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Purpose Image registration for internal organs and softtissues is considered extremely challenging due to organshifts and tissue deformation caused by patients’ movementssuch as respiration and repositioning. In this paper, wepropose a fast deformable image registration method. Thepurpose of our work is to greatly improve the registrationtime while maintaining the registration accuracy. Methods In this study, we formulate the deformable imageregistration problem as a quadratic optimization problem thatminimizes strain energy subject to the constraints of 3Dcurves of blood vessel centerlines and point marks. Theproposed method does not require iteration and is localminimum free. By using 2nd order B-splines to model theblood vessels in the moving image and a new transformationmodel, our method provides a closed-form solution thatimitates the manner in which physical soft tissues deform,thus guarantees a physically consistent match. Results We have demonstrated the effectiveness of ourdeformable technique in registering MR images of the liver. Validation results show that we can achieve a targetregistration error (TRE) of 1.29 mm and an average centerlinedistance error (ACD) of 0.84 ± 0.55 mm. Conclusions This technique has the potential to significantlyimprove registration capabilities and the quality of intraoperativeimage guidance. To the best of our knowledge, thisis the first time that a global analytical solution has beendetermined for the registration energy function with 3Dcurve constraints.
Tunable electrorheological performance of silicone oil suspensions based on controllably reduced graphene oxide by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)
This article is focused on the controllable reduction of the graphene oxide (GO) particles as asimultaneous process during surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) providinghybrid particles with tailored conductivity and substantial polymer shell on the particles tunable by SIATRPconditions. The main advantage of such approach is that both the compatibility improvement, dueto the polymer layer, and conductivity tuning, due to partial GO reduction, were simply achieved insingle-step reaction providing electrorheological (ER) system with enhanced performance in comparisonto either neat GO or similar non-covalently bonded GO-polymer hybrids. The presence of the poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) on the surface of GO was investigated using FTIR spectrometry,transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their chain length (Mw) andpolydispersity index (PDI) were determined by 1H NMR and GPC, respectively. Two different GO-PGMAparticle systems varied in Mw and PDI and also in electrical conductivities were prepared and theirelectro-responsive capabilities were investigated. The reduction of GO particles was confirmed by Ramanshift as well as conductivity measurements. Electrorheological (ER) performance was investigated atvarious electricfield strengths and repeatability of the phenomenon was confirmed by 10 on/offfieldcycles. Finally, with the help of dielectric measurements of GO-PGMA based ER suspensions,fitted byHavriliak–Negami model, the relaxation processes were properly investigated and the results werecorrelated with those obtained from electrorheological measurements.
By in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry the state of chemical dopants in the inner space of potassium vapor treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and C60 fullerene peapods was followed. We show that the spectroelectrochemistry is a method of choice to locate the dopant within carbon nanostructures. The presence of potassium inside the carbon nanostructures was found to be associated with a characteristic response of the tangential (TG) mode of SWCNT to electrochemical doping after treatment of the sample with the water. Our study confirmed the presence of residual potassium in peapods even after treatment with water. On the other hand, potassium was not found in the interior of the water-treated DWCNT and SWCNT.
Demographers note that if current trends in ageing continue as predicted, a demographic revolution, wherein the proportions of the young and the old will undergo a historic crossover, will be felt in just three generations. This portrait of change in the world`s population parallels the magnitude of the industrial revolution-traditionally considered the most significant social and economic breakthrough in the history of humankind since the Neolithic period. It marked the beginning of a sustained movement towards modern economic growth in much the same way that globalization is today marking an unprecedented and sustained movement toward a "global culture". The demographic revolution, it is envisaged, will be at least as powerful.
홍콩의 비중국어권 학습자의 실용문 학습과 상황에 맞는 정확한 표현 능력의 제고를 위해 홍콩대학 Dr. Mark Shum Shiu Kee (岑紹基) 연구팀은 교육국의 연구비 지원을 받아 2016~ 2017년 비중국어권 학습자용 실용문 교재를 개발하였다. 본 논문은 기능 어법 이론을 바탕으로 비중국어권 학습자용 실용문 교재를 어떻게 설계했는지를 밝히고, 본 교재가 비중국어권 학습자의 기능어 운용 능력 향상에 끼친 영향에 대해 고찰하였다. 또한 연구팀이 개발한 실용문 교재가 비중국어권 학습자의 기능어 운용 능력 향상에 어떠한 성과를 가져왔는지를 밝히는 것을 본 논문의 주목적으로 삼았다. 연구팀은 체계 기능 언어학 이론을 바탕으로 비중국어권 학습자용 실용문 교재를 개발하였으며, 실용문의 종류에 따라 달라지는 의사전달 기능, 도식 구조, 어법 특징을 고려하여 읽기 예문의 주제를 선정하였다. 또한, 비중국어권 학습자가 기능어와 구문 활용에서 갖는 어려움을 실용문 종류에 따라 나누어 분석하였다. 아울러, 「文類功能(문체기능)」 이론 및 「閱讀促進學習(읽기촉진학습)」 교수법을 참고로 읽기 쓰기 통합형 쌍방향 연습법을 개발하여 학습자가 모범 예문을 분석, 해체 및 재구조화를 할 수 있게 하고, 더 나아가 학습자가 스스로 실용문 쓰기를 할 수 있도록 도왔다. 이외에도, 교육 일선에서 지도하고 있는 중국어 교사들을 초청하여 시범적으로 교수법을 시행하고 이를 통해 본 교재의 실제 효과를 검증해 보았다. 학습자가 작성한 실용문을 교수법 시행 전후로 비교 분석하고 교사와 학습자 인터뷰도 함께 진행하여, 본 실용문 교재가 비중국어권 학습자의 기능어 운용과 실용문 쓰기에 끼친 효과를 평가하였다. 아울러, 본 연구 결과를 바탕으로 비중국어권 학습자 실용문 교육을 위한 실행 가능한 몇 가지 방안을 제시하였다. In order to enhance Hong Kong non-Chinese speaking (NCS) students’ ability to learn practical writing and presenting ideas appropriately in Chinese, Dr. Mark Shum Shiu Kee’s research team received funding from the Hong Kong Education Bureau to develop Chinese practical writing teaching materials for NCS students in 2016/17. This paper describes how the researchers develop these teaching materials by adopting Functional Grammar Theory, and investigates the effectiveness of the teaching material package at equipping the NCS students’ with ability in using function words. This paper aims at exploring how effective the newly developed practical writing teaching material package at enhancing NCS students’ ability to use function words is. With reference to the Systemic Functional Linguistic (SFL) Theory, Chinese practical writing teaching material package suitable for NCS students was developed. The package reading materials were developed by looking into the communicative function, schematic structure and metalanguage of different genres. Besides, NCS students’ difficulty in using function words and expressions of different genres were also analyzed. By referring to “Genre Function” theory and “Reading to Learn” pedagogy, interactive exercises that combine reading and writing were designed. These suggested exercises guide students to learn in a process, from deconstruction of the sample texts to joint construction and individual construction. Apart from the above, frontline Chinese language teachers were invited to conduct tryout sessions to test the effectiveness of the teaching material package. The analysis of students’ writings in pre-tests and post-tests, together with the research data from teachers and students interviews, provide a comprehensive evaluation on the effectiveness of the practical writing teaching material package. Feasible suggestions for enhancing NCS students’ ability, particularly in using function words and constructing practical writing, are provided for teaching NCS students to construct practical writing.
Wang, Weidong,Li, Chunling,Nejsum, Lene N,Li, Hongyan,Kim, Soo Wan,Kwon, Tae-Hwan,Jonassen, Thomas E N,Knepper, Mark A,Thomsen, Klaus,Frokiaer, Jorgen,Nielsen, Soren American Physiological Society 2006 American journal of physiology. Renal physiology Vol.290 No.2
<P>Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) acutely promotes water and sodium excretion, whereas subchronic effects involve water retention. Renal hemodynamics, water and sodium excretion, and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and epithelial Na channel (ENaC) subcellular trafficking were determined in response to continuous ANP infusion in conscious rats, where body sodium and fluid balance was constantly maintained. ANP (0.5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) evoked a transient (peak at 10 min) fivefold diuresis followed by reduced urine production to control levels (30- to 90-min period). The fractional distal water excretion was significantly increased initially and then decreased in response to ANP. There was no change in the subcellular localization of AQP2 and AQP2 phosphorylated in PKA consensus site S256 (p-AQP2) 10 min after ANP infusion. In contrast, after 90 min a marked increase in apical labeling of AQP2 and p-AQP2 was observed in the inner and outer medullary collecting ducts but not in cortical collecting ducts. In support of this, ANP induced plasma membrane targeting of AQP2 in transiently AQP2-transfected cells. ANP infusion evoked an instant increase in renal sodium excretion, which persisted for 90 min. Ten minutes of ANP infusion induced no changes in the subcellular localization of ENaC subunits, whereas a marked increase in apical targeting of alpha- and gamma-subunits was observed after 90 min. In conclusion, 1) ANP infusion induced a sustained natriuresis and transient diuresis; 2) there were no changes in the subcellular localization of AQP2 and ENaC subunits after 10 min of ANP infusion; and 3) there was a marked increase in apical targeting of AQP2, p-AQP2, and alpha- and gamma-ENaC after 90 min of ANP infusion. The increased targeting of ENaC and AQP2 likely represents direct or compensatory effects to increase sodium and water reabsorption and to prevent volume depletion in response to prolonged ANP infusion.</P>
Background: Patients having unilateral breast reconstruction often require a second stageprocedure on the contralateral breast to improve symmetry. In order to provide immediatesymmetry and minimize the frequency and extent of secondary procedures, we beganperforming simultaneous contralateral balancing operations at the time of initial reconstruction. This study examines the indications, safety, and efficacy of this approach. Methods: One-hundred and two consecutive breast reconstructions with simultaneouscontralateral balancing procedures were identified. Data included patient age, body massindex (BMI), type of reconstruction and balancing procedure, specimen weight, transfusionrequirement, complications and additional surgery under anesthesia. Unpaired t-tests wereused to compare BMI, specimen weight and need for non-autologous transfusion. Results: Average patient age was 48 years. The majority had autologous tissue-only reconstructions(94%) and the rest prosthesis-based reconstructions (6%). Balancing proceduresincluded reduction mammoplasty (50%), mastopexy (49%), and augmentation mammoplasty(1%). Average BMI was 27 and average reduction specimen was 340 grams. Non-autologousblood transfusion rate was 9%. There was no relationship between BMI or reduction specimenweight and need for transfusion. We performed secondary surgery in 24% of the autologousgroup and 100% of the prosthesis group. Revision rate for symmetry was 13% in theautologous group and 17% in the prosthesis group. Conclusions: Performing balancing at the time of breast reconstruction is safe and mosteffective in autologous reconstructions, where 87% did not require a second operation forsymmetry.
Mark I. Langdorf, MD MHPE, FACEP, FAAEM, RDMS is Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine at the University of California, Irvine. After medical school at UC San Diego, he did an EM residency, a fellowship in medical education and the Master degree in Health Professions Education at the University of Illinois, Chicago. He served as Program Director for the emergency medicine residency for 10 years, Medical Director of the Level I Trauma Center Emergency Department for 18 years, and Division Chief and then Department Chair for 20 years. He consults and speaks nationally and internationally to promote optimum trauma, stroke and emergency care. He is Regional Faculty for the Advanced Cardiac Life Support Course and also teaches Advanced Trauma Life Support. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (West JEM), an open-access peer review international journal. He is also the Director of the Academy for Innovation in Medical Education at UC Irvine, and Associate Dean for Continuing Medical Education. He is the recipient of the Peter Rosen Award for Academic Leadership from the American Academy of Emergency Medicine.