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        • LICENSING BEST-PRACTICES OF INDEPENDENT LUXURY BRANDS

          Yves Lucky,Ivan Coste-Manière 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2015 Global Fashion Management Conference Vol.2015 No.06

          The world market for brands and licenses is constantly growing and represents a very interesting economic field. Brands are constantly being sold, and brand ownership may change often completely unbeknown to the majority of consumers. Brands are in fact held as any other assets, either by individuals or by companies, as part of their balance sheet (Lucky & Giliberti, 2013). A multiple case study of independent luxury companies enables us to identify the following best practices: 1) Perfume = Survival Most brands achieve a long lasting market penetration once they successfully move into the fragrancies. Every case study confirms the assumption. 2) Perfume + cosmetics = survival and success It seems that the perfume business and cosmetics in general are the main boosters for a brand to keep on growing and gain if not “top of mind” at least “aided awareness”. 3) Less licensees = more business! As strange as this can be, most luxury brands that have succeeded in keeping a remarkable growth have made the decision not to expand their number of licensees, but rather to dramatically diminish them, selecting, in most of the cases, main licensing categories like: 1- Perfumes and cosmetics 2- Watches 3- Eye glasses 4- Limited ranges of accessories The cases show that massive licensing may have brought very interesting revenues obtained “the easy way” by the brands owners, but have then started a decline in revenues due to many practical reasons: The brand loses its appeal by becoming seen just about everywhere and applied to any type of possible product. The brand simply becomes less exclusive and therefore less luxury. Cases like Saint Laurent (new name used instead of Yves Saint Laurent) in France or Valentino in Italy, clearly indicate that the brands managers have decided to concentrate their core business within a very limited number of licensees making sure that the brand orientation strictly reflects the identity chosen by the (new) owners. The most impressive example of extremely massive licensing tending to pull the brand out of the luxury market is without doubt the one of Pierre Cardin.

        • PERFUME, THE ART OF TOMORROW

          Katia Batoussova,Ivan Coste-Manière 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2018 Global Marketing Conference Vol.2018 No.07

          For centuries, the smell was considered as an inferior sense, underestimated by scholars who considered it linked to animals and sexuality, thus, unsuitable to knowledge. The disinterest of our civilisation for olfaction is reflected by the poverty of the language to describe scents, that comes from our lack of education and culture in this field. In addition, the French law states: “the fragrance of a perfume, which proceeds from the simple implementation of a know-how, does not constitute the creation of a form of expression that can benefit from the protection of copyright”. Yet, thanks to its unique climate to grow flowers in Grasse and the implementation of Fashion Houses in Paris, France is the cradle of Fragrance. How then, can we explain that the first perfume museum in Paris opened only a year ago? For Guillaume de Maussion, the initiator of this tremendous project, it seemed unbelievable that such a place didn’t exist in the French capital city, where Perfume industry is an essential part of the heritage. The Fashion Houses, as Dior, Chanel, Saint-Laurent or Givenchy benefit from this lack of knowledge and spend colossal amounts in Marketing in order to attract consumers. People thus focus on advertisement rather than on the scent and most of the time buy a perfume because of the brainwashing. Fragrances are in this case made with the intention to sell as much as possible. This mass-market industry offers very similar product, at an accessible price and easily available. Consequently, designer brands skimp on the quality using synthetic material and lower concentration. From this aspect, the perfumer is more a technician that aims to seduce the biggest part of the population in order to generate a maximum of profits for the brands. Hence, could perfume be considered as an Art? Is there a future for Fragrance sector, despite the lack of education? Most perfumer compare themselves to compositors, painters, and artists while creating a perfume. Edmond Roudnitska, widely considered as one of the greatest perfumers of 20st century and creator of masterpieces such as Diorissimo or Eau Sauvage, defined himself as a « perfumer-compositor ». Nevertheless, with the multiplication of alternatives perfumes brands, the Perfume sector reveals itself and spreads its artistry. Indeed, these niches companies perceive the perfumer as an artist, and the fragrance as a creation. They focus on the scent, using the best quality ingredients, know-how and craftsmanship. Niche devotees often argue that boutique perfumes offer the consumer the opportunity to reward oneself with a scent that is both uncommon and individual. These brands are focused on customer experience and relationship, take time to initiate and educate the customer on scents. According to Euromonitor; “The next five years will likely see the proliferation of small, artisan perfume brands hoping to capture millennials’ hearts, minds and noses.” In addition, a new trend is emerging from perfume experience: olfactory Marketing. Offices, fashion stores, opticians, even bakeries and using this new sensorial dimension. Brands are trying to reinforce their DNA by creating a distinctive scent to make them unique and unforgettable. The scent is completing a visual and auditory experience by bringing soul. Few studies showed that a pleasant fragrance, triggers a positive mood and a customer will stay 30% to 40% longer in a store well perfumed. These facts increase chances to make a purchase and especially to increase loyalty from the customer who will keep a good memory of its experience. Even though scents were created more than thousands of years ago and evolved over the centuries, Fragrance is still unknown and not recognized as a craft. With the rise of artist-perfumers, a willingness of education on scents, the ease of access to information and a real desire of uniqueness and distinction, there is no doubt that Perfume industry is the Art of tomorrow.

        • KCI등재

          Effects of a Glutamine Enema on Anastomotic Healing in an Animal Colon Anastomosis Model

          Mani Habibi,Osman Zekai Oner,Mehmet Tahir Oruc,Nurullah Bulbuller,Sebahat Ozdem,Sukru Ozdemir,Arsenal Sezgin Alikanooglu,Rojbin Karakoyun,Ugur Dogan,Ayper Ongen,Umit Koc 대한대장항문학회 2015 Annals of Coloproctolgy Vol.31 No.6

          Purpose: Anastomotic leakage in colorectal surgery is a very important issue. Although many studies have shown the positive effects of enteral glutamine (Gln) on anastomotic healing, none has assessed the effects of administering Gln via an enema for anastomotic healing. To fill this study gap, this study investigated the intraluminal effect of administration of Gln enema on the healing of colonic anastomosis in a rat model. Methods: Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups containing 10 rats each and were subjected to distal left colon transection and anastomosis. Postoperatively, group I (the control group) was administered no treatment, group II was administered daily placebo enemas containing physiological saline, and group III was administered daily 2% L-Gln enemas. After sacrifice on postoperative day 5, anastomotic healing, burst pressure, tissue hydroxyproline levels, and histological parameters were measured, and group values were compared via statistical analysis. Results: Group III was found to have the highest mean bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline levels and the lowest mean ischemia score. While the values of these parameters were not found to differ significantly among the groups, the lack of significance may have been due to the limited number of subjects examined. Conclusion: Administration of a Gln enema may have a positive effect on anastomosis in terms of bursting pressure and histopathological parameters. Future research should examine administration of a preoperative Gln enema as a means of decreasing the traumatic effects of the enema and identifying its applicability in surgical practice.

        • KCI등재

          Implementation of Virtual Feedback Control of Industrial Processes via Soft Sensing Technique

          Geetha Mani 대한전기학회 2020 Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology Vol.15 No.1

          Hardware sensor devices are used for state measurements in many process industries but due to various disturbances and aging efect it causes inaccuracies in measurement. Hence, soft sensing technique is employed. Soft sensing is the method of determining constants and variables of any system according to the performance level based on the measurement from a process. In real-time all process variables cannot be tapped directly. Controlling of those variables are also tedious in nature. Further, by using simple feedback mechanism it cannot be controlled. Hence, there arises need for estimating the unmeasured state using suitable soft sensing techniques. The estimated values can be used as a feedback signal to the external PID controller. This leads to the design of virtual feedback control. In the feedback path, a hardware sensor is replaced with soft sensing technique namely an extended Kalman flter (EKF). But the main drawback of using conventional PID controllers in industries are both servo tracking and disturbance rejection cannot be achieved at the same time. Thus, enhanced PID (EPID) controllers are used to overcome the above demerit. The EPID controller has the capability to instantaneously track the set point variations and reject the disturbances simultaneously. The comparative performance analysis of both conventional PID and EPID integrated with EKF has done in simulated continuous stirred tank reactor non-linear process. The efectiveness of virtual feedback control using EPID has been demonstrated in the real-time level process.

        • 자동차 로어컨트롤암 재제조를 위한 분해공정 연구

          박홍석(Hong-Seok Park),신승철(Seung-Cheol Shin),우펜드라 마니 툴라다르(Upendra Mani Tuladhar) (사)한국CDE학회 2014 한국 CAD/CAM 학회 학술발표회 논문집 Vol.2014 No.2

          Recently, Automobile industries are increasing their concern in adopting different ways to increase the life span of their automobiles because of the increasing problems of environmental degradation, circulation of resources and many more. Therefore interest in automotive remanufacturing technology to recycle the resources all over the world is increasing rapidly. However, the advanced countries which are active in developing remanufacturing technology are still not able to remanufacture many parts of automobiles. Such parts are still being remanufactured by small domestic enterprises through quality certification. Accordingly, in this paper the study of the processes for lower control arm core acquisition, visual inspection for the degradation of core, classification of core type, and selection of disassembly process is presented. Moreover, process for the visual inspection of the cores collected for the test are defined, classification procedure are defined in order to make manuals for the disassembly process, process for selecting appropriate disassembly method are presented and after disassembly process the defect analysis were carried out for remanufacturing process.

        • KCI등재

          The Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles Subjected to Scour in Marine Environment

          Y. Nanda Kishore,S. Narasimha Rao,J.S. Mani 대한토목학회 2009 KSCE JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Vol.13 No.6

          Pile foundations are used to transmit both vertical and horizontal loads. Many of offshore and coastal structures are founded on piles and these piles are subjected to significant amounts of lateral loads due to wind, wave and currents. Piles in shallow water regions are subjected to scour and there can be loss of soil support around these pile foundations. Bending moments and deflections are increased due to scour. In this investigation, it has been brought out that the lateral capacity of foundation is reduced due to scour. Tests on model piles of PVC and Aluminum embedded in soft marine clay bed formed at different consistency indices and load eccentricity ratios were conducted with and without scour. These pile materials are chosen such that there is a good variation in the rigidity of piles. From the model tests, it is noticed that scour results in the reduction in lateral capacity and increase in bending moments. In the second set of tests, cyclic loading is applied on PVC and Aluminum piles for a time period of 12 seconds. This time period represents the time period of storm wave in across the Indian seas. Considerable increase in deflection occurred due to scour in cyclic load tests for different consistency conditions of soil. Pile foundations are used to transmit both vertical and horizontal loads. Many of offshore and coastal structures are founded on piles and these piles are subjected to significant amounts of lateral loads due to wind, wave and currents. Piles in shallow water regions are subjected to scour and there can be loss of soil support around these pile foundations. Bending moments and deflections are increased due to scour. In this investigation, it has been brought out that the lateral capacity of foundation is reduced due to scour. Tests on model piles of PVC and Aluminum embedded in soft marine clay bed formed at different consistency indices and load eccentricity ratios were conducted with and without scour. These pile materials are chosen such that there is a good variation in the rigidity of piles. From the model tests, it is noticed that scour results in the reduction in lateral capacity and increase in bending moments. In the second set of tests, cyclic loading is applied on PVC and Aluminum piles for a time period of 12 seconds. This time period represents the time period of storm wave in across the Indian seas. Considerable increase in deflection occurred due to scour in cyclic load tests for different consistency conditions of soil.

        • KCI등재

          In vitro controlled release of tuberculosis drugs by amphiphilic branched copolymer nanoparticles

          Mani Gajendiran,조희정,김효범,Sengottuvelan Balasubramanian 한국공업화학회 2019 Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Vol.77 No.-

          Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-poly ethylene glycol (PEG) based amphiphilic branched copolymernanoparticles (NPs) have been developed for controlled release of tuberculosis (TB) drugs which includerifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PYZ). The drug loading efficiency and the percentagedrug content of polymer NPs increase by increasing the amount of PEG content in polymer NPs. Thebranched PLGA-PEG based copolymer NPs exhibit initial burst release followed by sustained release ofRIF for 840 h, INH for 72 h, and PYZ for 720 h. The branched citrate-PEG-PLGA copolymer NPs can act aspotential drug carriers when compared to their linear analogues.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Influence of jaw tracking in intensity-modulated and volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for head and neck cancers: a dosimetric study

          Mani, Karthick Raj,Upadhayay, Sagar,Das, K.J. Maria The Korean Society for Radiation Oncology 2017 Radiation Oncology Journal Vol.35 No.1

          Purpose: To Study the dosimetric advantage of the Jaw tracking technique in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for Head and Neck Cancers. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 10 previously treated head and neck cancer patients stage (T1/T2, N1, M0) in this study. All the patients were planned for IMRT and VMAT with simultaneous integrated boost technique. IMRT and VMAT plans were performed with jaw tracking (JT) and with static jaw (SJ) technique by keeping the same constraints and priorities for a particular patient. Target conformity, dose to the critical structures and low dose volumes were recorded and analyzed for IMRT and VMAT plans with and without JT for all the patients. Results: The conformity index average of all patients followed by standard deviation (${\bar{x}}{\pm}{\sigma}_{\bar{x}}$) of the JT-IMRT, SJ-IMRT, JT-VMAT, and SJ-VMAT were $1.72{\pm}0.56$, $1.67{\pm}0.57$, $1.83{\pm}0.65$, and $1.85{\pm}0.64$, and homogeneity index were $0.059{\pm}0.05$, $0.064{\pm}0.05$, $0.064{\pm}0.04$, and $0.064{\pm}0.05$. JT-IMRT shows significant mean reduction in right parotid and left parotid shows of 7.64% (p < 0.001) and 7.45% (p < 0.001) compare to SJ-IMRT. JT-IMRT plans also shows considerable dose reduction to thyroid, inferior constrictors, spinal cord and brainstem compared to the SJ-IMRT plans. Conclusion: Significant dose reductions were observed for critical structure in the JT-IMRT compared to SJ-IMRT technique. In JT-VMAT plans dose reduction to the critical structure were not significant compared to the SJ-IMRT due to relatively lesser monitor units.

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