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Hydrosilanes possessing reactive Si-H bond are used in synthesizing various types of polysilanes by dehydrocoupling under the influence of various organometallic promoters. Catalytic Si-Si/Si-O coupling of hydrosilanes with hydrosilanes, alcohols, and lactones to silicon-based polymers are described in this article as selective examples of our recent research developments. These silicon-containing polymers can be used as a precursor to prepare useful functional materials for fabricating electronic devices.
Bis(silyl)alkylbenzenes such as bis(1-sila-sec-butyl)benzene (1) and 2-phenyl-1,3-disilapropane (2) were synthesized in high yields by the reduction of the corresponding chlorosilanes with $LiAlH_4$ in diethyl ether. The dehydrocoupling of 1 and 2 was performed using group IV metallocene complexes generated in situ from $Cp_2MCl_2$/Red-Al and $Cp_2MCl_2$/n-BuLi (M = Ti, Hf), producing two phases of polymers. The TGA residue yields of the insoluble polymers were in the range of 64-74%. The molecular weights of the soluble polymers produced ranged from 700 to 5000 ($M_w$ vs polystyrene using GPC) and from 500 to 900 ($M_w$ vs polystyrene using GPC). The dehydropolymerization of 1 and 2 seemed to initially produce a low-molecular-weight polymer, which then underwent an extensive cross-linking reaction of backbone Si-H bonds, leading to an insoluble network polymer.
Objectives : This study attempts to show how studies using non-experimental data can strengthen causal inferences by applying propensity score and instrumental variable methods based on the counterfactual framework. For illustrative purposes, we examine the effect of having private health insurance on the probability of experiencing at least one hospital admission in the previous year. Methods : Using data from the 4th wave of the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study, we compared the results obtained using propensity score and instrumental variable methods with those from conventional logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results : While conventional multiple regression analyses fail to identify the effect, the results estimated using propensity score and instrumental variable methods suggest that having private health insurance has positive and statistically significant effects on hospital admission. Conclusions : This study demonstrates that propensity score and instrumental variable methods provide potentially useful alternatives to conventional regression approaches in making causal inferences using non-experimental data.
Objectives : To describe the characteristics of a mumps epidemic in Cheju-do, 1998 and to identify the risk factors associated with mumps infection. Methods : To estimate attack rate, previously collected data from the Nationally Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System and School Health Reporting System, temporarily administered by Division of Education. as well as additional surveillance data were used. In order to identify the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mumps, we conducted a questionnaire survey in 17 schools (9 elementary, 4 middle, and 4 high schools) among a population that included healthy students. Results : From March 3 to August 31, 2,195 cases of mumps were identified, and patients under 20 years of age accounted for 2,162 cases (attack rate 13.2, 95% CI 12.6-13.7/1,000). The attack rate for the population under 20 years of age was the highest in Nam county (44.7/1,000), nod in the 7-12 years old sub-group(>20.0/1,000). There was no sexual difference. 80.5% and 59.7% of patients presented periauricular and submandibular swelling respectively. Aseptic meningitis was a complication in 2.9% of cases, orchitis in 1.3%, epididymitis in 0.9% and oophoritis in 0.6% respectively. The overall MMR vaccination rate was 59.1% and it decreased in accordance with increasing age. In students aged 10 years old or below, household contact and MMR vaccination status was significantly associated with infection, and only among students with household contact, the risk of one dose MMR(OR=10.22, 95% CI 2.92-35.78) and non-vaccination (OR=11.62, 95% CI 1.96-68.96) was significantly greater when. compared with that of two dose vaccination. Among students aged 11 years old or above, household contact history was significantly associated and MMR vaccination status was not associated. Conclusions : Low vaccination rate and vaccine failure were thought to predispose the population for this large outbreak. To prevent sustained mumps outbreaks, a second MMR vaccination should be encouraged and catch up vaccinations should be given to elderly children who remain susceptible.
Objectives : To estimate mumps incidence during the study period and to evaluate the completeness of case reporting. Methods : Capture-recapture methods, originally developed for counting wildlife animals, were used. The data sources were 1) the National Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System (NNCDRS; 848 cases), 2) the School Health Reporting System, temporarily administered by the Division of Education (SHRS; 1,026 cases), and 3) a survey of students (785 cases). We estimated the number of unobserved mumps cases by matching the three data sources and fitting loglinear models to the data. We then determined the estimated total number of mumps cases by adding this to the number of observed cases. Completeness was defined as the proportion of observed cases from each source to the total of estimated cases. Results : The total number of observed cases was 1,844 and the total number of estimated cases was 1,935 (95%, CI: $1,878\sim2,070$). The overall completeness was 43.8% of the NNCDRS, 53.0% of the SHRS, and 40.6% of the survey. However, completeness varied by area and age. Conclusion : Although the completeness of NNCDRS data appeared higher than in the past, it is difficult to generalize this result In Korea, it is possible to estimate the size of health hazards relatively cheaply and quickly, by applying capture-recapture methods to various data using a multiple data collection system.
In dieser Arbeit wird versucht, die Beziehungen zwischen der totalitaren Gemeinschaft und dem Individuum im Film des deutschen Regisseurs Dennis Gansel "Die Welle" aufzuzeigen. Der Film basiert auf dem gleichnamigen Roman von Morton Rhue, der zum Klassiker in der Schullekture geworden ist. Es handelt sich um keine reine Fiktion, sondern verarbeitet einen Unterrichtsversuch, der im Jahr 1967 an einer amerikanischen High School durchgefuhrt wurde. Der Regisseur hat die Geschichte ins heutige Deutschland ubersetzt. Gansels Film zeigt, dass fast alle Schuler in der totalitarischen Gemeinschaft "Die Welle" aufgehen und beginnen, sich auch nach außen abzugrenzen. Das Recht auf individuelle Freiheit hat in der totalitaren Gemeinschaft "Die Welle" keinen Platz. Wer sich an die Gruppendisziplin halt, wird mit sozialer Anerkennung und Gemeinschaftsgefuhl und neuem Selbst- bewusstsein belohnt. Wer diese jedoch missachtet, wird ausgegrenzt. Vor diesem Hintergrund geben hunderte Schuler der "Welle" freiwillig ihre Freiheit auf. Der Reiz einer starken Gemeinschaft, das verfuhrerische Gefuhl der Macht und Zugehorigkeit werden in schneller Schnitttechnik sowie in den dynamischen Bildern und der Rockmusik realistisch vermittelt, sodass man den Erfolg der "Welle" gut nachvollziehen kann. Der Spielfilm fahndet nicht nach den Stellen, an denen das Gemeinschaftsgefuhl faschistoid wird, sondern malt die Gefahr fast panisch an die Wand. Die Schulercharaktere wirken teilweise zu stereotyp. Der Außenseiter, der Auslander, der Hedonist und der Unterschichtler sind alle anfallig fur das Gemeinschaftsversprechen der "Welle" . Wer den Widerstand gegen die totalitare Schulergruppe initiiert, ist dagegen gerade die Klassenprima aus gutem Haus mit intakter Familie. Ebenso entspricht es einem Klischee, dass der Lehrer als einer, der sein Abitur erst auf dem zweiten Bildungsweg gemacht hat, vorgestellt wird. Doch trotz diesen offensichtlichen Schwachen macht der Film sichtbar und erlebbar, wie leichtfußig und harmlos sich Totalitarismus einschleicht. Die Botschaft des Films ist eindeutig. Faschismus ist jederzeit, auch im Deutschland des 21. Jahrhunderts wieder moglich.
The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) it seeks an empirical support for Hedberg and Sosa(2001, 2002) who criticized Pierrehumbert and Hirschberg(1990) in that contrastive focus is not always realized as L+H* pitch accent, and (2) it examines the connection between perception and production of contrastive focus. It deviates from previous studies in looking at the production of Korean learners in terms of their different language proficiency level in addition to that of native speakers. The production experiment shows that English native speakers and Korean learners with high proficiency use at large a L+H* pitch contour for contrastive focus. However, L*+H, H*+L contours also appear at high rate, lending support to Hedberg and Sosa(2001, 2002). The low proficiency group, with dominant realization of H*+L and de-accentuation, did not properly produce contrastive focus, indicating their lack of awareness of contrastive focus in utterance. When each group listens to other groups’ speech containing contrastive focus, English native speakers and high proficiency Korean learners correctly perceive contrastive focus in sentences, but did have difficulty perceiving it in the speech of low proficiency Korean group. This low proficiency group had low perception rate proportional to the low production rate.