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      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        Comparison of Urea and Methylene Urea at Four Mixing Depths on the Growth and Establishment of Poa pratensis L. in Sand-based Systems

        Sangkook Lee,David D Minner,Nick E Christians 한국잡초학회·한국잔디학회 2020 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.9 No.1

        Nitrogen (N) may be easily leached from a sand-based system. Frequent application of N is a way to reduce leaching. Repeated applications result in increasing cost. Slow-release fertilizers were designed to provide a steady release of N over time. Use of slow-release N sources has been promoted as a more efficient N fertilizer strategy. This study was conducted to evaluate N leaching, root and shoot growth, and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) when urea and methylene urea were placed at four mixing depths in a sand-based system. Grass clipping samples were collected every two weeks, dried and weighed. Root dry weight and root organic matter were evaluated at the end of the study. Leachate was collected weekly and analyzed for nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N) content. Surface applied urea produced the largest clipping yield and the best NUE for total mass yield, with the lowest NO₃-N loss due to leaching. When applied subsurface, Methylene urea at the deepest mixing depth of 22.9 cm produced 121% more shoot growth, 57% less NO₃-N leaching, and 46% more NUE for total mass than urea. Split applications of surface applied urea provided the best establishment of Kentucky bluegrass sod on sand-based systems based on the results of the study.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluation of Various Slow-release Nitrogen Sources for Growth and Establishment of Poa pratensis L. on Sand-based Systems

        이상국,David D. Minner,Nick E. Christians 한국잔디학회 2010 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.24 No.2

        Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important nutrients among 17 essential nutrients for maintaining turfgrass color and quality. The slow release fertilizers were initially developed to provide a more consistent release of nitrogen over a longer period and are often used to decrease leaching potential from sandy soils. The goal of this study is to determine if various slow release N sources affect the rate at which turfgrass establishes. Six nitrogen sources were evaluated; Nitroform (38-0-0), Nutralene (40-0-0), Organiform (30-0-0), Sulfur coated urea (SCU, 37-0-0), urea (46-0-0), and Milorganite (6-0-0). The root zone media was seeded and sodded with ‘Limousine’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Sodded pots produced 182 to 518 g more clipping dry weight than seeded pots. Among seeded pots,Milorganite produced greater amount of root dry weight than any other N sources. Because the period of turfgrass growth is different between sodded and seeded plots, there were differences on clipping yield and root growth. Overall,high N rate had turf color greater than acceptable color of 6 among seeded pots throughout the study. However, low N rate didn’t produce acceptable turf color throughout the study. Based on the result of this study, Milorganite would be recommended for new establishment of Kentucky bluegrass than urea with less clipping yield which can lead to reduce labor.

      • Rubber chip의 경기장 지반 물리성 개선과 잔디 생육에 미치는 효과

        김인철,이정호,주영규,David Minner 한국잔디학회 2002 한국잔디학회지 Vol.16 No.1

        경직된 지반의 물리성 개선재로서 rubber chip의 토양 내 혼합 또는 배토는 잔디의 생육과 지반의 이·화학성 및 중금속 추출 실험을 통하여 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. Rubber chip의 토양 내 혼합은 지면의 온도 상승효과를 가져왔으며 이는 겨울철의 동해방지 및 맹아출현기를 앞당길 수 있을 것이라 추정된다. 그러나 복사열이 높은 여름에는 rubber chip에 의한 표면, 지중 온도의 상승으로 잔디의 피해가 우려된다. 또한 토양 내에 rubber chip의 혼합함량(rubber chip 20%, 40%)이 많을수록 잔디의 발아와 생육 및 피복에 부정적인 영향을 끼쳤다. Rubberchip의 토양혼합은 지반의 이·화학성 변화에 크게 작용하지 않았으며 중금속 추출실험에서도 차이를 나타내지 않아 토양환경 오염이 없을 것으로 판단된다. Rubber chip을 배토용 재료로서 사용했을 경우, 경직된 토양구조를 개선시켜 주었다. 특히 통기작업 후 rubber chip의 배토는 지반의 표면탄성을 현저히 완화시켰다. 따라서 현재 우리나라에서 보수중이 거나 건설중인 연습구장, 보조구장에 재활용이 가능한 폐타이어 rubber chip을 지반 답압 개선용, 배토용 재료로서 사용이 가능할 것으로 판단된다. This study was conducted to investigated the effects of rubber chips from used tires on sports turf ground as soil conditioner to improve soil physical properties. The release of heavy metal ions was detected to check the soil contamination by incorporation of recycled rubber chips with topsoil. The effects of the chips were also evaluated as topdressing material to improve surface resilience. The rate of rubber chips showed a positive relationship with soil temperature increasement. Incorporation of rubber chips increased soil temperature on surface at 2.5 cm-depth. The rates of rubber chip showed a negative relationship with ground cover rate of turfgrass in early growth season. However, after 20 weeks, treatment of 10% rubber chips at 2.5 cm-depth showed a prominent cover rate of 70% which was not significantly different with untreated control. Incorporation of rubber chips within topsoil seemed to reduce soil compaction, but the effects was not prominent on physical properties. Rubber chips did not affect chemical properties and heavy metal contamination to soil environment. Rubber chips improved resilience of the compacted ground surface as topdressing material, this effect was prominent when aerification practise was preceded.

      • KCI등재후보

        Evaluationof Phosphorus Rateand Mixing Depthonthe Growthand Establishment of Kentucky bluegrass(Poapratensis L.) in Sand-Based Systems

        이상국,David D. Minner,Nick E, Christians,Henry G. Taber 한국잔디학회 2009 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.23 No.2

        Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential elements of the phospholipids that are involved in the formation of plant cell membranes. Phosphorus is highly immobile in soils and is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus mobility and availability varies with several factors such as application frequency, placement in the soil, and the amount of irrigation or precipitation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of P applications at level of 0, 146, and 293 kg․ha-1 at four mixing depths (0, 7.6, 15.2, and 22.9 cm )on the growth and establishment of Kentucky bluegrass (Poapratensis L.) in a sand-based system.Grass clipping samples were collectedevery two weeks, dried, and weighed. Total root dry weight, root organic matter, and tissue content of P were measured at the end of the study. Leachate was collected weekly and analyzed for total P concentration. No difference was found between application of P to the surface and to the 7.6 cm mixing depth. However, surface application with 146 and 293 kg P․ha-1 produced 8-10% and 16-20% more P in tissue than subsurface applications, respectively Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential elements of the phospholipids that are involved in the formation of plant cell membranes. Phosphorus is highly immobile in soils and is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus mobility and availability varies with several factors such as application frequency, placement in the soil, and the amount of irrigation or precipitation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of P applications at level of 0, 146, and 293 kg․ha-1 at four mixing depths (0, 7.6, 15.2, and 22.9 cm )on the growth and establishment of Kentucky bluegrass (Poapratensis L.) in a sand-based system.Grass clipping samples were collectedevery two weeks, dried, and weighed. Total root dry weight, root organic matter, and tissue content of P were measured at the end of the study. Leachate was collected weekly and analyzed for total P concentration. No difference was found between application of P to the surface and to the 7.6 cm mixing depth. However, surface application with 146 and 293 kg P․ha-1 produced 8-10% and 16-20% more P in tissue than subsurface applications, respectively

      • Evaluationof Phosphorus Rateand Mixing Depthonthe Growthand Establishment of Kentucky bluegrass(Poapratensis L.) in Sand-Based Systems

        이상국,데이비드미너,닉크리스챤,헨리테이버,Lee, Sang-Kook,Minner, David D.,Nick E., Christians,Taber, Henry G. Turfgrass Society of Korea 2009 한국잔디학회지 Vol.23 No.2

        인산은 식물세포막의 형성과 관련 있는 인지질의 주요 구성요소이다. 인산은 토양에서 움직일 수 없기 때문에 자주식물 생장에 저해요인으로 작용하기도 한다. 인산의 이동성과 식물의 이용성은 인산의 시용빈도, 토양에서의 위치, 관수량 및 강우와 같은 다양한 요인에 따라 다르게 나타난다. 본 연구에서는 모래시공 골프장에서 인산의 시용량(0, 146, 293 $kg{\cdot}ha^{-1}$)이 인산을 혼합하는 깊이(0, 7.6, 15.2, 22.9 cm)에 따라 캔터키블루그래스의 생장과 정착에 미치는 영향을 평가하였다. 그 결과 인산은 토양표면과 7.6cm의 깊이에 시용하였을 때 통계적인 유의성이 발견되지 않았다. 하지만 헥타아르당 146과 293kg을 시용하였을 때 무처리보다 식물 체조직 내에서 8~10%와 16~20%의 인산이 검출되었다. Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential elements of the phospholipids that are involved in the formation of plant cell membranes. Phosphorus is highly immobile in soils and is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus mobility and availability varies with several factors such as application frequency, placement in the soil, and the amount of irrigation or precipitation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of P applications at level of 0, 146, and 293 $kg{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ at four mixing depths (0, 7.6, 15.2, and 22.9 cm )on the growth and establishment of Kentucky bluegrass (Poapratensis L.) in a sand-based system.Grass clipping samples were collectedevery two weeks, dried, and weighed. Total root dry weight, root organic matter, and tissue content of P were measured at the end of the study. Leachate was collected weekly and analyzed for total P concentration. No difference was found between application of P to the surface and to the 7.6 cm mixing depth. However, surface application with 146 and 293 kg $P{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ produced 8-10% and 16-20% more P in tissue than subsurface applications, respectively.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluating the Influence of Liquid Organic Polymer on Soil Aggregation and Growth of Perennial Ryegrass

        Sang-Kook Lee(이상국),David Minner(데이브 미너) 한국잡초학회·한국잔디학회 2011 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.25 No.1

        토양입단화는 토양의 물리적, 화학적, 그리고 생물학적인 변화를 일으키는 활발한 과정이다. 토양입단화를 통해서 생성된 토양공극은 토양에서 공기와 물의 순환을 증가시키는 역할을 하게 된다. 유기중합물이 토양입단 안정화에 대한 긍적적인 역할은 많은 연구결과에서 보고가 된 바 있다. 본 실험의 목적은 유기중합물이 토양입단화와 페레니얼 라이그래스의 성장에 미치는 영향에 대해서 알아보기 위해서 수행 되었다. 유기중합물의 세가지 농도가 적용이 되었으며 실험을 위해 두가지 토양이 사용이 되었다. 첫번째 토양으로 4.0 %의 유기물이 함유된 양토가 건조된 후 사용이 되었으며 두번째 토양으로 점토가 사용이 되었다. 유기중합물 처리에 따른 페레니얼 라이그래스의 색, 품질, 성장에 미치는 영향은 나타나지 않았다. 그러나 유기중합물이 토양입단화에는 토양의 종류에 따라 영향이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 실험의 결과의 구체적인 실증을 위해서 필드 실험이 필요한 것으로 판단이 된다. Soil aggregate is a vigorous procedure including soil physical, chemical, and biological processes. Pore space created by binding these particles together improves retention and exchange of air and water. Various researches have reported that the benefits of organic polymers that may increase aggregate stability. The purpose of the study was to determine if a liquid organic polymer mixture has any influence on perennial ryegrass quality or soil aggregation. Turf2Max<SUP>®</SUP> was applied to two soils as a source of liquid organic polymer. Fine-loamy soil from local Iowa topsoil with 4.0% organic matter was screened and dried. Commercial baseball infield clay, QuickDry<SUP>®</SUP>, was used as the second soil. There were three rates of liquid organic polymer (0, 2, and 4%). there was no visual improvement in turfgrass color, quality, or growth by using organic polymer. It is possible that aggregate stability increases with use of organic polymer. The aggregate stability study needs to be repeated in the greenhouse and then substantiated under field conditions for these preliminary observations.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluation of Various Slow-release Nitrogen Sources for Growth and Establishment of Poa pratensis on Sand-based Systems

        Sang-Kook Lee(이상국),David D. Minner(데이브 미너),Nick E. Christians(닉크리스챤) 한국잡초학회·한국잔디학회 2010 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.24 No.2

        질소는 색감과 품질을 유지하기 위한 잔디의 성장에 필요한 17가지 필수 영양성분중에 하나이다. 완효성 비료는 일정한 양의 질소 영양성분을 오랜기간 동안 제공하기 위해서 개발이 되었고 모래지반에서 특히 더 잘 용탈되는 질소의 양을 줄이기 위해서 사용이 된다. 이 실험의 목적은 다양한 완효성 비료가 다른 비율로 시비 되었을때 잔디조성에 어떻게 영향을 미치는 지에 대해서 조사하였다. 총 6가지 질소비료가 실험되었으며 켄터키블루 그래스가 파종과 뗏장을 위해 사용이 되었다. 뗏장으로 조성된 실험구가 파종으로 조성된 실험구 보다 182에서 518 g 예지물을 더 생산하였다. 파종으로 조성된 실험구중에서는 밀오거나이트가 가장 많은 뿌리의 건중량을 생산하였다. 파종과 뗏장은 잔디의 성장 기간이 다르기 때문에 예지물의 양과 뿌리의 건중량에서 차이가 난다. 본 실험의 결과에 따르면 밀오거나이트가 다른 5가지의 질소비료 보다 예지물의 생산이 적었으며 지하부의 성장이다 좋았으므로 켄터키블루그래스가 처음 조성이 될때는 밀오거나이트가 권장이 된다. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important nutrients among 17 essential nutrients for maintaining turfgrass color and quality. The slow release fertilizers were initially developed to provide a more consistent release of nitrogen over a longer period and are often used to decrease leaching potential from sandy soils. The goal of this study is to determine if various slow release N sources affect the rate at which turfgrass establishes. Six nitrogen sources were evaluated; Nitroform (38-0-0), Nutralene (40-0-0), Organiform (30-0-0), Sulfur coated urea (SCU, 37-0-0), urea (46-0-0), and Milorganite (6-0-0). The root zone media was seeded and sodded with ‘Limousine’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Sodded pots produced 182 to 518 g more clipping dry weight than seeded pots. Among seeded pots, Milorganite produced greater amount of root dry weight than any other N sources. Because the period of turfgrass growth is different between sodded and seeded plots, there were differences on clipping yield and root growth. Overall, high N rate had turf color greater than acceptable color of 6 among seeded pots throughout the study. However, low N rate didn’t produce acceptable turf color throughout the study. Based on the result of this study, Milorganite would be recommended for new establishment of Kentucky bluegrass than urea with less clipping yield which can lead to reduce labor.

      • Evaluation of Various Slow-release Nitrogen Sources for Growth and Establishment of Poa pratensis on Sand-based Systems

        이상국,데이브 미너,닉크리스챤,Lee, Sang-Kook,Minner, David D.,Christians, Nick E. Turfgrass Society of Korea 2010 한국잔디학회지 Vol.24 No.2

        질소는 색감과 품질을 유지하기 위한 잔디의 성장에 필요한 17가지 필수 영양성분중에 하나이다. 완효성 비료는 일정한 양의 질소 영양성분을 오랜기간 동안 제공하기 위해서 개발이 되었고 모래지반에서 특히 더 잘 용 탈되는 질소의 양을 줄이기 위해서 사용이 된다. 이 실험의 목적은 다양한 완효성 비료가 다른 비율로 시비 되었을때 잔디조성에 어떻게 영향을 미치는 지에 대해서 조사하였다. 총 6가지 질소비료가 실험되었으며 켄터키블루그래스가 파종과 뗏장을 위해 사용이 되었다. 뗏장으로 조성된 실험구가 파종으로 조성된 실험구 보다 182에서 518 g 예지물을 더 생산하였다. 파종으로 조성된 실험구중에서는 밀오거나이트가 가장 많은 뿌리의 건중량을 생산하였다. 파종과 뗏장은 잔디의 성장 기간이 다르기 때문에 예지물의 양과 뿌리의 건중량에서 차이가 난다. 본 실험의 결과에 따르면 밀오거나이트가 다른 5가지의 질소비료 보다 예지물의 생산이 적었으며 지하부의 성장이다 좋았으므로 켄터키블루그래스가 처음 조성이 될때는 밀오거나이트가 권장이 된다. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important nutrients among 17 essential nutrients for maintaining turfgrass color and quality. The slow release fertilizers were initially developed to provide a more consistent release of nitrogen over a longer period and are often used to decrease leaching potential from sandy soils. The goal of this study is to determine if various slow release N sources affect the rate at which turfgrass establishes. Six nitrogen sources were evaluated; Nitroform (38-0-0), Nutralene (40-0-0), Organiform (30-0-0), Sulfur coated urea (SCU, 37-0-0), urea (46-0- 0), and Milorganite (6-0-0). The root zone media was seeded and sodded with 'Limousine' Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Sodded pots produced 182 to 518 g more clipping dry weight than seeded pots. Among seeded pots, Milorganite produced greater amount of root dry weight than any other N sources. Because the period of turfgrass growth is different between sodded and seeded plots, there were differences on clipping yield and root growth. Overall, high N rate had turf color greater than acceptable color of 6 among seeded pots throughout the study. However, low N rate didn't produce acceptable turf color throughout the study. Based on the result of this tudy, ilorganite would be ecommended for new establishment of Kentucky bluegrass an urea with less clipping yield which can lead to reduce abor.

      • Evaluating the Influence of Liquid Organic Polymer on Soil Aggregation and Growth of Perennial Ryegrass

        이상국,데이브 미너,Lee, Sang-Kook,Minner, David Turfgrass Society of Korea 2011 한국잔디학회지 Vol.25 No.1

        Soil aggregate is a vigorous procedure including soil physical, chemical, and biological processes. Pore space created by binding these particles together improves retention and exchange of air and water. Various researches have reported that the benefits of organic polymers that may increase aggregate stability. The purpose of the study was to determine if a liquid organic polymer mixture has any influence on perennial ryegrass quality or soil aggregation. $Turf2Max^{(R)}$ was applied to two soils as a source of liquid organic polymer. Fine-loamy soil from local Iowa topsoil with 4.0% organic matter was screened and dried. Commercial baseball infield clay, $QuickDry^{(R)}$, was used as the second soil There were three rates of liquid organic polymer (0, 2, and 4%). there was no visual improvement in turf grass color, quality, or growth by using organic polymer. It is possible that aggregate stability increases with use of organic polymer. The aggregate stability study needs to be repeated in the greenhouse and then substantiated under field conditions for these preliminary observations. 토양입단화는 토양의 물리적 화학적 그리고 생물학적인 변화를 일으키는 활발한 과정이다. 토양입단화를 통해서 생성된 토양공극은 토양에서 공기와 물의 순환을 증가시키는 역할을 하게 된다. 유기중합물이 토양입단 안정화에 대한 긍정적인 역할은 많은 연구결과에서 보고가 된 바 있다. 본 실험의 목적은 유기중합물이 토양입단화와 페레니얼 라이그래스의 성장에 미치는 영향에 대해서 알아보기 위해서 수행되었다. 유기중합물의 세가지 농도가 적용이 되었으며 실험을 위해 두가지 토양이 사용이 되었다. 첫번째 토양으로 4.0%의 유기물이 함유된 양토가 건조된 후 사용이 되었으며 두번째 토양으로 점토가 사용이 되었다. 유기중합물 처리에 따른 페레니얼 라이그래스의 색, 품질, 성장에 미치는 영향은 나타나지 않았다. 그러나 유기중합물이 토양입단화에는 토양의 종류에 따라 영향이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 실험의 결과의 구체적인 실증을 위해서 필드 실험이 필요한 것으로 판단이 된다.

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