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Original Paper : Treadmill exercise enhances motor coordination and ameliorates Purkinje cell loss through inhibition on astrocyte activation in the cerebellum of methimazoleinduced hypothyroidism rat pups
( Mal Soon Shin ), ( Bo Kyun Kim ), ( Shin Ho Lee ), ( Tae Soo Kim ), ( Yu Mi Heo ), ( Jun Ho Choi ), ( Chang Ju Kim ), ( Baek Vin Lim ) 한국운동영양학회 2012 Journal of exercise nutrition & biochemistry Vol.16 No.2
Thyroid hormones are important for the development of the brain including the cerebellum. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons and the activation of astrocytes in the cerebellar vermis of hypothyroidism-induced rat pups. On the day of perinatal 14, pregnant rats were divided into two groups (n = 5 in each group): the pregnant control group and the pregnantmethimazole (MMI)-treated group. For the induction of hypothyroidism in the rat pups, MMI was added to the drinking water (0.02% wt/vol), from the day of perinatal 14 to postnatal 49. After delivery, male rat pups born from the pregnant control group were assigned to the control group. Male rat pups born from the MMI-treated group were divided into the hypothyroidism-induction group, the hypothyroidism-induction with treadmill exercise group, and the hypothyroidism-induction with thyroxine (T4) treatment group (n = 10 in each group). The rat pups in the exercise group were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks, starting on postnatal day 22. In the hypothyroidism-induced rat pups, motor coordination was reduced and Purkinje cell death and reactive astrocytes in the cerebellar vermis were increased. Treadmill exercise enhanced motor coordination, increased the survival of Purkinje neurons, down-regulated reactive astrocytes, and enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hypothyroidism-induced rat pups. These results suggest that treadmill exercise has beneficial effects in terms of protecting against thyroid dysfunction by increasing T3 and T4 and the related protein, BDNF, as well as TrkB, inhibition on astrocyte activation and the reduction of Purkinje cell loss regarding the cerebellum in hypothyroidism rat pups.
Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by do-paminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exer-cise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 con-secutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkin-son disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Par-kinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, tread-mill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-in-duced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rote-none-induced Parkinson rats.
The olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) is a well-known method inducing ani-mal model of depression. Depression is associated with dysfunction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. In the present study, an-tidepressive effect of treadmill exercise was investigated using olfacto-ry bulbectomized rats. After bilateral bulbectomy, the rats in the tread-mill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 28 days. Increased immobility time and decreased fast time in the forced swim test were observed in the olfactory bulbec-tomized rats. Sucrose preference in the sucrose preference test was decreased and activity in the open field test was also increased in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Treadmill exercise decreased immobility time and activity and increased fast time and sucrose preference in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Expressions of 5-HT and tryptophan hy-droxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe of rats were suppressed by OBX and treadmill exercise increased the expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Serotonin receptor type 1A (5-HT1A) expression in the dorsal raphe was reduced by OBX and treadmill exer-cise increased 5-HT1A expression in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise ameliorated OBX-induced depres-sive symptoms. The antidepressive effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the enhancement of serotonergic function through upregu-lation of 5-HT1A expression in the dorsal raphe.
Mal Soon Song RN M.S. Department of Nursing Offzce, Yongdong Severance Hospital, Yomei University College of Nursing Multiple rib fracture patient with flail chest who was complicated by pneumonia had been treated by CMW plate. Operative stabilization permits the avoidance of the op. Pain and reduction in the duration of respiratory care.
Many consider Henderson the Rain King to be the most affirmative of Saul Bellow's novels. This study looks at how Henderson, the protagonist, a social outcast recovers his humanity through experience gained on an adventurous journey into the hinterlands of mythical Africa on a quest for salvation and affirmation. In his travels, Henderson encounters two tribes with whom he realizes his goals under the weight of great suffering and eye-opening experiences. A brush with mortality frees Henderson of egoistic desire and awakens in him a need for the love of others. Alienated from family and friends, he eventually manages to regain his identity. In conclusion, through Henderson's approach to life, Bellow mirrors his optimistic, moralistic views and reveals his belief that it is the writer's duty to restore humanity.