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We explored the relationship between skin color and the expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis during fruitripening in two citrus cultivars, ‘Shiranuhi’ (a hybrid mandarin cultivar) and ‘Suneat’ (mutant cultivar derived from a naturalbud mutation of ‘Shiranuhi’). We identifi ed 16 and 7 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and regulationvia phylogenetic analysis in sweet orange. Further, we determined the expression pattern of these genes by quantitative realtime reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The result showed that the expression levels of CsPSY (Cs6g15910), CsZDS(Cs3g11180), CsZ-ISO (Cs5g24730), CsBCH1 (Cs9g19270), CsFUL2 (Cs5g12280), CsTAGL1 (Cs7g16960), CsRIN1(Cs6g19680), CsRIN2 (Cs7g10980), and CsHY5 (Cs7g05140) were up-regulated in the skin of mutant cultivar ‘Suneat’ thanany other tissues of both citrus cultivars. Of these CsPSY , CsZDS , CsZ-ISO and CsBCH1 genes were related to carotenoidbiosynthesis and CsFUL2 , CsTAGL1 , CsRIN1 , CsRIN2 , and CsHY5 were known to involve in the regulation of carotenoidbiosynthesis. Our results reveal that the attractive dark orange skin color of ‘Suneat’ might be due to the up-regulation ofcarotenoid biosynthetic as well as regulatory genes and thereby higher levels carotenoids at ripening.
Cherry tomatoes are highly nutritious, flavory with a pleasant taste and are becoming increasingly popular to the consumers. The cherry tomato cv. ‘Minichal’ produced some dwarf plants along with normal plants. Lignin, a phenolic biopolymer is the key component of cell walls in plants. Here, we analyzed lignin biosynthesis-related genes in leaves, inflorescences and fruits of dwarf and normal cherry tomato plants by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Among analyzed genes, SlCCOAOMT1, SlCCOAOMT2, SlCCOAOMT3, SlF5H, and SlCOMT showed significantly higher expressions, in leaf and inflorescence of dwarf plants compared with the normal plants, while SlPAL1 showed a significantly higher expression only in the leaves. On the contrary, SlHCT and SlC3H showed significantly lower expression levels in the leaves and inflorescences of dwarf plants compared with normal ones. The results suggest that SlHCT and SlC3H might have an impact on the dwarf cherry tomato plants.
<P> Broccoli <I>(Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)</I> is a highly nutritious vegetable that typically forms pure green or purple florets. However, green broccoli florets sometimes accumulate slight purplish pigmentation in response environmental factors, decreasing their market value. In the present study, we aimed to develop molecular markers to distinguish broccoli genotypes as pure green or purplish floret color at the early seedling stage. Anthocyanins are known to be involved in the purple pigmentation in plants. The purplish broccoli lines were shown to accumulate purple pigmentation in the hypocotyls of very young seedlings; therefore, the expression profiles of the structural and regulatory genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis were analyzed in the hypocotyls using <I>qRT-PCR. BoPAL, BoDFR, BoMYB114, BoTT8, BoMYC1.1, BoMYC1.2,</I> and <I>BoTTG1</I> were identified as putative candidate genes responsible for the purple hypocotyl color. <I>BoTT8</I> was much more highly expressed in the purple than green hypocotyls; therefore, it was cloned and sequenced from various broccoli lines, revealing SNP and InDel variations between these genotypes. We tested four SNPs (G > A; A > T; G > C; T > G) in the first three exons and a 14-bp InDel (ATATTTATATATAT) in the <I>BoTT8</I> promoter in 51 broccoli genotypes, and we found these genetic variations could distinguish the green lines, purple lines, and F<SUB>1</SUB> hybrids. These novel molecular markers could be useful in broccoli breeding programs to develop a true green or purple broccoli cultivar. </P>
Gummy stem blight (GSB) is one of the most destructive and economically important, soil borne diseases of melon caused by the ascomycete fungus, Didymella bryoniae throughout the world. In Korea, however, no GSB resistant genotype has been reported yet. The study aimed to identify GSB resistant melon germplasm. We screened a total of 60 genotypes including 16 lines and 44 melon cultivars collected from USA and Korea. Among the 16 melon lines, four lines including ‘PI482399’, ‘PI140471’, ‘PI136170’ and ‘PI420145’, and two Korean cultivars viz. ‘Asia Papaya’ and ‘Supra’ showed complete resistance. We were aware that both genotypic and environmental variations could influence the phenotypic screening of resistance and susceptibility. We therefore, further assessed all genotypes using 20 SSR markers. The SSR marker ‘CMCT505’ linked to Gsb1 in chromosome 1 perfectly grouped resistant and susceptible lines indicating that resistance is probably due to the presence of Gsb1 gene. Cloning and sequencing of resistant and susceptible Gsb1 amplicons showed that there were 32-bp deletions in resistant line and 39-bp deletions in resistant cultivar compared to susceptible one. Thus, the resistant melon lines and cultivars identified in this study could be recommended for the melon breeding program. Furthermore, the SSR marker ‘CMCT505’ which is tightly linked with Gsb1 could be used for molecular screening of melon germplasm.
In this paper, a multiband miniaturized crescent-shaped patch antenna with circular slots is presented for ultra-wideband applications. The proposed antenna is constructed on a Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4) dielectric substrate. Next-generation wireless communication systems, such as beyond 5G (B5G) and 6G mobile communication systems require a wider bandwidth and higher data rates. The overall size of the proposed antenna is 11×9×2.4 mm3 operating in the frequency range of 17.73 GHz to 26.04 GHz and 29.6 GHz to 31.02 GHz for satellite communications and radar systems, respectively, as well as 35.40 GHz to 38.65 GHz for future mmWave B5G mobile applications. These frequency ranges usually fall into the K-band and mmWave frequency spectrums. Simulation results demonstrate that the peak gain of the proposed antenna is 4.68 dB, which is obtained at 25 GHz.
Gummy stem blight (GSB) is one of the most destructive and economically important, soil borne diseases of melon caused by the ascomycete fungus, Didymella bryoniae throughout the world. In Korea, however, no GSB resistant genotype has been reported yet. The study aimed to identify GSB resistant melon germplasm. We screened a total of 60 genotypes including 16 lines and 44 melon cultivars collected from USA and Korea. Among the 16 melon lines, four lines including 'PI482399', 'PI140471', 'PI136170' and 'PI420145', and two Korean cultivars viz. 'Asia Papaya' and 'Supra' showed complete resistance. We were aware that both genotypic and environmental variations could influence the phenotypic screening of resistance and susceptibility. We therefore, further assessed all genotypes using 20 SSR markers. The SSR marker 'CMCT505' linked to Gsb1 in chromosome 1 perfectly grouped resistant and susceptible lines indicating that resistance is probably due to the presence of Gsb1 gene. Cloning and sequencing of resistant and susceptible Gsb1 amplicons showed that there were 32-bp deletions in resistant line and 39-bp deletions in resistant cultivar compared to susceptible one. Thus, the resistant melon lines and cultivars identified in this study could be recommended for the melon breeding program. Furthermore, the SSR marker 'CMCT505' which is tightly linked with Gsb1 could be used for molecular screening of melon germplasm.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important and popular vegetables worldwide. A wide range of tomato cultivars with different colored fruits is presently available. The purple peel of tomato fruit is due to the accumulation anthocyanin pigments, which are beneficial to both plants and humans. Cultivated tomatoes normally do not make anthocyanin in their fruit peel, but there are some wild relatives of cultivated tomato like Solanum chilense, S. habrochaites, S. cheesmanii, and S. lycopersicoides that do produce anthocyanins in their fruits. In this study, the purple fruit color was obtained by crossing ‘OSU blue’ (blue fruit) and ‘Purple mini’ (brown fruit) and subsequent self-pollination. Anthocyanins are produced via the flavonoid pathway and are regulated by the transcriptional complex of MYB, bHLH, and WD40 repeats transcription factors. We determined the expression profiles of genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in tomato genotypes with distinct fruit colors by qRT-PCR. Both the early and late biosynthetic genes of the anthocyanin pathway were up-regulated in the peels of purple tomato fruits, except Sl5GT. Moreover, the expression of the regulatory genes SlANT1 and SlAN1 was dramatically increased in the peels of purple tomato fruits. These results indicate that SlANT1 and SlAN1 might play an important role on anthocyanin biosynthesis in the peels of purple-fruited tomatoes via up-regulation of structural genes in the anthocyanin pathway.
Squash (Cucurbita moschata D.) is an economically important vegetable of the Cucurbitaceae family. The geneticpurity of commercial hybrid seed is crucial for the success of hybrid seed production. The molecular markers like single nucleotidepolymorphism (SNP) can efficiently and cost-effectively distinguish the genetic differences among F1 hybrid cultivars. Therefore, inthis study, we used ‘Fluidigm SNP Genotyping’ assay using 27 SNPs to distinguish and purity analysis of registered commercial F1hybrid cultivars and F1 breeding lines of squash. Of these, eight SNP markers, including CMo-A01, CMo-A02, CMo-A04, CMo-A05,CMo-A12, CMo-A16, CMo-A20 and CMo-A25 can successfully identified heterozygotes from the registered commercial F1 hybridsquash cultivars with 100% accuracy and partial contamination was detected for F1 hybrid squash breeding lines which resulted due tooutcrossing. Moreover, the HRM analysis of a registered commercial F1 hybrid cultivar ‘Parangsae’ with CMo-A03 SNP markershowed 96.30-100% purity of the cultivar. Our results suggest that the ‘Fluidigm SNP Genotyping’ technology could be a rapid andcost-effective method for cultivar differentiation and genetic purity analysis of F1 hybrids and squash cultivars.