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The study was carried to investigate the effects of a long term calcium upon blood lipid metabolism in athletes, The effects of calcium supplementation and hematological variables which are related to calcium metabolism, Subjects(N=30), who were 30 males of athletes, were randomly assigned to two group(placebo group, N=15, experimental group N= 15. Each subject in experimental group was ingested a tablet containing 500mg of calcium three times a day for 8 weeks. Hematological variable were measured pre and post 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks after the tablets ingestion. The results through the statiscal analysis of blood components, calcium, tatal-cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, Total-cholesterol/HDL-C, in lipid components were as follow; 1) Serum calcium was significantly increased in calcium croup after 2 weeks and maintained through out the entire experimental period(P<0.75), while showed no significant change in placebo group. There were significant differences between two group(calcium croup, placebo group). 2) Total cholesterol was decreased after 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks in Calcium group but there was no significantly decreased in placebo group. 3) LDL-C was significantly decreased in calcium group after 2 weeks and maintained through out the entire experimental period(P<0.05), but there was no significantly decreased in placebo group. There were significant differences between two group(calcium group, placebo group). 4) HDL-C was significantly increased in calcium group after 4 weeks and maintained through out the entire experimental period(P<0.05), while showed no significant change in placebo group. There were significant differences between two group(calcium group, placebo croup). 5) TC/HDL-C was decreased after 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks in calcium group but there was no significantly decreased in placebo croup . There were significant differences between two group (P<0.05).
The purpose of this study was carried to investiate the effects of a long term on blood lipid peroxidation. To achieve the purpose, a chain of experiments were carried out as the followings. First, sixty three Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three group: the control group, the endurance training group, the endurance exhaustive group. 21 rats were exercised by endurance training and 21 rats were training in endurance exhaustive training for 12 weeks, but 21 rats were not exercised at all. Endurance training animals were trained 5 days per weeks, for 12 weeks, running for 1 hour at 20m/minute, 0% grade. Endurance exhaustive training animals were trained 5 days per weeks, for 12 weeks, swimming to physical exhaustion. Second, human subjects were randomly assigned to control and endurance training groups. 7 subjects were exercised by endurance training and 7 subjects were not exercised at all. Endurance training groups were trained 4 days per weeks, for 12 weeks, swimming for 2 hour. The trained and rested animals were sacrified for 48 hours after their last training session and sedentary control animals were sacrified at the same time of the day. In human, after their last training session, which was for 48 hours their blood was taken from antecubital vein for sampling. Following 8 weeks, 12 weeks training period, the rats and human were hematological analyzed by the changes of LPO(lipid peroxide: MDA). Statistical techniques for data analysis were One-way ANOVA training times(before, 8 week, 12 week) and two way repeated measure ANOVA to determine the differences among groups. The 5% level of significance was used as the critical level for acceptance of hypotheses for the study. The analysis of data revealed the following findings. There weren't any significant differences in the LPO among three groups following pre and 8 weeks training, but significantly lower in training groups than in control group 12 weeks training in rats. On the other hand, in human, there were no significant differences among three groups following pre training and 8 weeks training, but significantly lower in training groups following 12 weeks training.
The purpose of this study was to analyzed the aerobic capacity of disability· able-bodied wheelchair basketball players. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured during graded maximal exercise test. Exercise time, HRpeak, oxygen uptake(VO_2, L·min^-1, ml·min^-1·kg^-1), carbon dioxide production(VCO_2, L·min^-1), ventilation(L·min^-1) were examined in disability national elite male wheelchair basketball at letes(DA, N = 10), able-bodied wheelchair basketball athletes(AA, N = 10). All data were expressed in means and standard deviation. Exercise time, HRpeak, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, ventilation were not different between groups. In conclusion, aerobic capacity of disability national elite male wheelchair basketball athletes is the same able-bodied wheelchair basketball athletes. These finding suggest that chronic wheelchair basketball training produce local adaptations in the functional upper body musculature.
Original Paper : Treadmill exercise enhances motor coordination and ameliorates Purkinje cell loss through inhibition on astrocyte activation in the cerebellum of methimazoleinduced hypothyroidism rat pups
( Mal Soon Shin ),( Bo Kyun Kim ),( Shin Ho Lee ),( Tae Soo Kim ),( Yu Mi Heo ),( Jun Ho Choi ),( Chang Ju Kim ),( Baek Vin Lim ) 한국운동영양학회 2012 Journal of exercise nutrition & biochemistry Vol.16 No.2
Thyroid hormones are important for the development of the brain including the cerebellum. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons and the activation of astrocytes in the cerebellar vermis of hypothyroidism-induced rat pups. On the day of perinatal 14, pregnant rats were divided into two groups (n = 5 in each group): the pregnant control group and the pregnantmethimazole (MMI)-treated group. For the induction of hypothyroidism in the rat pups, MMI was added to the drinking water (0.02% wt/vol), from the day of perinatal 14 to postnatal 49. After delivery, male rat pups born from the pregnant control group were assigned to the control group. Male rat pups born from the MMI-treated group were divided into the hypothyroidism-induction group, the hypothyroidism-induction with treadmill exercise group, and the hypothyroidism-induction with thyroxine (T4) treatment group (n = 10 in each group). The rat pups in the exercise group were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks, starting on postnatal day 22. In the hypothyroidism-induced rat pups, motor coordination was reduced and Purkinje cell death and reactive astrocytes in the cerebellar vermis were increased. Treadmill exercise enhanced motor coordination, increased the survival of Purkinje neurons, down-regulated reactive astrocytes, and enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hypothyroidism-induced rat pups. These results suggest that treadmill exercise has beneficial effects in terms of protecting against thyroid dysfunction by increasing T3 and T4 and the related protein, BDNF, as well as TrkB, inhibition on astrocyte activation and the reduction of Purkinje cell loss regarding the cerebellum in hypothyroidism rat pups.
Ma huang, the dried plant stem of Ephedra Intermedia Schrenk et C A, is one of me well known medicinal herbs, and has been used for the diaphoretic, antiasthmatic, and diuretic actions. Ma huang is an ephedrine type alkaloid used for the weight loss and energy expenditure. Medications based on the Ma huang have been found to h 냥 effective in the treatment of obesity. Neuropeptide Y (NPV), a 36-amino-acid peptide and concentrated in the hypothalamus, stimulates feeding desire and decrease energy expenditure. In the present study, the effect of Ma huang on the expression of NPY in the rat hypothalamus was investigated using immunohistochemistry. The present results demonstrated that Ma huang treatment suppressed weight gain and NPY expression in the hypothalamus depending upon the dosage used. Based on the results, it can be suggested that Ma huang treatment is effective in curbing the desire for food via modulation of NPY expression under the normal conditions.
The olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) is a well-known method inducing ani-mal model of depression. Depression is associated with dysfunction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. In the present study, an-tidepressive effect of treadmill exercise was investigated using olfacto-ry bulbectomized rats. After bilateral bulbectomy, the rats in the tread-mill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 28 days. Increased immobility time and decreased fast time in the forced swim test were observed in the olfactory bulbec-tomized rats. Sucrose preference in the sucrose preference test was decreased and activity in the open field test was also increased in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Treadmill exercise decreased immobility time and activity and increased fast time and sucrose preference in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Expressions of 5-HT and tryptophan hy-droxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe of rats were suppressed by OBX and treadmill exercise increased the expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Serotonin receptor type 1A (5-HT1A) expression in the dorsal raphe was reduced by OBX and treadmill exer-cise increased 5-HT1A expression in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise ameliorated OBX-induced depres-sive symptoms. The antidepressive effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the enhancement of serotonergic function through upregu-lation of 5-HT1A expression in the dorsal raphe.
Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by do-paminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exer-cise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 con-secutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkin-son disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Par-kinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, tread-mill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-in-duced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rote-none-induced Parkinson rats.
성별에 따른 트레드밀 달리기가 노화 쥐의 공간기억력에 미치는 영향을 연구하였다. 2개월 된 암컷 쥐와 수컷 쥐를 젊은 쥐로 하였고, 15개월 된 암컷 쥐와 수컷 쥐를 노화 쥐로 하였다. 실험동물은 젊은 암컷 대조군(N=6), 젊은 암컷 운동군(N=6), 젊은 수컷 대조군(N=6), 젊은 수컷 운동군(N=6), 노화 암컷 대조군(N=6), 노화 암컷 운동군(N=6), 노화 수컷 대조군(N=6), 노화 수컷 운동군(N=6)의 8군으로 나누었다. 운동군은 소형동물용 트레드밀에서 하루 일회 30분간 4주 동안 트레드밀 달리기를 실시하였다. 노화 쥐는 젊은 쥐와 비교하였을 때 공간기억력의 감퇴를 나타내었고 해마에서 신경세포 생성은 억제된 반면 세포 사멸은 증가되었다. 노화 쥐에서 트레드밀 달리기를 시행하였을 때, 공간 기억력의 감퇴가 억제되었고 해마의 신경세포 생성은 증가된 반면 세포사멸은 억제되었다. 해마에서의 myostatin과 follistatin 발현은 뇌화 쥐에서 억제되었으나, 트레드밀 달리기에 의하여 증가되었다. 그러나 트레드밀 달리기의 이러한 효과는 성별에 따른 차이는 나타나지 않았다. 본 연구를 통하여 트레드밀 달리기는 해마에서 myostatin과 follistatin의 발현을 억제함으로써 신경세포 생성을 증가시켜 노화에 의한 기억력 감퇴를 경감시킴을 알 수 있었다. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise according to gender on spatial memory in old aged rats. Two month-old female rats and male rats were used as the young-aged groups, meanwhile 16-month-old female rats and male rats were used as the old-aged groups. The rats were divided into 8 groups (N=6 in each group): young-aged female control group, young-aged female exercise group, young-aged male control group, young-aged male exercise group, old-aged female control group, old-aged female exercise group, old-aged male control group, old-aged male exercise group. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks. In old-aged rats, spatial memory was disturbed, in contrast treadmill exercise improved spatial memory in the old-aged rats. Neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased and apoptosis was increased in the old-aged rats. In contrast, treadmill exercise increased neurogensis and decreased apoptosis in the old-aged rats. Myostatin and follistatin expressions in the hippocampus were increased in the old-aged rats. Treadmill exercise suppressed myostatin and follistatin expressions in the old-aged rats. There was no gender difference in these effects of treadmill exercise. We showed that treadmill exercise is a very useful strategy for ameliorating age-induced memory loss by increasing neurogenesis through suppressing myostatin and follistatin expressions. (Korean J Str Res 2012;20:51∼60)