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      • KCI등재후보

        중앙아시아 벽화 보존처리(1) : 벽화(본4074, 본4096)의 상태조사

        강형태,이용희,유혜선,김연미,조연태,시고 아오키,노리코 야마모토,켄타로 오바야시 국립중앙박물관 2001 박물관보존과학 Vol.3 No.-

        국립중앙박물관은 용산 새 박물관의 전시 유물로 선정된 중앙아시아 벽화의 연차적인 보존처리를 위해 “독립행정법인 일본 도쿄문화재연구소’’와 공동연구를 모색하게 되었다. 2001년에 본4074, 본4096 작은 벽화편 2점의 보존처리를 시작하면서 벽화의 균열 박락 등 손상상태, 구조와 구성재료, 이전 보존처리에서 적용된 재료와 방법에 대한 기초조사를 실시하였다. 조사결과 본4074, 본4096 2점의 벽화는 흙과 지푸라기를 반죽하여 만든 벽체에 석고를 발라 바탕으로 하고 그 위에 채색을 한 것으로 나타났으며 벽체 속에 포함된 지푸라기의 방사선 탄소연대측정 결과 본 벽화는 10세기 말에서 13세기 초에 만들어진 것으로 나타났다. 또한 X-선회절 분석 결과 화면의 흰색 바탕은 gypsum[Ca(SO₄)·2H₂O]과 CaSO₄, Calcite(CaCO₃)가 적색계통은 연단(鉛丹:Pb₃O₄)과 led arsenate[Pb(As₂O₆)], 녹색계통은 Cuprite(Cu₂O)와 arsenolite(As₂O₃), arsenic oxide(As₂O₄) 등이 사용된 것으로 조사되었다. This article is about a joint project carried out by the National Museum of Korea and the Tokyo Cultural Properties Research Institute for the conservation of central Asia Wall painting that has been selected for the exhibition at the new Seoul National Museum of Korea at Yongsan. The investigation of the wall painting revealed very useful information. This includes the condition of the object, and the identification of evident damage, such as cracks, loss of pigment, plus materials and methods employed during the object's creation, as well as previous conservation treatment. The object was mainly made by applying plaster to the body (wall) that consisted of a mixture of soils and rice straws. Then, on the surface of the wall-painting, pigments were used to draw and to colour it. As a part of the investigation, radiocarbon dating was conducted using straw samples taken from the object. The result indicates that the object is probably dated form between the end of the 10th Century and the beginning of the 13th Century. The result of X-ray diffraction also revealed the composition of the pigments used on the surface. These are 1. gypsom[Ca(SO₄)·2H₂O], CaSO₄ and Calcite(CaCO₃) and Calcite(CaCO₃) that were used for the white background. 2. Pb₃O₄ and led Arsenate [Pb(As₂O₆) that were used for the red colouring. 3. Cuprite(Cu₂O), Arsenolite(As₂O₃) and Arsenic Oxide(As₂O₄) that were used for the green colouring.

      • 제주연안 갯녹음(백화) 지역의 해수에 분포하는 세균군의 분자생물학적 분석

        강봉조,김미란,윤병준,이동헌,오덕철,강형일 濟州大學校 基礎科學硏究所 2002 基礎科學硏究 Vol.15 No.2

        본 연구에서는 갯녹음(백화)현상이 세균생태계와 어떤 관련이 있는지에 대한 기초자료 및 정보를 얻기 위하여 갯녹음 현상이 일어난 제주도 성산과 강정지역 연안의 해수에 존재하는 세균군을 16S rRNA 증폭기법을 이용하여 조사하였다. 강정지역에서는 Alcanivorax, Paracoccus, Damselae, Pseudomonas, Rhodovulum, Silicibacter, Sulfitobacter, Roseobacter 등 다양한 종류의 세균이 분포되어 있었으며, Alcanivorax가 20%의 빈도로 가장 많이 나타났다. 반면, 성산 지역에서는 Pseudomonas속 균주가 우점종으로서 존재하였으며, Pseudomonas tolaasii(혹은 Pseudomonas corrugata)와 유연관계가 가까운 세균은 44%, Pseudomonas mandeli와 가까운 세균이 24%, Verrucomicrobiales와 가까운 세균은 4%, 기타 동정되지 않은 세균은 세 group으로 구분되었으며, 각각 8%, 8%, 12%를 차지하여, 두 곳에 분포되어 있는 세균군상이 상당한 차이점이 있음을 확인하였다. 갯녹음 지역인 강정과 성산 해수의 8월(표품 채집시기)의 수온은 27℃-27.5℃, 염분의 농도는 30.24-30.60%, pH는 8.23-8.36, 용존산소량(DO)은 각각 7.20-7.28로, 두 지역에서 매우 비슷한 것으로 조사된 바 있는데, 이는 수온이나 염분의 농도, 또는 pH보다는 다른 원인에 의하여 두 갯녹음 지역에 분포하는 세균군의 차이를 가져왔음을 제시해 주었다. In this study, the bacterial communities distributed in sea water of the whitening areas of Gangjeong and Seongsan, Jeju-do have been analyzed using the PCR amplification of 16S rRNA to obtain fundamental data and information on relationship of the whitening phenomenon and microbial ecosystem. In Gangjeong, diverse bacteria such as Alcanivorax, Paracoccus, Damselae, Pseudomonas, Rhodovulum, Silicibacier, Sulfitobacter, and Roseobacier have been found, and Alcanivorax was the most abundant clone. The most abundant clone from Seongsan was Pseudoinonas, of which Pseudomonastolaasii and Pseudonionas mandeli were most abundantly occurred in the frequency of approx 44% and 24%, respectively. Approx 4% of the bacterial clones closest to firruconiicrobiales and other unidentified clones were also found in Seongsan, suggesting there is a great discrepancy between bacterial communities from the whitening areas of Seongsan and Gangjeong. The mean tem- perature, chlorine concentration, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) of the sea water of Gangjeong and Seongsan in August of 2001 (sampling period) was 27℃-27.5℃, 30.24-30.60%, pH 8.23-8.36,7.20-7.28 ㎎/ℓ, suggesting other environmental factors except for the factors mentioned above might result in difference of bacterial communities distributed in both areas.

      • KCI등재후보

        황남대총 98호분 출토 유리의 과학적 분석

        조경미,유혜선,강형태 국립중앙박물관 1999 박물관보존과학 Vol.1 No.-

        황남대총 98호분 북분과 남분에서 출토된 유리시료 40점에 대한 과학적인 분석을 실시하였다. 유리의 성분조성은 주사전자현미경-에너지분산형분광기(SEM-EDS)를 사용하여 정량분석 하였고 다변량해석법을 통하여 시료를 분류하였다. 그 결과 시료 40점 모두 Na₂O를 약 20%정도 함유한 소다-석회(Na₂O CaO-SiO₂)유리임을 확인하였으며, 다시 5개 주성분(SiO₂, AI₂O₃, Na₂O, CaO, K₂O)으로 다변량해석[주성분분석(PCA)]을 실시한 결과 2개의 群으로 분류되었다. I 群에 포함된 시료는 Al₂O₃의 농도가 9.7%로 높고 CaO의 농도는 2.2%인데 비하여 Ⅱ群에서는 각각 3.2%,4.9%의 범위로 나타났다. 특히 시료 No.12의 노란 색으로 편석된 부분을 미소부위 XRD로 분석한 결과 PbSnO₃임을 국내 최초로 확인할 수 있었다. 鉛을 함유한 시료 중 No.12, 17은 열이온화질량분석기(TIMS)로 납동위원소비를 측정하였고 선형판별식 분석법(SLDA)을 이용하여 납의 산지를 추정하였다. 그 결과 각각 중국 남부, 한국 남부의 납광석을 사용한 것으로 나타났다. Elemental analysis of 40 glass samples from the Northern Tomb and the Southern Tomb of Hwangnam-daechong No. 98 was performed. Fourteen compositions of each sample were analyzed quantitatively by SEM-EDS and glass samples were classified by multivariate analysis such as PCA. All of 40 samples were confirmed to be Na₂O CaO-SiO₂ system with about 20% of Na₂O. Samples were classified into two groups by doing PCA on concentrations of 5 major elements (SiO₂, AI₂O₃, Na₂O, CaO, K₂O). Samples included in group I showed the concentration of AI₂O₃ is about 9.7% and that of CaO, about 2.2%. In group II, concentration of Al₂O₃ is about 3.2% and that of CaO, about 4.9%. Especially yellow grains embedded in sample No.12 were shown to be PbSnO₃ by micro XRD, which was the first coloring material ever found in Korea. Lead isotope ratios of samples No.12 and No.17 which contained lead were measured by TIMS. The origin of lead was traced by means of multivariate analysis such as SLDA. The result showed that lead from southern China and southern Korea had been used for making glass.

      • KCI등재후보
      • Comparative AFLP Profiles among Strains of Korean Races of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

        Kang,Mi-Hyung,Lee,Du-Ku,Noh,Tae-Hwan,Shim,Hyeong-Kwon,Na,Seung-Yong,Kim,Jae-Duk 한국자원식물학회 2004 Plant Resources Vol.7 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        We used an amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, a novel PCR-based technique, to differentiate Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) of Korean races. The 6 strains of Xoo K1, K2, K3 races were tested with 81 AFLP primer combinations to identify the best selective primers. The primer combinations were selected according to their reproducibility, number of polymorphic bands and polymorphism detected among Xoo strains. 18 strains of Xoo K1, K2 and K3 races were analyzed with the selected combinations of primer set. Some primer combinations (Eco R I +1 / Mse I+1) could differentiate Xoo of Korean races that were not distinguished by other fingerprinting analysis. Thus AFLP fingerprinting permitted very fine discrimination among different races.

      • KCI등재

        18개월 여아에서의 아동 학대

        홍강의,장경준,문형로,안동현,손세정,박순미 大韓神經精神醫學會 1988 신경정신의학 Vol.27 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        A child abuse case of an 18 month-old baby girl with multiple fractures is reported. A comprehensive psychiatric and pediatric diagnostic work-up was carried out, and psychodynamic and family dynamic issues were presented in detail. A therapeutic intervention by pediatric-psychiatric team was attempted, but thwarted by the lack of father's cooperation. It is suggested that child abuse should be considered a major medical social problem in Korea too.

      • KCI등재

        구안와사 후유증의 분포와 인식도에 대한 단면조사

        인창식,강미경,김종덕,홍장무,서동민,우현수,이현종,하지영,강중원,박상민,서병관,정인태,이상훈,고형균 大韓鍼灸學會 2003 대한침구의학회지 Vol.20 No.3

        Background : Sequelae symptoms of peripheral facial palsy include not only partial recovery of the paretic muscles but contracture, spasm, synkinesis and atrophy which cause significant functional, esthetic, and psychosocial disturbances to the lives of patients. Objective : This study is to investigate the prevalence, time of onset, patient's self assessment on the degree of understanding of the sequelae and the association of the degree of palsy with the appearance of sequelae. Methods : 106 patients with peripheral facial palsy were sequentially interviewed and examined. Results : 29 patients(27.4%) of 106 patients showed sequelae symptoms, of whom 19 patients(65.5%) showed sequelae symptoms during 4 to 6 months after the onset of palsy. The degree of understanding on the sequelae at the time of interview showed improvement compared to that at the time of first consultation to any physician but not to reach an sufficient understanding. No relation between the degree of palsy and the appearance of sequelae was observed.

      • 돼지 신장세포(PK15)의 이종이식 거부반응에 대한 재조합 IL-18의 영향

        최연실,김은미,김영관,박상연,심정현,윤도영,강형식,명평근 충남대학교 생물공학연구소 2004 생물공학연구지 Vol.10 No.1

        Various cytokines including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, IFN-γ, and TNF-α have been recently reported to play important roles in both host and donor cell activations during xenotransplantation. Interleukin (IL)-18, a proinflammatory cytokine, can induce IL-4 and IL-13 production in T cells, NK cells, B cells, mast cells, and basophils. IL-18 has the capacity to stimulate innate immunity and both Th1-and Th2- mediated responses, but little is known to involve in the xenograft rejection. In order to investigate the role of IL-18 in xenograft rejection, we transplanted the pig kidney (PK15) cells to C57BL/6 mouse with or without intraperitoneal injection of mouse recombinatant IL-18. It was analyzed the population of T cell, B cell and NK cell in the mice transplanted with PK 15 cells and recombinant IL-18 by flow cytometry. We found that splenic CD3+ T cells were increased in mice injected PK15 cells with recombinant IL-18. These results suggest that recombinant IL-18 is critical in the xenograft rejection by increasing T cell population of the recipients.

      • 돼지 신장세포(PK15)의 이종이식 거부반응에 대한 재조합 IL-18의 영향

        최연실,김은미,김영관,박상연,심정현,윤도영,강형식,명평근 충남대학교 형질전환복제돼지연구센터 2004 논문집 Vol. No.8

        Various cytokines including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, IFN-r, and TNF-α have been recently reported to play important roles in both host and donor cell activations during xenotransplantation. Interleukin (IL)-18, a proinflammatory cytokine, can induce IL-4 and IL-13 production in T cells, NK cells, B cells, mast cells, and basophils. IL-18 has the capacity to stimulate innate immunity and both Th1-and Th2- mediated responses, but little is known to involve in the xenograft rejection. In order to investigate the role of IL-18 in xenograft rejection, we transplanted the pig kidney (PK15) cells to C57BL/6 mouse with or without intraperitoneal injection of mouse recombinatant IL-18, It was analyzed the population of T cell, B cell and NK cell in the mice transplanted with PK 15 cells and recombinant IL-18 by flow cytometry. We found that splenic CD3+ T cells were increased in mice injected PKl5 cells with recombinant IL-18. These results suggest that recombinant IL-18 is critical in the xenograft rejection by increasing T cell population of the recipients.

      • 수온 변동 자극이 양식 넙치, Paralichthys olivaceus의 비특이적 생체 방어에 미치는 영향

        이덕찬,김도형,김수미,강명석,홍미주,김현정,박수일 한국어병학회 2002 한국어병학회지 Vol.15 No.2

        본 연구는 넙치에 대한 수온 변동 자극의 영향을 생체 방어적인 측면에서 검토하고자 하였다. 수온 변동 자극은 매일 18℃에서 25℃까지 상승과 하강을 반복하는 방법을 사용하였으며 그 기간은 30일간 지속하였다. 실험어는 온도변화를 주기 시작한 후 28일째까지 무작위로 채포하여 말초혈액 중의 백혈구 수, 전혈의 식작용능, 활성산소, 환원능, chemiluminescence(CL) response 및 lysozyme용균능과 같은 각종 비특이적 생체방어와 관련한 실험을 수행하였다. 수온 변동 자극을 주기 시작한 후 1일째부터 시작하여 1주일 이내에 약 18%의 넙치가 폐사하였으며 이후에는 대조구와 유사하였다. 또한, 수온 변동 자극을 준 실험구의 호중구 수는 2주째에 유의적인 증가를 보였으며, 림프구 수는 2일과 3일째에 감소하였으나 1주째부터 대조구와 유사한 수준으로 회복되었다. 실험구에서는 식작용 결과 식균율과 식균지수에서 이물질 투여 후의 반응이 늦게 나타났다. 식세포의 활성을 조사한 NBT reduction 실험에서는 실험 기간 동안 대조구와 유사한 경향ㅇ르 나타내었다. 또한, CL response의 경우, 실험구는 온도 변동 자극초기에 대조구에 비하여 유의적으로 낮았다. 그리고, 식세포가 분비하는 용균성 효소인 점액 내 lysozyme의 활성은 실험 기간 동안 실험구에서 낮게 나타나는 경향을 보였다. 이러한 여러 가지 비특이적 생체 방어 반응의 저하 현상은 수온 변동 자극 초기에 나타났으며, 1주일 정도 지속하면 그 환경에 적응하는 것을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 이러한 현상은 이들이 초기 폐사 발생과 어떤 상관 관계에 있는 것으로 생각되었다. This study was performed to know the effects of stress nduced by the daily fluctuation of water temperature fro 18? to 25? up and down for 30 days on the defence mechanism of olive flounde,r Paralichthys olivaceus. To make clear the temperature stress on the defense mechanism of the tested fish, several factors of immune response such as counting of leucocyte appearance in periopheral blood, phagocytic activity in whole blood cells, nitroblue tetrazolium(NBT) reduction, chemiluminescence(CL) response, and lysozyme activity were investigated at 28 days after giving the change of water temperature. The fish was controlled under the none feeding condition during experimental period. Mortality of the tested fish was rapidly increased up to 22% within the first one week of the experimental period without any additional stress factors. The number of neutrophil of peripheral blood in the tested group was significantly higher than the control group at the 2nd week, but the number of lymphocyte was significantly lower than the control group at the 1st and 3rd day of the experimental period, respectively. In the NBT reduction test, the activity of macrophage in the control group fish was the highest on the 7th day while that in the tested group was on the 3rd day. Also, the phagocytosis of tested group against formalin killed cells was retarded compared with the control CL response of the tested group was significantly lower from 2nd to 5th day of the experimental period than the contro. The lysozyme activity of tested group was remained higher during the experimental period than the contro. Even through the tested fish showed different results in some non-specific factors of immune responses between tested and control group fish, olive flounder seems highly adaptable in repeated water temperature change in condition after one week under the given temperature fluctuation range

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