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A smart phone is closely related to our lives throughout the world. It processes and stores various information from personal information to classified information of companies. As it is called as “a PC in my hand,” it is similar to a PC so that it is likely to be misused, being exposed to many security threats such as hacking, malicious code, and loss, just like the DDoS attack on PC. A hacker can control a smart phone through a number of zombie smart phone instructions, even shutting down the service on the server. However, it is difficult to adapt the PC defense system to the smart phone environment as is because the attack methods on a PC and a smart phone are different. Therefore, this study aims to compare and analyze DDoS attacks on the smart phone environment and PC environment to predict DDoS attack scenario on the smart phone and establish a defense system to reduce the damage.
Background and objective: Some published data suggest that 25(OH) vitamin D (vitamin D) may participate in the airway inflammation of obstructive airway diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and lung functions in patients with obstructive airway disease including COPD and bronchial asthma in real clinical practice. Methods: COPD was defined by pulmonary function, FEV1/FVC of ≤ 70 % and FEV1 of ≤ 80% of predicted value. Bronchial asthma was diagnosed by positive airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchodilator responsiveness. Serum vitamin D was measured by chemoluminescence immunoassay. All values are expressed as mean± SD. Results; 29 patients (48.3%) were compatible with COPD, vitamin D level were 25.83±13.06 ng/ml and 31 patients (51.7%) were compatible with bronchial asthma, their vitamin D level were 35.47±31.19 ng/ml. However, there was no significant difference in serum vitamin D levels between two groups (p>0.05). Vitamin D insufficiency (≤ 20 mg/ml) was observed in 10 patients (34.48%) of COPD and 10 patients (32.35%) of asthma (p>0.05). COPD with reversible component in pulmonary function was demonstrated in 6 patients (10.9%), their mean vitamin D level was 29.73±13.57 ng/ml. There was no significant difference in the serum level of vitamin D between copd with or without reversible airway obstruction (p>0.05) Serum vitamin D level and lung function showed some trend of positive correlation, however, we could not find statistical significance (r=0.18, p>0.05) Conclusions: Reduced vitamin D levels seem to be associated with impaired lung function. Further studies are required to evaluate the relationship between reduced vitamin D level and impaired lung function in patients with obstructive airway diseases.
( Mi Ran Yang ), ( Sung Ryul Lee ), ( Won Kyung Oh ), ( Eun Woo Lee ), ( Han Woong Lee ), ( Jae Kyoon Shin ), ( Suhkneung Pyo ), ( Jae Whan Song ) 한국생화학분자생물학회 (구 한국생화학회) 2007 생화학분자생물학회 춘계학술발표논문집 Vol.2007 No.-
( Mi Ran Yang ), ( Sung Ryul Lee ), ( Won Kyung Oh ), ( Eun Woo Lee ), ( Han Woong Lee ), ( Jae Kyoon Shin ), ( Suhk Neung Pyo ), ( Jae Whan Song ) 한국생화학분자생물학회 (구 한국생화학회) 2007 생화학분자생물학회 춘계학술발표논문집 Vol.2007 No.-
The methylene chloride soluble fraction of MeOH extract from the stem bark of Styrax japonica S. et Z. (Styracaceae) showed significant cytotoxicity by SRB method against five human tumor cell lines. Four known pentacyclic triterpenoids, oleanolic aldehyde acetate (1), erythrodiol- 3-acetate (2), euphorginol (3), and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (4) were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectral analysis. Compounds 1-4 were isolated from S. japonica for the first time