http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
The hunt was a means of privileged social display in the 18th century; thus the sounds of horn in the hunting field was a reminder of the chivalrous ideals of the noble classes, of desirable virtue embodied in the aristocratic way of thinking. In music, the sound of the horn ran assume symbolic connotations as a mirror of nature and of society, and can also serve as a petent device for evoking royalty and hunting scenes. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the associative force of horn motifs in Viennese classical piano music: What does the hunt symbolize? What does the horn symbolize? Why and how are such symbols presented in these keyboard works? Alexander Ringer has classified various actual horn signals and traced the development of the genre of the "chasse" in his dissertation. However, he did not specifically define the musical features of the horn motif as used in art music, nor did he examine the area of the Viennese piano music. This paper will attempt to establish criteria for recognizing horn motifs in the keyboard music. It will also examine the extra-musical implications of these horn motifs by analysing selected works of Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Schubert. In its earlier stages, the horn motif stood for the hunt itself. However, after the social upheaval at the end of the 18th century, the hunt rapidly lost its special social significance, one of the last vestiges of feudalism. Increasingly the citing of hunt images in music connoted a spiritual communion with nature and the recollection of that communion with a sense of nostalgia. So, in music, the hunt became associated with feelings of awe: nature, magic, and the supernatural occupied the same space in the Romantic imagination. In Haydn, the horn motif was still a reminder of nature and the outdoors. In Mozart's compositions, the sound-image was often transmuted, capable of invoking solemnity and deep emotion. With Beethoven and Schubert, the hern motifs acquired romantic connotations apart from the tributes to the chasse tradition. The results of this study suggest that the association with the actual hunt in Viennese piano music became looser over time. The horn motifs came to function instead as a metaphor for the romantic spirit and gained a far greater symbolic significance than ever before.
본고는 19세기 중엽 영국 식민지로의 여성 이민에 있어 젠더 문제와 함께 그 특징을 탐구하고자 한다. 이를 위해 19세기 중엽 인구조사에서 나타난 ‘잉여 여성’ 문제의 해결책으로 제시된 여성들의 식민지로의 이주에 대한 담론들을 분석하여 여성 이민에 대한 빅토리아 사회 시각 및 페미니즘 시각에서 빅토리아 중기 여성 이민에 관해 고찰해 보고자 한다. 특히, 당대에 여성들의 이민 사업에 헌신적이었던 여성 이민협회들을 통해 19세기 영국 여성 이민의 현실을 파악하고, 이 시기 여성 이민 문제 중심에 퍼져있던 의식이 어떠한 면들을 드러내고 있는지 관찰하고자 한다. 이를 통해 본고는 당대의 여성 이민이 본국 및 식민지의 젠더 균형을 위한 목적성을 가지는 동시에 가부장적 제국주의의 면모를 드러내고 있다는 것을 발견하고 있다. 이와 더불어 여성의 독립적 행보를 위한 사회관념 및 계층 이탈적 의식의 변화 측면에서는 답보적인 한계를 보여 주고 있다는 사실을 관찰하고 있다. 결론적으로 본고는 ‘남성 주도적’이라 생각하기 쉬운 당대의 이민 사업에 대한 선입견의 해체를 가져오고, 페미니즘적 시각에서 빅토리아 중기 여성들의 이민이 여성이 주체가 된 주도적 이민의 전형을 보여준다는 사실을 주목하고 있다. This essay examines both the characteristics and the gender issues surrounding the emigration of women to the British colonies in the mid-19th century. To illustrate these issues, this study looks at the social and feministic points of view on emigration through literatures of the times. It also analyzes the discourses which suggested women`s emigration to the colonies as a solution to the problem of ‘redundant women’ of the time. Special focus is placed on the activities of female emigration societies that played important roles in such emigration and aided in understanding the actual situation, in particular, on social thought of the matter. From these studies, this essay demonstrates that the emigration of women reflected a sort of patriarchal British imperialism and that of gender-balancing type for both Great Britain and the colonies. On the other hand, there was not much progress in terms of changing social norms to recognize female independence and break from the Victorian concept of ‘social class.’ This essay concludes that the emigration of women in the mid-19th century brought about a deconstruction of the patriarchal prejudices that the activities of emigration agents were men`s business, as women played a crucial role in solving their own problems brought about by the problem of surplus population. Therefore, it can be stated that the role of women appeared here forms the basis for women advocating their rights in the near future.
The purpose of this study was to develope an Inquiry-Based Environmental Education Program for Elementary School Students by Using DO meter based on the theory of the inquiry-based environmental education. The developed program consisted of 5 constituents of Environmental Studies for the Environmental Education (ESEE) and was applied to the 6th grade students of elementary school. The inquiry activities have been conducted around Gigyechon stream in Pohang city where the school was located. The evaluation form to evaluate the environmental education programs in the perspective of the Inquiry-Based Environmental Education was developed and used to evaluate after applying the developed programs. As a result, it was known that the developed programs have been well constructed and this program would help fostering the environmental understanding of the world. And also the inquiry-based environmental education was suitable for the environmental education targeting the elementary school students. This study has a significance in the perspective that the concept and the theory of inquiry-based environmental education has been realized into the program suitable for the elementary school students and that the new direction of the environmental education for the elementary school has been suggested. In addition, the developed evaluation form to assess the effectiveness of the program is expected to be helpful for the future studies related to development of the inquiry-based environmental education programs.
영제국 오스트레일리아와 원주민에 관한 연구는 국내 다른 분야 연구보다 관심의 정도가 크지 않다. 하지만, 오스트레일리아에서 원주민 관련문제는 최근까지도 매스컴의 주목을 받는 사건들이 출현하고 있는 진행형 이슈이다. 본 논문은 이 같은 문제를 제국 식민지 초기 영국인 정착민과 원주민과의 관계를 통해 고찰한다. 특히, 최근 출판된 바바라 다우슨(Barbara Dawson)의 『구경꾼의 눈으로』(2014)를 주목하면서, 정착 초기 여성들의 눈에 비친 원주민과 기존의 원주민 서술에서의 이들에 대한 인식을 검토한다. 이를 통해 영국인 개척자들과 원주민에 관한 이야기가 남성 정복자적 관점의 방향으로 고착되어 왔음을 드러낸다. 신화화된 원주민 이야기와 폭력에 대한 기억이 ‘상호 협력과 공존 및 갈등’이라는 영국인 정착 초기의 긍정적 관계성을 왜곡했다는 것이다. 따라서 이 글은 대륙의 상이한 지역적 특색 및 다양한 원주민들과 정착민과의 관계라는 보다 넓은 시각의 형성을 유도하고, ‘폭력에 따른 정복’으로만 이해하는 상투적 역사이해와 일반화의 탈피를 제시한다. 그럼으로써 누구도 배제되지 않은 역사의 동참자로서 오스트레일리아 건설을 만들어 온 ‘오스트레일리아인’의 ‘협력과 평화로운 공존’이라는 발전적 모색을 피력한다. There has not been much study done in South Korea in reference to the relationship between British colonial Australia and the Aboriginal people. In Australia however, the Aboriginal problem is a current issue that often draws media attention. This paper deals with the Aboriginal problem by visiting the relationship between the British settlers and the indigenous people during the early stages of colonization of Australia. In specific, this paper focuses on Barbara Dawson’s In the Eye of the Beholder; What 6 Nineteenth Century Women Tells Us about Indigenous Authority and Identity published in 2014. The book reconstructs the perception of the indigenous people using records of British women at the early stage of the settlement, coupled with existing historical description. The book reveals that the story on the British frontiers and the Aboriginal people was told in a biased way, from the male conqueror’s viewpoint only. This half truth filled with mystified story and violence distorted the positive relationship seeking ‘mutual cooperation and coexistence with inner conflict’ created in the early stages of the British settlement. Thus this paper attempts to form a much broader perspective to show various relationships among settlers and the Aboriginal people with different geographical characteristics. It also tries to break from the understanding of stereotyped history and from the generalizations of the British Colonial Australian history. This paper thereby suggests a constructive compromise to build the combined efforts and peaceful co-existence as ‘the Australian,’ not excluding anyone who participated in making the history of Australia.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Green coffee bean (GCB) is a raw coffee bean that has not yet been roasted. Green coffee bean is the unroasted or immature robust coffee bean. It is mostly composed of Chlorogenic Acids (CGA), caffeine, trigonelline, and the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Chlorogenic Acids (CGA) have the anti-cancer effect of restraining free oxygen radicals. Even though experiments using Green Coffee Bean Exract (GCBE) have been done in various fields, experiments with regard to orofacial pain have been few. The aim of this study is to investigate whether administration of GCBE may be beneficial in pain modulation in inflammatory orofacial pain. We investigated by using GCBE in the development and modulation of orofacial pain in rats. Male, 7- to 8-week-old, Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 240-280g were used in this study. Experiments were carried out using a subcutaneous (SC) pain model caused by the injection of 5% formalin into the right vibrissa pad (SC, 50 μl). The amount of scratching or rubbing to the injection site was recorded for 9 consecutive 5-minute intervals following in-jection of formalin. The experimental subjects were separated into 5 groups (n=4); Naive, for-malin(5%), formalin after distilled water (vehicle), formalin after GCBE (p.o.,concentrations of 30,60mg/mL). The number of behavioral reactions of scratching the facial region proximal to the injection site was recorded for 9 consecutive 5-minute intervals following injection of the formalin. As a result, we found that oral administration of GCBE (p.o., concentrations of 30, 60 mg/mL) has an effect of relieving the formalin-induced orofacial pain. In particular, high con-centrations (60 mg/mL) of GCBE substantially decrease the nociceptive behavior. These results mean that GCBE may affect the occurrence of orofacial pain and modulation. Therefore, Green coffee bean extract may be a potential therapeutic treatment for orofacial pain.
Recently, many urban traditional houses have been replaced by villas and apartments for the inconvenience of lifestyle. The aim of this study is to survey the present distribution condition, research the extension and alteration, focused on Korean urban traditional houses in Cheongju which is the old city in an inland area, and inquire into the behavior patterns of an aged living alone livelihood and a large household. As a result, in the typical 'ㄱ' types of central inland houses, all the rear and side parts are nearly extended except facades facing court, while the detached houses for an aged living alones and tenants have enlarged rooms, kitchen and 'Daecheong' within the existing wooden framework. We could grasp the enlargement of room, 'Daecheong', corridor, and storage in the layout of the existing house. There are so many alterations such as the stand-up kitchen and a water closet. A new extension on an old house was intensely built for tenants.
The higher Korea`s international status and global interest in Korean language get, the more needed Korean language instructors who are not only professional in teaching Korean but also cross-culturally sensitive are. Nevertheless, training or education programs for enhancing Korean language teachers` cultural competence have not been widespread enough. However, majority of instructors who teach Korean as a foreign language bump into many different kinds of cross-cultural scenarios interacting with their international students while still not being culturally knowledgeable enough to deal with cultural diversity in appropriate ways. Therefore, it is highly necessary to develope their own cultural competence and cultural intelligence(CQ) through which they will be able to overcome various cultural challenges they can experience. In this reason, I suggested ‘a Cultural Self-study Module’ for Korean language teachers and tried to testify to its effectiveness through an experiment. The results of the experiment have shown some positive aspects in the relation between cultural self-study and CQ enhancement. That is to say, 84% of 50 applicants obtained higher CQ after performing cultural self-study and the total CQ average also went up by 11.1%. When considering the importance of Korean language instructors` cultural intelligence, it is indispensable to do more research on what to teach and how to train them to develop their own CQ. (Pukyong University)
본고는 중기 빅토리아 시대에 여성들이 인쇄 미디어로 연결된 수사학적 공적 영역에서 여성 담론을 형성하며 사회 변화를 유도하는 주체자로서 공적으로 출현하고 있었던 현상을 주목한다. 『잉글리시 우먼스 저널』은 여성이란 젠더를 표면화하는 정기간행물 가운데 처음으로 ‘여성을 위한, 여성에 의한’ 정기간행물로서 여성들에 대한 당대 사회의식의 변환을 유도하며 자신들의 주장을 펼친 담론을 중심으로 한 수사학적 공적 영역을 형성하고 주도하였다. 『잉글리시 우먼스 저널』은 여성들에게 정치·사회·문화·경제 담론들에 참가할 수 있는 지속적인 기회를 제공하면서, 빅토리아 사회 전반에 존재하던 고정관념적인 의식을 비판하고 변화시킬 것을 주창하였다. 저널에서 드러내고자 했던 담론의 수사들은 당대 주요 언론에 몸담고 있던 남녀 저널리스트들로 하여금 여성과 관련된 문제들에 주목 및 동참하게 하였다. 그렇게 함으로써 빅토리아 사회에서 하찮은 영역으로 여겨지던 여성의 문제가 개혁의 주요 아젠다로서 공개적으로 토론되며 사적 담론에서 공적 담론으로 여성 담론의 역사적 이동을 만들어 내었다. 『잉글리시 우먼스 저널』은 여성들로 하여금 수사학적 공적 영역의 일원으로 자신들의 문제를 인식하고 공론화하는 적극적 주체자로 서게 하였으며, 후에 오는 본격적인 페미니스트 운동에 그 지표가 되는 역사적 중요성을 갖는다. This study focuses on the phenomenon that women appeared in public as an agent deriving social changes with the discourse in rhetorical sphere connected by the printed media. The English Woman’s Journal by the Langham Place Circle, the first periodical ‘for women and by women,’ in which female gender comes to the surface, lead to build a discursive rhetorical sphere trying to assert women’s rights and interests as well as to change social consciousness on women in Victorian period. The Langham Place Circle provided women continuous opportunities to participate in public discourses on political, social, cultural, and economical issues, and proposed to change stereotypical consciousness on women in the Victorian society. The discourses on Women Question stated in the Journal, attracted male and female journalists in the major journals of the day and became important social issues. On this progress, a historical shift of discourse on woman was made from private discourse to public one. The discourse on women which was considered as marginalized one became an important agenda to compose public arguments to make social reforms. The English Woman’s Journal made women be aware of and publicize actively their own problems as members in rhetorical public sphere and achieve a historical importance as a cornerstone for the full-fledged feminists’ movement in the later stage.
본고는 스코틀랜드인의 오스트레일리아 이민에 관한 연구사적 성취와 문제를 비판적 시각에서 분석하는 비평논문이다. 기존의 연구들은 식민지 정착초기의 이민자 사회 특성과도 연결되는 스코틀랜드인들의 ‘씨족적 이민조합체 문화’를 주목하거나 ‘독특한 재능을 가진 이민자들의 디아스포라’ 현상을 추적하거나 또는 ‘거대인물’의 업적에 초점을 맞추어 온 경향이 있다. 이에 비해 최근의 연구들은 이민자들의 개별 특수성과 네트워크들의 특성, 종족적 정체성 문화를 주목하여 ‘종족적 뿌리에 기초한 문화의 다층성과 변경 및 유지’라는 관점에서 기여도 있는 결과들을 도출하고 있다. 이러한 연구동향에 대해 본고는 오스트레일리아를 의미평가 단위로 전제하는 연구로의 확장을 제안한다. 즉, ‘오스트레일리아 스코틀랜드인들의 스코틀랜드성’ 및 스코틀랜드인들 주변의 ‘타자들’에 대한 연구 병행의 필요성, 다원주의 및 다문화, 탈식민의 관점에서 오스트레일리아인의 정체성과 오스트레일리아 국가정체성을 스코틀랜드인과 연결하는 연구의 필요성을 제기한다. 이로부터 영제국에 결속된 스코틀랜드인에서 ‘오스트레일리아 스코틀랜드인’이라는 총체적 정체성 사고와 통합문화를 전망하는 이민사 연구의 변화 모색을 강조한다. This article reviews researches on the Scottish immigration to Australia from a critical point of view. The previous studies have tendencies to focus on the “clannish union culture” of the Scottish immigrants, to lean on the pursuit of the “diaspora” phenomenon of immigrants with unique talents or the achievements of the ‘big figure,’ which are also linked to the characteristics of the Scottish immigrant society in the early stage of settlement. By contrast, the recent studies have focused on the individual characteristics of immigrants, on those of networks, and the identity of ethnic culture, having produced meaningful outputs in terms of ‘change’, ‘continuity’, and the ‘multi-layeredness’ based on the ethnic root. Such studies are on the cultural preservation for the establishment of ‘Scottish beings’ with regards to the function of the network, the network experience of individual immigrants, and their perception against ‘the other’ which is from a cultural alliance perspective in the settlement of the Scottish in the colonies. To this trend of research, this article suggests expanding research field that presupposes Australia as a meaningful evaluation unit. In other words, it raises the need to conduct parallel studies of the ‘Scottishness of Australian Scottish people’ and ‘others’ around the Scottish with the viewpoints of pluralism and multi-culturalism. And it also stresses the need to link the ‘Australian identity’ and the ‘Australian national identity’ in terms of post-colonialism. This paper thus emphasizes the need for changes in historical research on immigration, from focusing on the Scottish having been affiliated to the British empire to focusing on the prospect for the ‘integrated culture’ and ‘the collective identity of ‘Scottish Australians’’.