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南冥은 조선시대 嶺南右道의 대학자로서 일생동안 山林에 隱居하였으며, 莊子의 逍遙游에서 나오는 南冥이란 말을 따와서 號로 삼았으며, 그의 詩文 중에도 老莊思想의 흔적이 나타난다. 특히 중국의 문인들은 유가이면서 도가적면모를 겸한 것으로 나타나 이와 같이 유가와 도가의 상호보완적인 관계가 형성되었다. 남명이 晩年에 德山에 卜居하여 講學을 펼치기 위해 立地한 공간에 대하여 문집에 나타난것과 선행 연구에 있어서 살펴본 바와 현장조사를 통하여 다음과 같은 결과로 나타났다. 첫째. 晩年에 지리산의 덕산에 복거하기 위해 10여 차례를 往來한 후 지리산과 양단수가 있는 덕천강 언덕에 立地하였다. 둘째, 시문을 통한 자연관은 藥山藥水觀과 유가적 隱遁觀이 크게 작용한 입지적 배경을 하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 유두류록에서는 지리산에 나타난 역사의 현장을 보고 자연보다는 역사적 인물을 떠올려 그 의미를 되새겼다. 넷째, 전통공간의 입지는 천왕봉을 배산으로하는 축선상에 위치하도록 의도적으로 입지선정을 하였다. 남명의 일생은 山林處士로서의 삶에서 자연에 대한 도가적인 자연보다는 자연 그대로의 감성화된 자연을 파악하였으며, 자연을 인간과 유기적인 관계에서 대상물로 인식함에 자연속에서 인간의 삶의 태도를 배우는 인간의 삶의 원리로 파악하였다. 이와 같은 남명의 自然認識에 의해 德山에 卜居함과 그 공간의 특성은 智異山이라는 자연의 대상과 양당수가 그 입지에 대해서 전통공간의 구성에 대한 배경으로 나타난다. Nam Myong was a great scholar in Keyongsang province in the Yi-dyhasty, he secluded from the world through life, his pet name “Nam Myong”was borrowed from the “SoYo-Yu(逍遙遊)”of Jang Ja`s(壯者), also he expressed the thoughts of No-Jang(老莊) in his proses and berses. Chinese disciples especially borrowed the mixed thought of the Taoist and uaoist in their collection of works. This study was focused on the space frames located in Douk San(德山), where he took up his residence, pursuiting of study late in life, by surveying the documentary records, preceding studies, and field work. the study results was as follows. First, he settled down the hills of Dok Chun river(德川江) between the Mt. Ji Ri(智異山) and the both ends water after visiting those places about ten times to take up his residence. Second, the natural view in his works was a naturalism. Third, he would rather think over the true meaning of the historical people than only looking around natural itself in the very historical spots in his Yu-Dur-Yu-Rok(遊頭流錄). Nam Myong also would rather love a sensible natural than do Taoist. He considered a natural as an object, related to organism with a man and natural, understanding a principle from which people always learn the true life.
Chai, Myong-Hi. 1996. A Traceless Approach to Wh-Interrogative Clauses in English. Linguistics 4, 267-283. The use of empty categories in accounting for linguistic phenomena has been a problem in the framework of Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar because surface-oriented grammatical theories avoid using empty categories. Therefore, this study aims to analyze wh-interrogative clauses in English without recourse to traces and ultimately make HPSG a more consistent and refined grammatical theory. Following the methods taken by Sag & Fodor(1994) and Sag(1995;1996), this paper eliminates TO-BIND and INHERITED features, and the NONLOCAL Feature principle. Instead, the percolation of NONLOCAL features, i.e. SLASH, REL, and QUE, relies on the Lexical NONLOCAL Amalgamation, the SLASH Inheritance Constraint, and the RELJQUE Inheritance Constraint. Herein I introduce some new types for the analysis of wh-interrogative clauses in English: wh-int-cl, wh-subj-int-cl, fn-wh-fill-int-cl, and inf-wh-fill-int-cL (Chonnam National University)
Nam Myong-Ok, 2011. A Study on the Semantic Properties of Sino-Korean Derived from Chinese Language. Korean Semantics 36. This study speculated the acceptance and semantic properties of Sino-Korean derived from Chinese language targeting sino-Korean vocabulary which is not used in North and South Korea and published in『Contemporary Korean Dictionary』(2009) by Yanbian Publishing. 'Sino-Korean derived from Chinese language' indicates sino-Korean newly accepted by Korean language through contemporary Chinese language, not existing Chinese Korean, published in a dictionary and already used as a standard language in China. Sino-Korean vocabulary derived from Chinese language appears in double language use of ethnic Koreans living in China and an important heterogeneity sing of Chinese Korean language. In the acceptance process, Sino-Korean derived from Chinese language collides with existing sino-Korean with the same meaning and synonyms coexit, or Sino-Korean derived from Chinese language is used or semantic area of existing sino-Korean changes. Existing sino-Korean has semantic changes due to Chinese language. This study aims to analyse types of semantic changes and the reasons in terms of language, history, society, foreign languages and necessity of new titles.
반도체 레이저의 이득 스위칭에 의한 초단 펄스 발생에 대해 체계적으로 연구하였다. 즉, 동작 파라메터인 DC 바이어스 및 RF 정현파 전력에 따른 초단 이득 스위칭된 출력 펄스의 특성을 조사하였다. 최적의 펄스는 문턱 전류 부근의 DC 바이어스에서 얻어졌으며, RF 전력이 클수록 이 최적의 DC 바이어스는 감소하였다. 출력 펄스 폭은 RF 전력이 증가할수록 DC 바이어스의 변화에 덜 민감하게 나타났다. We study systematically on short pulse generation from a semiconductor laser by gain-switching. We examine the dependence of gain-switched pulse characteristics on the operating parameters, such as DC bias and RF power. The optimum short pulses are obtained around threshold DC bias. As the RF power increases, The DC bias to show shorter pulse width decreases slightly and the pulse width becomes less sensitive to the variations of the DC bias.
A computational fluid dynamics(CFD) analysis has been made for fully developed turbulent flow in a triangular bare rod bundle with a pitch to diameter ratio (P/D) of 1.123. The nonlinear turbulence models predicted the turbulence-driven secondary flow in the triangular subchannel. The nonlinear quadratic κ-ε models by Speziale and Myong-Kasagi predicted turbulence structure in the rod bundle fairly well. The nonlinear quadratic and cubic k-ε models by Shih et al. and Craft et al. showed somewhat weaker anisotropic turbulence. The differential Reynolds stress model by Launder et al.[5} appeared to over predict the turbulence anisotropy in the rod bundle.
A computational fluid dynamics(CFD) analysis has been made for fully developed turbulent flow in a triangular bare rod bundle with a pitch to diameter ratio (P/D) of 1.123. The nonlinear turbulence models predicted the turbulence-driven secondary flow in the triangular subchannel. The nonlinear quadratic k- ε models by Speziale and Myong-Kasagi predicted turbulence structure in the rod bundle fairly well. The nonlinear quadratic and cubic k- ε models by Shih et al. and Craft et al. showed somewhat weaker anisotropic turbulence. The differential Reynolds stress model by Launder et al. appeared to overpredict the turbulence anisotropy in the rod bundle.
The purpose or necessity of this research is to develop various models for nonformal education practice according to different types of nonformal education institutes which are industrial training centers, vocational training institutes, and continuing educational institutes for adolescents and for women. If we develop practice program models and provide them with practice facilities and universities, and if they use them, the nonformal educational practice will be effective and improved and it will bring industrial and educational cooperation. This research analyzes the system of nonformal education specialists and the situation of cultivating the nonformal education specialists, and evaluates the present situation. And it suggests problems of the nonformal education practice and its reformable direction in order to improve the quality of the specialists and their specialty. For the said purpose, this research has the following contents. First of all, it analyzes the concept, the role, the function, and the quality of specialists, and will develop the concept and its domain which is quite fit for our situation. And it analyzes the present situation and the problems of the specialists system, suggesting reformable direction. Secondly, it shows the present situation of the developed specialists difference in universities, departments, and sexes. It discusses about the present situation of opening classes in the department of nonformal education, and about present nonformal education practice institutes and programs for practice. Thirdly, it tries to show a basic Model of nonformal education program for all institutes. And it classifies the models of nonformal education practice program into twelve types. According to the twelve types, it suggests practice models and makes a chart of Korean nonformal education institutes, gathering all the materials. This research on the system of nonformal education specialists and nonformal education practice uses the research of literature published in foreign and domestic area, the survey made on the present situation of nonformal education specialists and on opening classes, the case study of the analysis of practice program, and the questionnaire leading toward the universities which open classes for specialist certificate. We let the trainees to know about the basic work in conjunction with education and actual training in the first week. We explain about general information of our institution, training schedule method of self-introduction, actual training schedule, and matters which need to be attended to. And we educate and practice the request of trainees, the annual educational planning, the planning of basic work and procedure, the marking of a program, and so forth. We also educate and practice about the character of educational profession and roles with instruction and self-discipline practice. It is impossible to make a uniform practice program model because of various age groups and length of education period, types, scales, structures, equipments, and so forth. However, we can have our own credibility and professionalism by sharing our basic experiences despite the above barriers. Therefore, we have categorized twelve different fields and illustrated the minimum basic practice dependent on their characteristics. Twelve different fields are as follows : Industrial Training Centers, Vocational Training Institute, Educational Institution for Public Officials, The Research Institution, School Affiliated Nonformal Education Institution, School Model Institution, Youth Educational Institution, Womens Educational Institution, Senior Citizens Educational Institution, Social Welfare Service Institution, Nonformal Education Institution for Cultural Cooperation, and Private Nonformal Education School. We need close cooperation between industry and academic institutions to promote our members professionalism and characters efficiently. We also require positive public information about the importance of nonformal education specialists as well as new social consciousness.
Much popular verse is in stress meter which is invariably based on a four-beat rhythm. The main components of stress verse are as follows: (a) Except as noted in (c) below, all stressed syllables are experienced as beats. Syllables with secondary stress may also be experienced as beats. (b) Except as noted in (d) below, all unstressed syllables are experienced as offbeats, either single offbeats or double offbeats. Syllables with secondary stress may also be experienced as offbeats. Occasionally, an offbeat may be experienced between two successive beats. (c) A stressed syllable can function as a single offbeat or part of a double offbeat between stressed beats. Demotion occurs most easily when the stress in question is subordinated to the stress before or after it in the line. (d) An unstressed syllable can be promoted, i.e. experienced as a beat, when it occurs between two unstressed syllable, at the beginning of the line before an unstressed syllable, or at the end of the line after an unstressed syllable. Stress verse may be scanned by double-line scanion or single-line scanion. The single line scansion gives all the necessary information above the line of verse. The double-line scansion shows the relevant linguistic features of the verse on a line above it, and the metrical structure on a line below it. These convey the same information, and each can be converted to the other. In both kinds of scansion a clear distinctinction is made between stresses and beats.
In dieser Untersuchung geht es um Tierbezeichnungen Phraseologismen, die Haustieren und Wildtieren zum Ausdruck bringen. Die Phraseolexeme lassen sich entsprechend der Semantik eines ihrer wendungsinternen Bestundteile in phraseologische Sachgruppen ordnen ; hier seinen nur einige wenige genannt : 1) Tierbezeichnungen, 2) Ko¨rperteile, 3) Kleidungsstu¨ucke, 4) Rundfunktechnik, 5) Fußball, Film, 6) Zahlen, 7) La¨nderbezeichnungen, 8) Farben Groß sind die Zahlen der Phraseologismen mit einem Tier als wendungsinternem Bestanteile : 1. Haustieren 1) Bock, 2) Ente, 3) Esel, 4) Hahn / Huhn / Hu¨hnchen, 5) Hase, 6) Hund, 7) Kalb / Kuh / Stier, 8) Katze / Ka¨tzchen , 9) Pferd , 10) Sau / Schwein, 11) Schaf / Schafchen, 2. Wildtieren : 1) Affe, 2) Ba¨r, 3) Elefant, 4) Frosch, 5) Fuchs, 6) Maus / Ma¨uschen, 7) Schlange, 8) Wolf Die Bedeutung der Konstruktionen ist entweder eine an die Kombination bei der Komponenten gebundene Metapher, oder Nuancierung, Versta¨rkung oder sonstige Expressivier- ung der Bedeutung einer der Komponenten. : <ein Betru¨ger>ein krummer Hund, <Verkehrspolizist>weiße Maus, <Anku¨ndigengung>eine Sau durchs Dorf treiben, <betruken>einen Affen sitzen haben, <beschimpfen>jn. zur Sau machen, <jn. ruinieren>jn. auf den Hund bringen, <verschwinden>die Mu¨cke machen, <sehr schlecht sein>unter den/unter allem Hund sein, <sehr prahlen>ngeben wie eine Tu¨te Mu¨cken, <sto¨rrisch>einen Bock haben, <Fehler>einen Bock schließen, <sehr>wie ein Ba¨r, <Unwahrheit> jm. einen Ba¨ren aufbeinden, <Ungeschick> sich wie ein Elefant im Porzellanladen benehmen, <Verru¨cktheit> (wie) vom wilden Affen gebissen sein, <Anpassung> mit den Wo¨lfen heulen, <Entschlossenheit> den Stier bei deh Ho¨rnern packen, Neben den genannten neu entstehenden Sachgruppen bleiben aber auch alte wie Tierbezeichnung weiterhin akttiv. Dazu geho¨rt auch die Sachgruppe 'Tierbezeichnung', die in reichem Maße Komponenten phraseologischer Konstruktionen geliefert hat. Schließlcih ist unter Lebensbereichen des Alltags die Sachgruppe 'Tierbezeichnung' stark vertreten. Aus der Tendenz nach Schaffung von Phraseologismen mit unverbrauchter Expressivita¨t ergibt sich, daß auch die Phraseologimen insgesamt dem Prozeß des werdens und Vergehens unterleigen. Neue Phaseologismen werden bevorzugt durch Mataphem gebildet, die Benennungen aus gesellschaftlich relevanten Lebensbereichen benutzen, so daß die Entwicklung der gesellschaftlichen Praxis sich in gewisser Weise auch in den phraseologisch Sachgruppen niederschla¨gt. underseits werden in den Phraseologismen trotz aller Vera¨nderung aber auch Wo¨rter bewahrt, die a¨ltere Verha¨ltnisse des gesellschaftlichen Lebens wiederspiegeln und außer der Phraseologismen zu Historismen geworden sind.