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본 연구에서는 모과내의 여러 가지 기능성 유용성분을 효과적으로 추출하기 위해서, 모과나무의 익은 열매로 만든 약재인 모과를 사용 하였다. 모과의 기능성 유용성분용매 추출 공정의 최적 조건을 확립하고자 하였다. 모과를 에탄올에 추출하여 반응표면 분석법으로 모니터링하여 최적 용매 조건을 설정하였다. 중심합성계획법에 따라 시료에 대한 용매비(X1)와 추출온도(X2), 추출시간(X3)을 요인변수로 하고 추출수율(Y1), 총페놀 함량(Y2), 전자공여능(Y3), 갈색도(Y4), 환원당(Y5)을 종속변수로 하여 시행하였다. 실험 결과 추출수율은 추출 온도와 추출 시간에 유의하게 영향을 받음을 알 수 있었다. 안장점에서 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비는 26.38mL/g, 추출온도는 72.82oC, 추출시간은 74.86 min에서 최대값을 나타내었다. 총페놀 함량은 용매비와 시간에 영향을 거의 받지 않았고 추출시간에는 영향을 받았으며, 최대값은 20.70mg/mL 로 나타났다. 이때의 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비는 22.61mL/g, 추출온도는 84.49oC, 추출시간은 77.25 min으로 나타났다. 전자공여능은 추출온도에 따라 유의하게 영향을 받은 것으로 나타났다. 안장점에서의 추출조건인 시료에 대한 용매비 10.65mL/g, 추출온도 67.78oC, 추출시간 96.75 min에서 추출수율은 94.12%로 예측되었다. 갈색도에 대한 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비 23.77mL/g, 추출온도 87.27oC, 추출시간 96.68 min 일 때 안장점이 나타났다. 환원당은 시료에 대한 용매비 26.83mL/g, 추출온도 82.167oC, 추출시간 81.94 min에서 10.55mg/mL로 최대값을 나타내었고 추출시간에 영향을 받았다. In this study, various active functional components in Chinese Quince were extracted by solvent extraction method. A central composit design for optimization was applied to investigate the effects of independent variables such as solvent to sample ratio (X1), extraction temperature (X2), and extraction time (X3) on the soluble solid contents (Y1), total phenols (Y2), electron donating ability (Y3), browning color (Y4) and reducing sugar contents (Y5). It was found that extraction temperature and extraction time were the main effective factors in this extraction process. The maximum soluble solid contents of 35.77% was obtained at 26.38mL/g (X1), 72.82oC (X2) and 74.86 min (X3) in saddle point. Total phenols were rarely affected by solvent ratio and extraction time, but it was affected by extraction temperature. The maximum total phenols of 20.70% was obtained at 22.61mL/g (X1), 84.49oC (X2), 77.25 min (X3) in saddle point. The electron donating ability was affected by extraction time. The maximum electron donating ability of 94.12% was obtained at 10.65mL/g (X1), 67.78oC (X2), 96.75 min (X3) in saddle point. The maximum browning color of 0.32% was obtained at 23.77mL/g (X1), 87.27oC (X2), 96.68 min (X3) in saddle point. The maximum value of reducing sugar content of 10.55% was obtained at 26.83mL/g (X1), 82.167oC (X2), 81.94 min (X3). Reducing sugar content was affected by extraction time.
Comonomers vinylimidazole, methyl acrylate, and acrylic acid were added to acrylonitrile to synthesize two polymers, poly(acrylonitrile-co-1-vinylimidazole) and poly(acrylonitrile-co-N-vinylimidazole-co-methyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid), with the goal of enhancing their melt processability for their use as carbon fibers. The two polymers were meltextruded, but the as-spun filaments were brittle. Therefore, glycerol was mixed with the polymers to improve their spinnability and drawability. The addition of glycerol to the polyacrylonitrile copolymer and tetrapolymer reduced their melt viscosity, enhanced their melt spinnability, and improved their drawability. When 15 % (w/w) glycerol was added, the melt viscosity of the two polymers was reduced to below 1000 Pa·s at a shear rate of 100 s-1, and the tensile strength of the resulting filaments was high enough for them to be used as precursor filaments for carbon fibers. Furthermore, a draw ratio of over 5.5 was achieved for the melt spun filaments of mixtures of the copolymer and tetrapolymer with 15 % glycerol (w/w) ata temperature of 150 oC.
Labrys sp. KNU-23 is a Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, tryptophan-producing, urea-decomposing bacterium that was isolated from ginseng soil in Bonghwa-gun, Republic of Korea. This study reports the complete genome sequence of strain KNU-23. The complete genome comprises two circular chromosomes of 5,388,854 bp and 2,162,438 bp with a GC content of 64 and 62.1%, respectively. The whole genome was predicted to have 6,868 protein coding genes. In addition, ureadecomposing and tryptophan-producing genes that are associated with plant growth-promoting activity were identified. Therefore, Labrys sp. KNU-23 is likely to be an agriculturally useful strain.
Background: The M2 pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) is known a specific enzyme produced in undifferentiated and proliferating tissues. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of the immunochromatographic M2 pyruvate kinase (iM2-PK) for screening of colorectal cancer (CRC) and premalignant lesions. Methods: Healthy volunteers and patients with colorectal neoplasms were enrolled in six academic hospitals in capital province of Korea. The value of iM2-PK was compared with immunochromatographic fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) and fecal tumor M2-PK enzme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: A total of 323 subjects were enrolled. The sensitivity of iM2-PK for CRC was 92.8%, and was superior to that of iFOBT, 47.5% (p<0.0001). For adenomatous lesions, the sensitivity of iM2-PK was 69.4% and was also superior to 12.1% of iFOBT (p<0.001). In comparison with M2-PK ELISA, iM2-PK proved significantly better sensitivity for CRC, 97.5% and 80.0% (p=0.0289). The sensitivity of iM2-PK was higher in advanced stage of CRC compared to cancers confined to mucosa and submucosa (p<0.05), however, lymph node metastasis had no influence on the sensitivity of iM2-PK. Conclusions: The iM2-PK proved higher sensitivity for CRC and adenomatous lesions than iFOBT. With rapidity and convenience, CRC screening using iM2-PK is promising.
The purpose of this study is to establish Korean inherent nuclear safety culture simulation models that can explain the overall nuclear safety culture, suchas the causes of accidents, the expression of the problems, the provision and spread of alternatives. To achieve this purpose, theoretical studies (High Reliability Organization: HRO, Normal Accident Theory: NAT, Learning Organization Theory: LOT, etc.) and accident case studies are conducted. Because nuclear safety culture embedded interaction of the variety components and dynamics, we need to use system dynamics approach which can capture these holistic and simultaneous phenomenons in nuclear organization. The simulation model can help nuclear safety managers to identify the causes of the accidents. The model also can evaluate the policies interventions about individual and organizational behavior that affects organizational errors and accidents. Simulation user interface is designed for end user (not simulation expert) using easily. Information transparency is indispensable in order to recover public confidence in nuclear power plants. Web and App development plan is proposed to release information proactively and properly.
We evaluated the effectiveness of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs)vaccination on the induction of antitumor immunity in a mouse lymphoma model using EG7-lymphoma cells expressing ovalbumin (OVA). BMDCs treated with RG-II had an activated phenotype. RG-II induced interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1b, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interferon-c (IFN-c) production during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. BMDCs stimulated with RG-II facilitate the proliferation of CD8þ T cells. Using BMDCs from the mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we revealed that RG-II activity is dependent on TLR4. RG-II showed a preventive effect of immunization with OVA-pulsed BMDCs against EG7 lymphoma. These results suggested that RG-II expedites the DC-based immune response through the TLR4signaling pathway.
Abstract Military Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare extra-pulmonary form of TB and there are only 2 reports correlated with infection of multi-drug (MDR) pathogen in Pub-med. A 32-year-old woman referred to our hospital because of abnormal finding on chest X-ray. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed uniform-sized small nodules randomly distributed throughout both lungs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis were isolated from BAL specimens and tissue obtained by trans-bronchial lung biopsy. The isolates were identified as MDR-pathogen by Line probe assay in our hospital and solid culture drug sensitivity test via absolute concentration method in Korea TB institute. Then, the patient has been treating by secondary regimen without resistance. To the best knowledge, this is the first documented case of MDR-TB presenting as miliary tuberculosis in an immune-competent patient in the Korea.