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“The living human web” as the subject matter in pastoral theology arose twenty-five years ago in the context of the western individualistic society in which its previous counterpart “the living human document” had appeared about seven decades before. The metaphor captures ideas on the wider cultural and political contexts where pastoral care is located, especially in the hope of responding to the challenge of political and social injustice. Psychology in the United States appealed in the earlier years of pastoral care because of its deep respect for personal experience while it contributed to the disillusionment of academic theology in pastoral theology. The previous metaphor of the living human document depended heavily on the vivid clinical cases; in turn, the living human web that Miller-McLemore coined in the early 1990s was intended to capture “context, collaboration, and diversity” beyond individual counseling sessions. Underneath the shift of the paradigms, three trends can be identified as contributing factors: interest in congregational studies; a call for a new public theology; and the rise of liberation movements. With the advent of the new metaphor in pastoral care, the definition of genuine care has been changed as requiring an understanding of social sciences such as economics and political sciences as tools of interpretation. The meaning of the living human web has continued to develop until the day and there are four different emphases worth noting: political/liberationist, ecological/contextual, congregational, and educational/ministerial. Regardless of changing of metaphors, however, empathy that matters always in pastoral care is to be sustained by giving voice to the silenced and oppressed by others in culture.
The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) has conducted multiple trials related to malignancies of the uterine corpus. Recently, several of these trials have been presented and/or published. Areas of focus included the feasibility of laparoscopic staging for endometrial cancer, the adjuvant management of locally advanced endometrial cancer, whole abdominal irradiation in maximally resected advanced endometrial carcinoma, and combination chemotherapy regimens for stage I and II carcinosarcoma after primary surgery and for advanced or recurrent carcinosarcoma. This article will discuss the background and details of each of these important advances. The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) has conducted multiple trials related to malignancies of the uterine corpus. Recently, several of these trials have been presented and/or published. Areas of focus included the feasibility of laparoscopic staging for endometrial cancer, the adjuvant management of locally advanced endometrial cancer, whole abdominal irradiation in maximally resected advanced endometrial carcinoma, and combination chemotherapy regimens for stage I and II carcinosarcoma after primary surgery and for advanced or recurrent carcinosarcoma. This article will discuss the background and details of each of these important advances.
Baculoviruses possess large(∼100 Kilobase pair), double-stranded, circular, DNA genomes which are packaged in enveloped, rod-shaped capsids. A mutant of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyherodsis virus (AcNPV) was recently isolated following serial passage of the virus through a cell line of the lepidopteran insect Trichoplusia ni (1). The, mutant, known as FP-D, has a most unusual genotpe; restriction endonuclease analysis of the viral DNA reveals the presence of a genetically unstable sequence inserted in the mutant DNA. Further analysis has established that this sequence is a mobile genetic element of T. ni and is a member of the copia-like class of transposable elements (2). We call the element TE-D. TE-D is 7.3 Kilobases (Kb) in length and contains 0.27 Kb direct terminal repeats so that it's structure is similar to copia-like elements of Drophila as well as the evolutionarily related retroviruses of vertebrates. The TE-D sequence is genetically unstable; a second virus, referred to as FP-DS, arises spontaneously and at high frequency in FP-D infected cells. FP-DS contains only one of the two 0.27 Kb terminal repeats of TE-D and may arise from recombination between the direct terminal repeats of TE-D. We alse have evidence that the element exists in free linear and circular from in FP-D infected cells; transposition of the element may therefore involve a 7.05 Kb circular and/or linear interm ediate. TE-D is a mid-repetitive, dispersed, element of T. ni cells. It is found in 45 or 50 different locations in the T. ni genome. The element is mobile as determined by experiments in which the position of TE-D sequences in T. ni larvae and T. ni cell culture are compared. In T. ni cell culture, the TE-D sequences have amplified several fold and the internal sequences of TE-D have diverged slightly. We are currently investigating the effects of element insertion on viral transcription and have observed the enhancements of transcription of viral sequences next to terminal repeats. FP-D will be a very valuable tool for studying transposable element movement and expression. We have a permissive insect cell line, S. frugiperda, which lacks TE-D so that the element can be studied in a naive cell environment. We expect that an analysis of FP-D will help to define the relationship between copia-like transposable elements and retroviruses. (1) Potter, K.N. and Miller, L.K. (1980) In $quot;Animal Virus Genetics$quot; (eds. B. Fields, R. Jaenisch and C. F. Fox) 18:71 80. (2) Miller, D. W. and Miller, L. K. (1982) Nature, in press.
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Family businesses (FBs) are said to treat their employees with unusual consideration to form a cohesive internal “community”. They are also said to form more extensive “connections” or relationships with outside stakeholders. Both behaviors may increase the viability of a business intended to support an owning family and its later generations, and relate to the age-old notion of gemeinschaft. This study of Korean high technology businesses suggests that: 1) relationships of community and connection will be more common in FBs than in non-FBs, 2) these relationships will enhance performance, and 3) the performance of FBs will benefit more from these relationships than the performance of non-FBs.
Matsucoccus속(屬)은 세계(世界)의 소나무림(林)에 걸쳐 분포(分布)하고 있으며 이중 우리나라 전남지방(全南地方)에서 해송림(海松林)에 피해(被害)를 주는 솔껍질깍지벌레가 신종(新種)으로 밝혀져 M. thunbergianae로 명명(命名)하였다. 신종(新種)의 충태별(蟲態別) 형태(形態) 및 생활사(生活史)가 근연종(近緣種)과 비교(比較)되었는데 이는 M. matsumurae (Kuwana) 및 M. resinosae Bean & Godwin과 가장 형태(形態)가 비슷하였다. 본종(本種)은 1년(年) 1세대(世代) 발생(發生)하며 2영충(齡蟲)으로 월동(越冬)하는 반면(反面) M. matsumurae와 M. resinosae는 1년(年) 2세대(世代) 발생(發生)하며 1영충(齡蟲)으로 월동(越冬)한다. 1년(年) 2세대(世代) 이상(以上) 발생(發生)하는 종(種)들에 있어서 세대간(世代間)의 형태적(形態的) 차이(差異)도 언급되었다. A new species of scale insect, Matsutoctus thunbergianae Miller and Park, is described using life history information and morphological characteristics of adult female, adult male, third instar male, and first instar. The species is morphologically similar to M. matsumurae (Kuwana) and M. resinosae Bean and Godwin, the most obvious structural differences are found in the adult male. The species is univoltine and overwinters as second instars, whereas M. matsumurae and M. resinosae are bivoltine and overwinter as first instars. Information is given supporting evidence that the same instar of different generations of multivoltine species differ significantly morphologically.