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        • KCI등재

          Freshwater snails as the intermediate host of trematodes in Iran: a systematic review

          Samira Dodangeh,Ahmad Daryani,Mehdi Sharif,Shirzad Gholami,Elham Kialashaki,Mahmood Moosazadeh,Shahabeddin Sarvi 한국역학회 2019 Epidemiology and Health Vol.41 No.-

          Freshwater snails, as the first intermediate hosts of trematodes, can cause health hazards in animals and humans. Recently, the World Health Organization has included Iran in a list of 6 countries known to have serious problems with fascioliasis. In addition, cercarial dermatitis is a job-related disease that is seen often in paddy workers, agricultural labourers, and fishermen in Iran, particularly in Mazandaran Province. Many studies have been conducted in Iran to survey larval trematodes in freshwater snails. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive data exist regarding infections in gastropods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the types and prevalence of cercarial infections in snails in Iran. Electronic English-language and Persian-language databases were searched to identify 24 published articles reporting the prevalence of trematode infections in snails (9 species from 6 families) in various provinces of Iran. In total, 4.4% of gastropods were infected with the larval stages of trematodes. According to the studies reviewed in this meta-analysis‚ the highest infection prevalence was found in Radix auricularia (9.9%). Twelve larval species of trematodes were identified, and the highest prevalence of cercariae was found for Echinostomatidae cercariae (4.3%). Among the provinces explored, West Azerbaijan had the highest prevalence of infected snails (16.9%). The presence of trematodes in snails could pose a serious health problem in Iran. Thus, further studies are necessary to characterize these infections in other provinces.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. as Neglected Parasites in North of Iran

          Shokri, Azar,Sarvi, Shahabeddin,Daryani, Ahmad,Sharif, Mehdi The Korean Society for Parasitology 2016 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.54 No.4

          Acanthamoeba, a free-living amoeba, is widely distributed in the environment, water sources, soil, dust, and air. It can cause keratitis in contact lens wearers with poor hygiene and also fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to gain some insights into the distribution and genotypes of the potentially pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba present in water sources in north of Iran. Total 43 Acanthamoeba species were isolated from 77 water samples taken from different water sources within the Mazandaran province in Northern Iran (Sari city and suburbs). Isolates were identified based on cyst and trophozoite morphological characteristics as well genetics. PCR fragments corresponding to the small-subunit 18S rRNA gene were sequenced for 20 of 43 positive isolates. The results revealed that 83.3% of sequenced isolates belonged to the T4 genotype and the rest belonged to the T2 genotype. Our results indicated that Acanthamoeba is widely distributed in Sari city. As the incidence in Iran of amoebic keratitis has increased in recent years, the exact estimation of the prevalence of this amoeba and its predominant genotype may play a crucial role in prevention of the disease. Sari city has several rivers, seashores, and natural recreational amenities, which attract visitors during the year. This is the first report of Acanthamoeba genotypes from water sources in Sari city, Mazandaran province of Iran, and the results suggest that more attention is needed to protect the visiting population and immunocompromised individuals.

        • KCI등재

          Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. as Neglected Parasites in North of Iran

          Azar Shokri,Shahabeddin Sarvi,Ahmad Daryani,Mehdi Sharif 대한기생충학열대의학회 2016 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.54 No.4

          Acanthamoeba, a free-living amoeba, is widely distributed in the environment, water sources, soil, dust, and air. It can cause keratitis in contact lens wearers with poor hygiene and also fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to gain some insights into the distribution and genotypes of the potentially pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba present in water sources in north of Iran. Total 43 Acanthamoeba species were isolated from 77 water samples taken from different water sources within the Mazandaran province in Northern Iran (Sari city and suburbs). Isolates were identified based on cyst and trophozoite morphological characteristics as well genetics. PCR fragments corresponding to the small-subunit 18S rRNA gene were sequenced for 20 of 43 positive isolates. The results revealed that 83.3% of sequenced isolates belonged to the T4 genotype and the rest belonged to the T2 genotype. Our results indicated that Acanthamoeba is widely distributed in Sari city. As the incidence in Iran of amoebic keratitis has increased in recent years, the exact estimation of the prevalence of this amoeba and its predominant genotype may play a crucial role in prevention of the disease. Sari city has several rivers, seashores, and natural recreational amenities, which attract visitors during the year. This is the first report of Acanthamoeba genotypes from water sources in Sari city, Mazandaran province of Iran, and the results suggest that more attention is needed to protect the visiting population and immunocompromised individuals.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          Anti-Toxoplasma Activities of Zea Mays and Eryngium Caucasicum Extracts, In Vitro and In Vivo

          Ahmadpour, Ehsan,Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali,Sharif, Mehdi,Edalatian, Sara,Sarvi, Shahabeddin,Montazeri, Mahbobeh,Mehrzadi, Saeed,Akbari, Mohammad,Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi,Daryani, Ahmad KOREAN PHARMACOPUNCTURE INSTITUTE 2019 Journal of pharmacopuncture Vol.22 No.3

          Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem that caused by intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Considering that the available drugs for toxoplasmosis have serious host toxicity, the aim of the current study was to survey the in vitro and in vivo anti-Toxoplasma activity of Zea mays (Z. mays) and Eryngium caucasicum (E. caucasicum) extracts. Methods: Four concentrations (5, 10, 25, and $50mg\;mL^{-1}$) of Z. mays and E. caucasicum methanolic extracts for 30, 60, 120, and 180 min were incubated with infected macrophages and then the viability of RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites was evaluated by trypan blue staining method. Also, we evaluated the survival rate of acutely infected mice with the extracts (100 and $200mg\;kg^{-1}\;day^{-1}$) intraperitoneally for 5 days after infection with $2{\times}104$ tachyzoites of T. gondii. Results: The anti-Toxoplasma effect of the methanolic extracts were extremely significant compared to the negative control group in all exposure times (P < 0.05). The Z. mays (10, 25 and $50mg\;mL^{-1}$) killed 100% of the parasites after 180 and 120 min exposure, respectively. Also, high toxoplasmacidal activity was observed with E. caucasicum extract. Furthermore, treatment of experimentally infected mice with the Z. mays (100, $200mg\;kg^{-1}\;day^{-1}$) and E. caucasicum ($100mg\;kg^{-1}\;day^{-1}$) significantly increased their survival rate compared to untreated infected control (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These extracts are promising candidates for further medicine development on toxoplasmosis. However, further investigations are necessary to clarify effective fractions of the Z. mays and E. caucasicum extracts and the mechanisms of action.

        • KCI등재

          Anti-Toxoplasma Activities of Zea Mays and Eryngium Caucasicum Extracts, In Vitro and In Vivo

          Ehsan Ahmadpour,Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh,Mehdi Sharif,Sara Edalatian,Shahabeddin Sarvi,Mahbobeh Montazeri,Saeed Mehrzadi,Mohammad Akbari,Mohammad Taghi Rahimi,Ahmad Daryani 대한약침학회 2019 Journal of pharmacopuncture Vol.22 No.3

          Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem that caused by intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Considering that the available drugs for toxoplasmosis have serious host toxicity, the aim of the current study was to survey the in vitro and in vivo anti-Toxoplasma activity of Zea mays (Z. mays) and Eryngium caucasicum (E. caucasicum) extracts. Methods: Four concentrations (5, 10, 25, and 50 mg mL -1 ) of Z. mays and E. caucasicum methanolic extracts for 30, 60, 120, and 180 min were incubated with infected macrophages and then the viability of RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites was evaluated by trypan blue staining method. Also, we evaluated the survival rate of acutely infected mice with the extracts (100 and 200 mg kg -1 day -1 ) intraperitoneally for 5 days after infection with 2× 104tachyzoites of T. gondii. Results: The anti-Toxoplasma effect of the methanolic extracts were extremely significant compared to the negative control group in all exposure times (P < 0.05). The Z. mays (10, 25 and 50 mg mL -1 ) killed 100% of the parasites after 180 and 120 min exposure, respectively. Also, high toxoplasmacidal activity was observed with E. caucasicum extract. Furthermore, treatment of experimentally infected mice with the Z. mays (100, 200 mg kg -1 day -1 ) and E. caucasicum (100 mg kg -1 day -1 ) significantly increased their survival rate compared to untreated infected control (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These extracts are promising candidates for further medicine development on toxoplasmosis. However, further investigations are necessary to clarify effective fractions of the Z. mays and E. caucasicum extracts and the mechanisms of action.

        • KCI등재

          Congenital toxoplasmosis among Iranian neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis

          Shahabeddin Sarvi,Tooran Nayeri Chegeni,Mehdi Sharif,Mahbobeh Montazeri,Seyed Abdollah Hosseini,Afsaneh Amouei,Zahra Hosseininejad,Davood Anvari,Reza Saberi,Shaban Gohardehi,Ahmad Daryani 한국역학회 2019 Epidemiology and Health Vol.41 No.-

          prevaToxoplasmosis is a serious zoonotic disease that can lead to abortion and congenital disorders and has a widespread global distribution in humans and animals. The objective of this review was to investigate the incidence of toxoplasmosis in Iranian neonates in order to obtain a comprehensive assessment of the overall situation of the disease for use in developing future interventions. Original studies investigating the incidence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Iranian neonates were systematically searched in a number of English-language and Persian-language electronic databases. The search process resulted in the inclusion of a total of 11 studies in the systematic review, 10 of which were entered into the meta-analysis. The reviewed articles included 2,230 Iranian neonates investigated through January 1, 2018. Based on the retrieved studies, the overall weighted incidence rates of toxoplasmosis in the Iranian neonatal population and neonates with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis were estimated to be 0.64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 1.09) and 4.10% (95% CI, 2.68 to 5.77), respectively, using a fixed-effects model. The findings of the reviewed studies demonstrate that the incidence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iranian neonates. Accordingly, it can be concluded that toxoplasmosis is a serious public health concern that has been ignored by the Ministry of Health. Therefore, it is essential to perform further studies, in addition to implementing screening and detection programs, using standardized methods to estimate the incidence of toxoplasmosis in Iran and to determine its associated risk factors.

        • KCI등재

          Copro-molecular diagnosis of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily in dog and cat populations in northern Iran

          Leila Izadi,Shahabeddin Sarvi,Seyed Abdollah Hosseini,Afsaneh Amouei,Mehdi Sharif,Mohammad Taghi Rahimi,Tooran Nayeri,Ahmad Daryani 한국역학회 2020 Epidemiology and Health Vol.42 No.-

          OBJECTIVES: The oocysts of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily (Neospora caninum, Hammondia hammondi and H. heydorni, and Besnoitia besnoiti) are morphologically similar to Toxoplasma gondii, and indistinguishable from each other. This study investigated the prevalence of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily in dog and cat fecal samples using a nested polymerase chain reaction method. METHODS: Overall, 200 fecal samples from domestic dogs (n=120) and cats (n=80) were collected from 15 farms in northern Iran. The samples were homogenized in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution and subsequently concentrated with sucrose solution. DNA was extracted from samples using a genomic DNA kit. Specific primers and the 18S rDNA gene were used to screen and detect all Toxoplasmatinae oocysts. RESULTS: Overall, 2.5% (3 of 120) and 22.5% (18 of 80) of the fecal samples collected from dogs and cats were infected with Toxoplasmatinae. In dogs, 2 samples were positive for N. caninum and 1 sample was positive for T. gondii. In cats, all 18 positive samples belonged to T. gondii. No contamination with H. heydorni was observed in dog fecal samples or H. hammondi and B. besnoiti in cat fecal samples. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the T. gondii (cat) and N. caninum (dog) found had similarities with parasites reported from other regions of the world. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to provide data on the epidemiology of Toxoplasmatinae oocysts in Iran. The findings suggest that public-health monitoring for the effective control of feces from cats and dogs and improved pet hygiene habits are needed.

        • KCI등재

          Geospatial analysis and epidemiological aspects of human infections with Blastocystis hominis in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran

          Shabnam Asfaram,Ahmad Daryani,Shahabeddin Sarvi,Abdol Sattar Pagheh,Seyed Abdollah Hosseini,Reza Saberi,Seyede Mahboobeh Hoseiny,Masoud Soosaraei,Mehdi Sharif 한국역학회 2019 Epidemiology and Health Vol.41 No.-

          immunoOBJECTIVES: Blastocystis hominis is a very common large intestinal protozoan with global prevalence in humans and non-human hosts. No precise statistics exist regarding the geographical distribution of Blastocystis that would enable the identification of high-risk communities. Therefore, the current research aimed to characterize the spatial patterns and demographic factors associated with B. hominis occurrence in northern Iran. METHODS: The current study was performed among 4,788 individuals referred to health centers in Mazandaran Province, from whom stool samples were obtained. Socio-demographic data were gathered using a questionnaire. Samples were examined by a direct wet mount, the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, and trichrome staining. Moran local indicators of spatial association and a geographically weighted regression model were utilized to analyze the results. RESULTS: Generally, the infection rate of Blastocystis parasites was 5.2%, and was considerably higher in the age group of 10-14 years (10.6%) than in other age groups (p=0.005). Our data showed important associations between the occurrence of B. hominis and age, residence, job, contact with domestic animals, anti-parasitic drug consumption, and elevation above sea level (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The current study characterized for the first time the infection rate and risk of B. hominis in the north of Iran, and produced a prediction map. It is expected that this map will help policymakers to plan and implement preventive measures in high-risk areas and to manage already-infected patients.

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