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( Mijin Kim ),( Tae Yong Kim ),( Soo Han Kim ),( Yunkyoung Lee ),( Su Yeon Park ),( Hyung Don Kim ),( Hyemi Kwon ),( Yun Mi Choi ),( Eun Kyung Jang ),( Min Ji Jeon ),( Won Gu Kim ),( Young Kee Shong ) 대한내과학회 2015 The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine Vol.30 No.3
Background/Aims: The diagnostic accuracy of thyroid dysfunctions is primarily affected by the validity of the reference interval for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Thus, the present study aimed to establish a reference interval for TSH using a normal Korean population. Methods: This study included 19,465 subjects who were recruited after undergoing routine health check-ups. Subjects with overt thyroid disease, a prior history of thyroid disease, or a family history of thyroid cancer were excluded from the present analyses. The reference range for serum TSH was evaluated in a normal Korean reference population which was defined according to criteria based on the guidelines of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, ultrasound (US) findings, and smoking status. Sex and age were also taken into consideration when evaluating the distribution of serum TSH levels in different groups. Results: In the presence of positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies or abnormal US findings, the central 95 percentile interval of the serum TSH levels was widened. Additionally, the distribution of serum TSH levels shifted toward lower values in the current smokers group. The reference interval for TSH obtained using a normal Korean reference population was 0.73 to 7.06 mIU/L. The serum TSH levels were higher in females than in males in all groups, and there were no age-dependent shifts. Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that the serum TSH reference interval in a normal Korean reference population was higher than that in other countries. This result suggests that the upper and lower limits of the TSH reference interval, which was previously defined by studies from Western countries, should be raised for Korean populations.
<P>Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate objectively that tumor growth kinetics within the first year are an independent predictor of CSS in patients with macronodular lung metastases. Performing chest computed tomography at least twice a year in the early phase of the disease in patients with macronodular lung metastases may be helpful for identifying high-risk patients who are eligible for treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.</P>
Synthesis of PCDTBT-Based Fluorinated Polymers for High Open-Circuit Voltage in Organic Photovoltaics: Towards an Understanding of Relationships between Polymer Energy Levels Engineering and Ideal Morphology Control
Kim, Jonggi,Yun, Myoung Hee,Kim, Gi-Hwan,Lee, Jungho,Lee, Sang Myeon,Ko, Seo-Jin,Kim, Yiho,Dutta, Gitish K.,Moon, Mijin,Park, Song Yi,Kim, Dong Suk,Kim, Jin Young,Yang, Changduk American Chemical Society 2014 ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES Vol.6 No.10
<P>The introduction of fluorine (F) atoms onto conjugated polymer backbone has verified to be an effective way to enhance the overall performance of polymer-based bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, but the underlying working principles are not yet fully uncovered. As our attempt to further understand the impact of F, herein we have reported two novel fluorinated analogues of PCDTBT, namely, <B>PCDTFBT</B> (1F) and <B>PCDT2FBT</B> (2F), through inclusion of either one or two F atoms into the benzothiadiazole (BT) unit of the polymer backbone and the characterization of their physical properties, especially their performance in solar cells. Together with a profound effect of fluorination on the optical property, nature of charge transport, and molecular organization, F atoms are effective in lowering both the HOMO and LUMO levels of the polymers without a large change in the energy bandgaps. <B>PCDTFBT</B>-based BHJ solar cell shows a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.96 % with high open-circuit voltage (<I>V</I><SUB>OC</SUB>) of 0.95 V, mainly due to the deep HOMO level (−5.54 eV). To the best of our knowledge, the resulting <I>V</I><SUB>OC</SUB> is comparable to the record <I>V</I><SUB>OC</SUB> values in single junction devices. Furthermore, to our delight, the best <B>PCDTFBT</B>-based device, prepared using 2 % v/v diphenyl ether (DPE) additive, reaches the PCE of 4.29 %. On the other hand, doubly-fluorinated polymer <B>PCDT2FBT</B> shows the only moderate PCE of 2.07 % with a decrease in <I>V</I><SUB>OC</SUB> (0.88 V), in spite of the further lowering of the HOMO level (−5.67 eV) with raising the number of F atoms. Thus, our results highlight that an improvement in efficiency by tuning the energy levels of the polymers by means of molecular design can be expected only if their truly optimized morphologies with fullerene in BHJ systems are materialized.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/aamick/2014/aamick.2014.6.issue-10/am500891z/production/images/medium/am-2014-00891z_0010.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/am500891z'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
Kim, Chun-Hyung,Han, Baek-Soo,Moon, Jisook,Kim, Deog-Joong,Shin, Joon,Rajan, Sreekanth,Nguyen, Quoc Toan,Sohn, Mijin,Kim, Won-Gon,Han, Minjoon,Jeong, Inhye,Kim, Kyoung-Shim,Lee, Eun-Hye,Tu, Yupeng,Naf National Academy of Sciences 2015 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF Vol.112 No.28
<P><B>Significance</B></P><P>Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most prevalent movement disorder with no available treatments that can stop or slow down the disease progress. Although the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 is a promising target for PD, it is thought to be a ligand-independent transcription factor and, so far, no small molecule has been identified that can bind to its ligand binding domain. Here, we established high throughput cell-based assays and successfully identified three Nurr1 agonists among FDA-approved drugs, all sharing an identical chemical scaffold. Remarkably, these compounds not only directly bind to Nurr1 but also ameliorate behavioral defects in a rodent model of PD. Thus, our study shows that Nurr1 could serve as a valid drug target for neuroprotective therapeutics of PD.</P><P>Parkinson’s disease (PD), primarily caused by selective degeneration of midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons, is the most prevalent movement disorder, affecting 1–2% of the global population over the age of 65. Currently available pharmacological treatments are largely symptomatic and lose their efficacy over time with accompanying severe side effects such as dyskinesia. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need to develop mechanism-based and/or disease-modifying treatments. Based on the unique dual role of the nuclear orphan receptor Nurr1 for development and maintenance of mDA neurons and their protection from inflammation-induced death, we hypothesize that Nurr1 can be a molecular target for neuroprotective therapeutic development for PD. Here we show successful identification of Nurr1 agonists sharing an identical chemical scaffold, 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline, suggesting a critical structure–activity relationship. In particular, we found that two antimalarial drugs, amodiaquine and chloroquine stimulate the transcriptional function of Nurr1 through physical interaction with its ligand binding domain (LBD). Remarkably, these compounds were able to enhance the contrasting dual functions of Nurr1 by further increasing transcriptional activation of mDA-specific genes and further enhancing transrepression of neurotoxic proinflammatory gene expression in microglia. Importantly, these compounds significantly improved behavioral deficits in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat model of PD without any detectable signs of dyskinesia-like behavior. These findings offer proof of principle that small molecules targeting the Nurr1 LBD can be used as a mechanism-based and neuroprotective strategy for PD.</P>
In North Korea`s theatrical world, entering the second half of 2000s past the early and middle 200s, when evaluation was made over light comedy works produced in 4.25 Cinema Studio of Art Film for North Korean People`s Army, works prior to those periods were performed again and advertised extensively, and its fulfillment was announced. Examples of the very typical works derived from such attempts are a light comedy <The Rumbling of a Mountain> and a play <I Will Recollect Today>. The latter was produced as a form of North Korea`s typical drama, succeeding to the creation ways of Seonghwangdangstyled revolutionary plays. Kim, Jung-il formally watched this play for the last time before he died, and as pictures of him and his son and successor, Kim, Jung-eun who had accompanied him to watch this drama were reported, it caused a huge sensation in North Korea. In this article, through <I Will Recollect Today>, a play which aimed for political propaganda again as a legitimate drama after the fever of a light drama in the early and middle 2000s - the theatrical manifestation of “military first” politics, a study was made on the ‘archetype’ of types of characters which the Party calls for. When this play was premiered, in a criticism of 『Joseon Art』, the main character named Kang, San-hae, was explained as “a figure who had an indomitable revolutionary spirit, the nature of a hero and obstinacy, and a committed spirit of self-sacrifice.” In this play, firmly convinced that the accomplishment of the Party``s policies guaranteed the protection of socialism, he was portrayed to fulfill policies of the Party at any cost despite overwhelming obstacles. Features in the main character`s personality were constantly adopted even in a play produced in 2011, <I Will Recollect Today>; the main character was described as a figure who was convinced that though today he had to pour everything he had into tomorrow, his devotion would make ``today`` proudly memorable. On the other hand, Kang, San-ok, who both was a mother of a child and a chairperson in a Board of Military Administration and Economy, was portrayed as a figure who realistically embodied the affliction during Arduous March (North Korea famine), from which the people were suffering. The contrast of Kang, San-ok against a figure named Choi, Kwang-cheon revealed opposing images of the two characters more effectively. San-ok was the typical character of North Korea-styled hero who fought and self-sacrificed for the sake of public desire in its entirety, while Kwang-cheon was depicted as an antagonist who pursued his private desire by impersonating public desire. Consequently, the image of Kang, San-ok, who had a firm conviction in spite of her economic difficulty, is both a subject embracing the whole play and North Korea`s ideal ‘archetype,’ who should play a key part in the juncture when an impetus should be given to the construction of a strong and prosperous country. That is, by showing a typical figure who is faced with Arduous March, the play <I Will Recollect Today> also suggested an ideal image of a figure who is indispensable for a new era to come.