의 평균연령은 39세(20∼60세)이었고, 남자 7예, 여자 22예 이었다. 이들의 말초혈액에서 genomic DNA를 분리하고, 특이 시발차를 이용하여 RET 원종양유전자의 exon10, 11, 13, 14, 16부위를 증폭하였다. 증폭된 부위를 자동염기서열분석기를 이용하여 직접 분석하였다. 양성으로 나온 경우는 모든 가족 구성원을 대상으로 RET 변이 유무를 검색하였다. 결과: 대상 환자 29예 중 9예 (31%)에서 RET 원종양유전자 점돌연변이가 발견되었다 RET 변이가 발견된 9예 (남자 3예, 여자 6예)의 평균 연령은 33세 (20∼51세)로 RET 변이가 발견되지 않은 20예의 평균연령 42세(24∼60세)보다 의미 있게 적었다. RET 변이가 발견된 9예 중 MEN 2A가 5예, 가족성 수질암이 1예, 그리고 산발성 수질암이 3예이었고, MEN 2B는단 1예도 진단되지 않았다. MEN 2A 5예 중 4예는 exon 11의 codon 634번(C634R 2예, C634Y 2예)에서, 그리고 나머지 1예는exon 10의 codon 618번 (C618R)에서 변이가 각각 발견되었다. 가족성 수질암 1아는 codon 634번(C634W)에서, 산발성 수질암 3예도 모두 codon 634번 (C634y 2예, C634s 1예)에서 각각 변이가 발견되었다. RET변이 양상 또는 위치에 따른 임상상의 차이는 발견할 수 없었다. 결론: 갑상선 수질암 환자 31%에서 RET 원종양유전자의 점돌연변이를 발견할 수 있었다. 유전성 수질암 중 가족성 수질암 1예를 제외하고 나머지 5예는MEN 2A이었다. 저자들의 5예와 지금까지 국내에서 보고 된 7예를 합친 국내 MEN 2A 12예 중 75% (9/12)는 exon 11의codon 634번(C634R 4예, C634y 4예, C634w 1예)에서, 그리고 나머지 25% (3/12)는 exon 10의 codon618번(C618R 2예, C618s 1예)에서 변이가 발견되었다. 국내에서는 codon 634과 codon 618 두 곳에만 국한된 양상이었고, codon 634에서의 C634R 변이는 1/3에서만 나타났다. 비록 본 연구에서는 제한된 환자 수 때문에 변이 양상과 임상상의 관계를 규명할 수 없었지만, 향후 많은 수의 환자를 대상으로 전향적인 연구를 시행하여 genotype-phenotype 관계 규명을 하는 것이 필요하다. Background: Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) have been reported as hereditary in about 25 -30% of cases. The identification of germline mutation in RET proto-oncogene is important in the diagnosis of hereditary MTC, and occurs in three forms: MEN 2A, MEN 2B and familial MTC (FMTC). To evaluate the prevalence of the relationship of RET proto-oncogene mutation and genotype-phenotype was studied in Korean patients with MTC. Methods: Genomic DNA was obtained from 29 patients, with MTC, who underwent a total thyroidectomy, between 1997 and 2003, at the Samsung Medical Center. There were 7 male and 22 female patients, with an average age of 39, ranging from 20 to 60 years. Exon 10, 11, 13, 14 and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene were amplified, with specific primers, using PCR. A sequencing analysis was performed on the PCR product using an automatic sequencing analyzer. Results: Nine of the 29 patients (31%) were identified as having RET mutations. The average age of these 9 patients was 33 years, ranging from 20 to 51, with a female to male ratio of 2. Five patients had MEN 2A and one had FMTC, with the other 3 thought to have non-hereditary (sporadic) MTC. The 4 patients with MEN 2A had RET mutations on codon 634 of exon 11 (2 patients, C634R; 2 patients, C634Y) and the other patient on codon 618 of exon 10 (C618R). One patient with FMTC had a mutation on codon 634 (C634W). Three patients with sporadic MTC had RET mutations on codon 634 (2 patients, C634Y; 1 patient, C634S). However, no genotype- phenotype relationship could be found, due to the limited number of patients. Conclusion: Thirty-one percent (9/29) of the patients with MTC had RET proto-oncogene mutations. Three-quarters (9/12) of the Korean patients with MEN 2A, including another 7 patients reported in 3 papers in Korea, had RET mutations on codon 634 of exon 11 (4 patients, C634R; 4 patients, C634Y; 1 patient, C634W), but a quarter (3/12) had mutations on codon 618 of exon 10 (2 patients, C618R; 1 patient, C618S). Although no relations could be found between the genotypes and phenotypes, extensive prospective studies will be required to verify this (J Kor SOC Endocrinol 18:360-370, 2003).

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        아세클로페낙 연질캡슬(클란자 에스 연질캡슬)의 개발

        용철순,이경희,최진석,박병주,정세현,김용일,박상만,배명수,김귀자,김영식,유창훈,강성룡,유봉규,이종달,최한곤 한국약제학회 2004 Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation Vol.34 No.1

        To develop and aceclofenac soft capsule, four preparations with various solubilizers were prepared and their dissolution test was carried out. Among four preparations tested, a preparation with ethanolamine was selected a formula of aceclofenac soft capsule (Clanza S^(™), since it showed the fastest dissolution rate. Bioequivalence of aceclofenac tablet, Airtal^(™)(Dae-Woong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) and aceclofenac soft capsule, Clanza S^(™)(Korea United Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) was evaluated according to the guideline of KFDA. Fourteen normal male volunteers (age 20-25 years old) were divided into two groups and a randomized 2×2 cross-over study was employed. After oral administration of one tablet or capsule containing 100 ㎎ of aceclofenac, blood ws taken at predetermined time intervals and the concentration of aceclofenac in plasma wa determined with an HPLC method under UV detector. The pharmacokinetic parameters (C_(max), T_(max) and AUC_(t)) were calculated and ANOVA was utilized for the statistical analysis of parameters using logarithmically transformed AUC_(t), C_(max) and T_(max) between Airtal tablet and Clanza soft capsule were 2.89%, 0.18% and 43.0%, respectively. There were no sequence effects between two formulations in these parameters. The 90% confidence intervals using logarithmically transformed data were within the acceptance range of log(0.8) to log(1.250(e.g.log(0.81) - log(1.23) and log(0.89) - log(1.14)) for AUC_(t) and C_(max), respectively. Thus, the criteria of the KDFA guidelines for the equivalence was satisfied, indicating that Clanza S^(™) soft capsule is bioequivalent to Airtal^(™) tablet.

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