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This study examines how demographic factors and different antecedents of mature online users relate to their purchase intention. Results obtained from a survey of about 400 respondents in Hong Kong and analyzed with a structural equation model indicate that security has a direct relationship only with purchase intention, whereas attitude is linked with innovativeness, usefulness, ease of purchase and online purchase intention, and attitude performs full mediation between usefulness and online purchase intention. Users aged 41–50 have a higher perceived ease of purchasing than older users (aged 51–70), and males have stronger personal innovativeness and perceived usefulness than females. This research makes a contribution to the understanding of mature users' online purchase intention; it also provides significant implications of segmentation and marketing strategies and supports the view that online marketers should formulate different strategies to enhance mature users' online experience and treat various kinds of users differently.
We present a woman with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2) deficiency who in the last 6 months suffered from episodic dyspneaand choking. Symptoms could not be attributed to her muscular energy defect, since heterozygous CPT-2 deficiency is usually asymptomatic or causesonly mild muscle fatigability. Myopathy is usually triggered by concurrent factors, either genetic (additional muscle enzymes defects) or acquired(metabolic stress). The patient was referred to our respiratory clinic for suspect bronchial asthma. Spirometry showed mild decrease in inspiratoryflows. Methacholine challenge was negative. Dyspnea was triggered by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, which produced marked decrease inairflow rates, particularly in inspiratory flows, consistent with laryngospasm. Nutritional assessment of the patient showed low serum level of calciumand vitamin D, attributable to avoidance of milk and dairy products for lactose intolerance and to insufficient sunlight exposure. After calciumand vitamin D supplementation episodic laryngospasm disappeared and hypocapnic hyperventilation test induced very mild change in airflow rates. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency may favour laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma, particularly in subjects with underlying myopathy.
For much of its twentieth century history, international law has failed those who suffered sexual violence during armed conflict. Neglected by international law, any legal consequences were limited to local jurisdictions whose legal institutions were, not infrequently, impaired under circumstances of war or occupation. The recent emergence of new legal doctrines criminalizing sexual violence during armed conflict under the international law of war is shifting the scope of legal concern and creating a new space for action. In this article, I trace the development of the new sexual violence jurisprudence and consider how communities of fate emerging in response are changing patterns of international norm formation and diffusion. I suggest the term biojuridical citizenship to describe new forms of community, patterns of affiliation, and grounds for future action.
This study seeks to look into the role of political leadership in development in South Korea and the Philippines. The central question revolves around what are the major points of convergence and divergence of leadership in these two countries. Moreover, the focus will be on leadership in democratic settings. This study will build on previous comparative studies on political leadership in South Korea and the Philippines, most of which have been focused on the dictators Park Chung Hee and Ferdinand Marcos. After the Park and Marcos experience, both South Korea and the Philippines experienced democratization. It is in this context that this comparative study is situated. It aims to continue the comparison and see if the conclusions made before still persist today. To what extent does leadership still play an invaluable role in shaping the development of these countries? This study then focuses on the political nature, mechanics, and concrete outcomes of leadership in two different political systems.
Energy drinks differ from sport drinks in their composition and purpose; sports drinks are consumed primarily to replenish carbohydrate and electrolytes loss during exercise, while energy drinks are used to stimulate the central nervous system in activities different than sports. The main purpose of the study was to determine if the intake of a commercially available energy drink enhanced motor performance in male athletes. A double-blind, randomized-crossover study was carried on 11 athletes who completed two 10 km cross-country races. Subjects drank 6 ml·kg-1 body mass of an energetic drink or a placebo beverage 30 min before the race. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance, repeated measures t-student, and McNemar χ2 tests on the dependent variables, urine specific gravity, ratings of perceived exertion, heart rate, gastrointestinal symptoms, and performance time. The results indicated that no significant differences were found between mean racing times; however, ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower when participants ingested the energy drink (energy drink= 7.02 ± 1.21 vs. placebo = 8.01 ± 0.75) (p < .05). No significant associations were found between the energy drink or the placebo and gastrointestinal symptoms. Finally, no specific personality type was related to the placebo effect. In conclusion, even though athletes did not improve their racing times when consuming the energy drink, their perceived exertion was lower during the running trials.
Tumor immunology embraces an extensive array of biological phenomena that include interactions between neoplastic cells and the innate and adaptive immune response. Among immune cells, T cells have taken the center stage because they can be easily demonstrated to specifically recognize autologous cancer cells. However, their role is limited and other components of the immune response are likely necessary for the completion of cancer rejection. Metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are malignancies strongly predisposed to regress in response to the systemic administration of high-dose interleukin (IL)-2. Several clinical Studies in extensive cohorts of patients have shown that this treatment can induce complete or partial clinical regressions of metastatic disease in 15 to 20% of patients who receive this treatment.1-6 Although IL-2 has direct pluri-potent effects on cells with immune and inflammatory function, it remains unexplained which cell subset is implicated in mediating tumor regression. In a quest to characterize the mechanism of action of IL-2 during the course of immunotherapy, we have investigated the early changes in transcriptional profiles of circulating mononuclear cells and microenvironment of melanoma metastases following high dose IL-2 administration (720,000IU/kg) by serial sampling of blood cells and tumors in the form of fine needle aspirate (FNA).7 Furthermore, studies are currently ongoing to characterize the proteomic profiling of RCC patients undergoing the same treatment using protein arrays (manuscript in preparation). The predominant activation of genes related to inflammation and activation of mononuclear phagocytes lead us to further characterize this cell subset in the context of stimulation with a panel of soluble factors potentially present in the circulation and tumor microenvironment.
What is the connection between aesthetics or classroom design and engagement towards courses, teachers and groups? Students spend at least one quarter of their waking hours in schools, most of it in classrooms, which have become a potentially powerful setting for influencing them. Especially in recent years, where marketing classes are often projectbased and students are required to regularly interact in class and participate in group assignments, the role of classrooms and their design is crucial for improving learning and engagement (e.g. Abernethy and Lett III, 2005; Razzouk, Seitz and Rizkallah, 2003). Education research over the past decade has demonstrated that classroom designs have an effect on learning behaviors. Ample evidence suggested that classroom layout, technology and overall design can have a profound effect on student learning (e.g. Cheryan, Ziegler, Plaut and Meltzoff, 2014; Neill and Etheridge, 2008). So far, literature on classroom design and teaching has mainly focused on the relationship between quality of physical infrastructure and student achievement (Cheryan et al., 2014), on flexible learning spaces (Neill and Etheridge, 2008) and on the use of interactive technology (i.e. student response systems or clickers) for improving satisfaction, creative interaction, and achievement (e.g. Eastman, Iyer and Eastman, 2011). Little research has examined the role of classroom design on engagement (Kuh, 2001; Marks, 2000), investigating it primarily in the online or distance learning contexts (Chen, Lambert and Guidry, 2009). Unexplored in previous research is the role that a high vs. low technological classroom design may play in students' engagement, and more specifically, in the general engagement level experienced by students towards a course, a teacher and a group. This work includes a comparison of two courses taught by the same instructor in a lowtechnology space (traditional class) versus a high-technology space, demonstrating counterintuitively that students perceive a higher engagement in a traditional classroom setting, evaluate the teacher more positively, and like to work in groups more.
New-born “masstige collaborations” are the temporary partnerships between luxury brands and mass-market retailers (e.g. H&M-Balmain, Missoni-Target, Luck et al., 2014), characterized by limited duration and supply. Borrowing Silverstein and Fiske's definition of masstige (2003), in the case of masstige collaborations one luxury brand (“prestige”) and one mass-market retailer (“mass”) collaborate for creating a limited amount of items (e.g. a capsule collection) to be sold via the mass retailer, at a premium price, and for a limited period of time. Interestingly, no study so far has empirically proved consumers' reactions towards this marketing practice, especially from the perspective of consumers of the mass-market retailer not able to purchase anything. Given the nature of masstige collaborations (limited supply and short availability), not all consumers can manage to buy products during these sales. The missed purchase can lead to two different cognitive states, broadly categorized into regret (e.g. Simonson 1992) and frustration (e.g. Strebel et al., 2004). On one side, consumers experiencing a non-purchase may regret that, feeling self-blame and engaging in ameliorative behaviors (second chance) for achieving the desired outcome (Zeelenberg et al. 2001). On the other side, non-purchase can also be translated into frustration, caused by external circumstances not under a person's control (e.g. caused by a company), where people rely on blame attribution (e.g. Roseman, 1991) abandoning the outcome they wanted to achieve. We therefore ask ourselves what happens when consumers do not manage to purchase products of the masstige collaboration collection and how they react to such feeling, especially when they attribute the missed purchase to causes not attributable to themselves and experience frustration. What drives consumers in experiencing frustration vs. regret? Which are the antecedents of frustration and the coping strategies consumers employ? To answer these questions, we analyzed 780 posts written on Twitter during a masstige collaboration carried out in the fashion sector (H&M-Balmain). The qualitative analysis especially shows the negative feelings emerged during the partnership toward the mass-market brand (i.e. frustration and its antecedents). Further, we propose a new theoretical model, i.e. the “regret-frustration model”, emphasizing which are the causes that let consumers experience frustration (vs. regret) and which the coping strategies might be.
Single phase perovskite CaTiO3 has been synthesized by conventional solid state reaction technique. The ceramic was characterized by XRD at room temperature and its Rietveld refinement inferred orthorhombic crystal structure with the space group Pbnm. The field dependence of dielectric relaxation and conductivity was measured over a wide frequency range from room temperature to 673 K. Analysis of Nyquist plots of CaTiO3 revealed the contribution of many electrically active regions corresponding to bulk mechanism, distribution of grain boundaries and electrode processes. The dc conductivity depicted a semiconductor to metal type transition. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant (ε') and tangent loss (tan δ) show a dispersive behavior at low frequencies and is explained on basis of Maxwell-Wagner model and Koop's theory. Both conductivity and electric modulus formalisms have been employed to study the relaxation dynamics of charge carriers. The variation of ac conductivity with frequency at different temperatures obeys the universal Jonscher's power law (σac α ωs). The values of exponent ‘s' lie in the range 0.13 ≤ s ≤ 0.33, which in light of CBH model suggest a large polaron hopping type of conduction mechanism.