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The completion of the Taizu shilu came before the Qing conquest, in the first year of Chongde, 1636, the year that Qing Taizong (Hong Taiji) declared the name "Great Qing." The compilers, however, had absolutely no knowledge of the Ming Veritable Records. It is commonly held that the Manchu- and Chinese-language copies of the Taizu Wu huangdi shilu now stored respectively in the First Historical Archives in Beijing and the National Central Library in Taipei, represent the first versions completed in 1636. But when we look at the pertinent entry in the Jiu Manzhou dang regarding the completion of the Shilu (vol. 10, Chongde 1.11.15), we find the title recorded there to be Taizu taihou Shilu, i.e., the "Veritable Records of the Taizu emperor and the empress." The Taizu Wu huangdi shilu having been completed only in the Shunzhi reign, it cannot be regarded as being the first version completed in 1636. While the content of the Manzhou shilu agrees with the Shunzhi-era revision of the Wu huangdi shilu, in the Chinese-language Taizong shilu, under the entry for the eighth day of the eighth month of the ninth year of Tiancong(1635), it is recorded that the illustrations for the Wu huangdi shilu were finished. From this passage arose the conviction that this was the original version of the Manzhou shilu. However, this was the result of the mistranslation of the Manchu phrase, "nenehe genggiyen han i yabuha kooli bithe" as "Taizu shilu." Thus it should be stressed that the only thing that was finished on this date were the illustrations. After the conquest, that is, during the Shunzhi reign, a comparison of the Chongde-era Taizu taihou shilu with the Ming Veritable Records made it clear that not only was the title (yabuha kooli bithe, i.e., "record of the deeds") different from what it should have been ("veritable records" in Manchu is yargiyan i kooli), but also that its format was so different as to be incomparable with the Ming-style Veritable Records. Thus in the first month of the sixth year of Shunzhi (1649), since all the proper names in the text needed to be made uniform, a complete revision of the Taizu taihou shilu was undertaken. The revisions made at this time were mostly superficial, and there was no thorough checking of content. For this reason, under the Kangxi emperor a third revision of these records was carried out. The emperor himself personally made corrections to the text, and the length was expanded from four to twelve juan. The finished version was title Taizu gao huangdi shilu, reflecting the additional shi bestowed by the Kangxi emperor upon his great-grandfather. Following this, at the suggestion of the grand secretary Ortai, in 1734 the place names and personal names in the three Veritable Records of Nurhaci, Hong Taiji, and Shunzhi (i.e., Taizu gao huangdi shilu, Taizong wen huangdi shilu, and Shizu zhang huangdi shilu) were all again revised to accord with usage in the Veritable Records of the Kangxi emperor's reign (Shengzu ren huangdi shilu). This additional revision of the version originally revised under Kangxi was completed under the Qianlong emperor and stored safely in the Huangshi cheng. The Jiu Manzhou long is an important source for understanding the compilation history of the Taizu shilu. That portion covering Taizu's career begins with Zhaozu (Dudu Mentemu) fixing his residence at Hetu Ala, through the era of the Six Ancestors and their descendants, up through Nurhaci's being declared genggiyen han and taking the throne. It was written in Manchu by the Scholar Erdeni (Erdeni Baksi). As the Manchu written language was created by Erdeni and G'ag'ai in 1599 at Nurhaci's direct order, it represents the beginning of Manchu-language historical documents. In the entry noting Erdeni's execution in the fifth month of the eighth year of Tianming (1623), it is written that Ku￣rcan Baksi continued this work of recording the life and deeds of Nurhaci. That is, the record begun by Erdeni was enlarged and added to by Ku￣rcan. However, these additions apparently did not meet with Hong Taiji's approval. In the entry for the tenth day of the tenth month of the seventh year of Tiancong (1632), we see that he ordered them edited out. We may think of this as the beginning of the compilation of the Taizu taihou shilu that was completed in 1636. That Nurhaci was granted the title genggiyen han when he was enthroned in 1616 is recorded in the so-called huangzi dang of the Jiu Manzhou dang. However, the huangzi dong begins suddenly during the fighting with Bujantai of the Ula tribe in the third month of the thirty-fifth year of Wanli (1607). Before that the record is blank. In the Manwen laodang, this section constitutes juan 1 through 4. It should also be pointed out that while the Manwen laodang up through juan 4 is written in the jishi benmo style, from juan 5 on it is written in annalistic (biannian) style. In other words, this first section represents the second half of the record of Nurhaci written by Erdeni. What the first half was like can only be seen from the Wu huangdi shilu. As of today, we still do not know what the original materials were for the compilation of the first half of the Wu huangdi shilu. Nevertheless, among the Manchu Inner Historical Office archives (Manwen neiguoshiyuan dang/dorgi gurun i suduri dangse) preserved in the First Historical Archives in Beijing is a set of materials called nenehe (genggiyen) han i sain yabuha kooli uheri juwan nadan debtelin. Written in unpointed script and corresponding in content to the first juan of the Manzhou shilu, these are an important supplement to lacunae in the Jiu Manzhou dang.
A low-temperature thermal-CVD method has been developed for the amorphous-silicon thin-film transistor (a-Si TFT) process. High deposition temperature, the mast serious barrier in the present a-Si and silicon-nitride (SiN) CVD methods, has been overcome by the use of high silicon-hydrides and nitrogen-hydrides for source gases. The CVD a-Si film has properties similar to the plasma-CVD film accept low hydrogen content of a few atomic%. Electronic properties of the CVD film are thus improved by post-hydrogenation. Low hydrogen content is, however, a very attractive property for excimer-laser crystallization, i.e., the port generation TFT technology.
DVは犯罪であり、女性に対する暴力は、社会に対する犯罪に他ならない。DVは繰り返す人権侵害であり、しかも繰り返すことにより行為がエスカレートしていくという特徴がある。日本においてはDVに対する社会的認識がいまだ揺らいでおり、そして、DV防止法の定義が広がったことで、保護命令の保護対象ではない暴力も含まれることとなったことも相まって、DVが犯罪化されていない状態である。いわゆる「DV罪」は創設されていないものの、DVの加害者は、通常の暴力犯罪と同様に、適正な刑事手続によって処罰されるべきであり、そのような処罰事例が蓄積されていくことによる社会啓発の意味合いは大きい。 とはいえ、日本のDV施策は、被害者が加害者の元から離れることを前提とした安全確保及び自立支援にかかる対策が中心となっている。当事者が親密な間柄にある「家族」である場合、単に当事者を引き離して終わりというわけにはいかないし、加害者と同居を続けながら、暴力だけは止めてほしい、というニーズをもつ当事者も多い。いくら刑罰法令を適正に運用し、厳罰化したとしても、加害者に対して具体的な働きかけをしないままでは、暴力や支配的な動パ当ーンは継続するであろうし、被害者に対する執着心や支配意識が非常に強い場合には、重大事件に発展する恐れもある。そしてまた、暴力事件を起こしたときに再度加害者を逮捕し、刑事施設に収監するといったことを繰り返していても、事態は改善に向かわないし、離婚によって、被害者との切り離しが成功したとしても、再婚するなどして、新たな被害者が生み出されるだけかもしれない。そのため、刑罰の適正な対応だけでは、再被害を防ぐことはできないし、「再犯」の防止だけを対象としていたのではDV被害者支援及び再加害の防止のためには、不十分である。 そこで、本報告では、「再犯」だけではなく「再加害」の防止のために、加害者への働きかけをどう行っていくべきかについて、日本におけるDV施策を踏まえ、諸外国からの示唆として、ニュージーランドにおけるDV防止に向けた取組み及び2018年FV法について紹介する。 DV is a crime, and violence against women is nothing but a crime against society. However, although DV is a repeated violation of human rights, and it is characterized by the fact that the act escalates by repeating it. In Japan, social awareness of domestic violence is still swaying, and the expansion of the definition of the DV Prevention Act has also included violence that is not protected by protection orders. So, DV has not criminalized in Japan. The perpetrators of domestic violence should be punished by proper criminal procedures, as in the case of ordinary violent crimes, and the accumulation of such punishment cases has great implications for social enlightenment. DV Prevention Act in Japan is the law on the prevention of spousal violence and the protection of the victims. So, the central part of DV Policy in Japan is to ensure the safety of the victims and independence support. When a party is a "family" with an intimate relationship, it is not possible to simply separate the parties and end, and many perpetrators have a need to stop violence while staying with the victim. Even if the punishment is properly applied and the punishment is severe, violence and dominant behavioural patterns will continue without specific action on the perpetrators. If the perpetrators have a very strong attachment to the victim, it may lead to a serious incident. Moreover, even if the perpetrators are arrested again and imprisoned in a penal institution when a violent incident occurs, the situation does not improve. Even if the divorce succeeds in separating, it may create a new victim by remarriage another woman. Therefore, recidivism cannot be prevented only by taking appropriate measures of punishment. Targeting only the prevention of "recidivism" is not sufficient to support DV victims and prevent re-offending. Therefore, husband who battered wife can continue to live his social life without being responsible for violence and unaware of his violent and dominant behaviour patterns, even if his wife is temporarily protected at shelter. So, in this report, I will talk about re-offending not recidivism. Based on the DV measures in Japan, I would like to introduce the efforts for DV Act in New Zealand and the 2018 FV Law as suggestions from other countries.
Understanding of a dynamic responses of structure subjected to an earthquake motion is a key in evaluating a structural safety against the earthquake. In the analysis, some assumptions onto material properties such as stress-strain relationship of material, damping properties and so on are employed. While in the shaking table test these assumptions are included into the test results except for some items due to a specimen size. Then in steel column with a squash loading on the top of the column through comparisons between the shaking table test using a smaller size specimen and the dynamic response analysis of the specimen. It is concluded that both the analytical and experimental results indicate a good agreement when an accurate analytical model, which details the cross-sectional profile of the specimen and the material properties, is prepared.