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      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells

        He, M.L.,Yang, W.Z.,Hidari, H.,Rambeck, W.A. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.1

        The present study including two experiments was designed to determine the effect of media containing different rare earth elements (REE) on proliferation and fatty acids accumulation in 3T3-L1 cell cultures. In Experiment 1, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in 96-well plates ($1.5{\times}10^4cells/ml$) were cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 24 h. Then the media were changed to the following 10 different media for 48 h: DMEM containing 10% FBS for the control; the above media containing $5{\mu}M$, $10{\mu}M$ or $15{\mu}M$ of $LaCl_3$, $CeCl_3$ or the mixture of these REE chlorides. The proliferation rate of the cells was measured and compared by a non-isotope method-XTT method. In Experiment 2 the cells in 24-well plates ($1.5{\times}10^4cells/ml$) were cultured in DMEM containing 10% FBS for 7 days until confluent and then were changed to above DMEM containing dexamethasone, methyl-isobutylxanthine and insulin (DMI) for two days. Afterwards the media were changed to the 10 different media with REE supplements as in Experiment 1 and cultured for 6 days. The cells were then harvested for fatty acids analysis by gas chromatography. It was found that supplementation of La (5, 10 and $15{\mu}M$), Ce ($5{\mu}M$ and $15{\mu}M$) and the mixture REE (5, 10 and $15{\mu}M$) stimulated (p<0.05) the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (Experiment 1). In the differentiating 3T3-L1 cells supplementation of La ($5{\mu}M$ and $10{\mu}M$), Ce ($5{\mu}M$) and the mixture REE ($5{\mu}M$ and $15{\mu}M$) decreased (p<0.05) the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) per $10^5cells$, while the supplementation of La ($5{\mu}M$), Ce ($5{\mu}M$) and the mixture REE ($15{\mu}M$) increased (p<0.05) the ratio of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to MUFA. These results indicate that the supplementation of REE to the media may affect proliferation, differentiation and lipogenesis rates of 3T3-L1 cells. However, the effect may depend upon the level or type of REE applied.

      • SCISCIE

        Cosmic evolution of stellar quenching by AGN feedback: clues from the Horizon-AGN simulation

        Beckmann, R. S.,Devriendt, J.,Slyz, A.,Peirani, S.,Richardson, M. L. A.,Dubois, Y.,Pichon, C.,Chisari, N. E.,Kaviraj, S.,Laigle, C.,Volonteri, M. Oxford University Press 2017 MONTHLY NOTICES- ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY Vol.472 No.1

        <P>The observed massive end of the galaxy stellar mass function is steeper than its predicted dark matter halo counterpart in the standard Lambda cold dark matter paradigm. In this paper, we investigate the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on star formation in massive galaxies. We isolate the impact of AGN by comparing two simulations from the HORIZON suite, which are identical except that one also includes supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and related feedback models. This allows us to cross-identify individual galaxies between simulations and quantify the effect of AGN feedback on their properties, including stellar mass and gas outflows. We find that massive galaxies (M-* >= 10(11) M-circle dot) are quenched by AGN feedback to the extent that their stellar masses decrease by up to 80 per cent at z = 0. SMBHs affect their host halo through a combination of outflows that reduce their baryonic mass, particularly for galaxies in the mass range 10(9) M-circle dot <= M-* <= 10(11) M-circle dot, and a disruption of central gas inflows, which limits in situ star formation. As a result, net gas inflows on to massive galaxies, M-* >= 10(11) M-circle dot, drop by up to 70 per cent. We measure a redshift evolution in the stellar mass ratio of twin galaxies with and without AGN feedback, with galaxies of a given stellar mass showing stronger signs of quenching earlier on. This evolution is driven by a progressive flattening of the M-SMBH-M-* relation with redshift, particularly for galaxies with M-* <= 10(10) M-circle dot. M-SMBH/M-* ratios decrease over time, as falling average gas densities in galaxies curb SMBH growth.</P>

      • KCI등재후보

        AKARI-NEP : EFFECTS OF AGN PRESENCE ON SFR ESTIMATES OF GALAXIES

        L. Marchetti,A. Feltre,S. Berta,I. Baronchelli,S. Serjeant,M. Vaccari,D. Bulgarella,M.Karouzos,K. Murata,N.Oi,C. Pearson,G. Rodighiero,C. Segdwick,G. J. White 한국천문학회 2017 天文學論叢 Vol.32 No.1

        How does the presence of an AGN influence the total SFR estimates of galaxies and change their distribution with respect to the \textit{Galaxy Main Sequence}?To contribute to solving this question, we study a sample of 1133 sources detected in the North Ecliptic Pole field (NEP) by AKARI and Herschel. We create a multi-wavelength dataset for these galaxies and we fit their multi-wavelength Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) using the whole spectral regime (from 0.1 to 500 $\mu$m). We perform the fit using three procedures: \texttt{LePhare} and two optimised codes for identifying AGN tracers from the SED analysis. In this work we present an overview of the comparison between the estimates of the Infrared bolometric luminosities (between 8 and 1000 $\mu$m) and the AGN fractions obtained exploiting these different procedures. In particular, by estimating the AGN contribution in four different wavelength ranges (5-40 $\mu$m, 10-20 $\mu$m, 20-40 $\mu$m and 8-1000 $\mu$m) we show how the presence of an AGN affects the PAH emission by suppressing the ratio $\frac{L_{\rm8~\mu m}}{L_{\rm4.5~\mu m}}$ as a function of the considered wavelength range.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Role of flotillins in the endocytosis of GPCR in salivary gland epithelial cells

        Park, M.Y.,Kim, N.,Wu, L.L.,Yu, G.Y.,Park, K. Academic Press 2016 Biochemical and biophysical research communication Vol.476 No.4

        Endocytosis has numerous functions in cellular homeostasis. Defects in the endocytic pathway of receptors may lead to dysfunction of salivary gland secretion. Therefore, elucidating the complex mechanisms of endocytosis may facilitate solutions for disease treatment and prevention. The muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) located in the plasma membrane, is involved in numerous physiological activities such as smooth muscle contraction and saliva secretion. M3R enters cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), while flotillins (flot-1 and -2), highly conserved proteins residing in lipid-raft microdomains, make use of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) for their internalization. Since these two proteins use two discrete pathways for endocytic entry, the association of flotillins with CME is poorly understood. We examined whether flotillins play a role in CME of M3R using immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation, and RNA interference techniques in secretory epithelial cells. Upon stimulation with a cholinergic agonist, M3R, flot-1, and flot-2 each internalized from the plasma membrane into intracellular sites. The addition of chlorpromazine and cytochalasin D, well-known inhibitors of CME, inhibited internalization of M3R via CME. Filipin III and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) acting as lipid raft inhibitors disrupted internalization of flot-½ via CIE. Interestingly, filipin III and mβCD slightly reduced expression level of M3R whereas chlorpromazine and cytochalasin D did not affect internalization of the flotillin isoforms. M3R and flot-½ colocalized and interacted with each other as they entered the cytosol during limited periods of incubation. Moreover, knockdown of flot-1 or -2 by flotillin-specific siRNA prevented internalization and reduced the endocytic efficiency of M3R. Our results suggest that flot-1 and -2 are partially involved in CME of M3R by facilitating its internalization.

      • KCI등재

        A comparison of liveweight gain of lambs weaned early onto a herb-clover mixed sward and weaned conventionally onto a ryegrass-clover pasture and herb-clover mixed sward

        W.E.M.L.J. Ekanayake,R.A. Corner-Thomas,L. M. Cranston,P.R. Kenyon,S.T. Morris 아세아·태평양축산학회 2019 Animal Bioscience Vol.32 No.2

        Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify the impact of early weaning of lambs at approximately seven weeks of age onto a herb-clover mix on the liveweight gain of lambs and their dams. Methods: In 2015, twin-born lambs that weighed a minimum of 16 kg (n = 134) were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: i) Early-weaned (58 days after the midpoint of lambing) onto an unrestricted allowance (>1,200 kg dry matter/ha) of herb-clover mix (HerbEW); ii) Lambs+dams unweaned onto an unrestricted allowance of herb-clover mix until conventional weaning (95 days after the midpoint of lambing) (HerbCW); iii) Lambs+ dams unweaned onto an unrestricted allowance of grass-clover pasture until conventional weaning (GrassCW). In 2016, twin-born lambs that weighed a minimum of 16 kg (n = 170) were randomly allocated to one of four treatments: i), ii), iii) (similar to 2015) and iv) Lambs+ dams unweaned onto a restricted allowance (<1,200 kg dry matter/ha) of grass-clover pasture until conventional weaning (93 days after the midpoint of lambing) (Restricted-GrassCW). Results: In 2015, liveweight gain from L58 to L95 of HerbCW and GrassCW lambs did not differ (p>0.05), but were greater than HerbEW lambs. In 2016, HerbCW lambs had greater (p<0.05) liveweight gains from L51 to L93 than GrassCW followed by HerbEW and Restricted-GrassCW lambs. In 2015, liveweight gain from L58 to L95 of HerbEW ewes were greater than both GrassCW and HerbCW ewes while in 2016, liveweight gain of from L51 to L93 GrassCW and HerbCW ewes did not differ (p>0.05) but were greater (p<0.05) than those of HerbEW and Restricted-GrassCW ewes. Conclusion: These results indicate that when grass-clover pasture supply can be maintained at unrestricted intake level, there may be no benefit of weaning lambs early. However, at restricted pasture conditions lambs can achieve greater liveweight gains when weaned early onto a herb-clover mix.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        A comparison of liveweight gain of lambs weaned early onto a herb-clover mixed sward and weaned conventionally onto a ryegrass-clover pasture and herb-clover mixed sward

        Ekanayake, W.E.M.L.J.,Corner-Thomas, R.A.,Cranston, L.M.,Kenyon, P.R.,Morris, S.T. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2019 Animal Bioscience Vol.32 No.2

        Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify the impact of early weaning of lambs at approximately seven weeks of age onto a herb-clover mix on the liveweight gain of lambs and their dams. Methods: In 2015, twin-born lambs that weighed a minimum of 16 kg (n = 134) were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: i) Early-weaned (58 days after the midpoint of lambing) onto an unrestricted allowance (>1,200 kg dry matter/ha) of herb-clover mix (HerbEW); ii) Lambs+dams unweaned onto an unrestricted allowance of herb-clover mix until conventional weaning (95 days after the midpoint of lambing) (HerbCW); iii) Lambs+dams unweaned onto an unrestricted allowance of grass-clover pasture until conventional weaning (GrassCW). In 2016, twin-born lambs that weighed a minimum of 16 kg (n = 170) were randomly allocated to one of four treatments: i), ii), iii) (similar to 2015) and iv) Lambs+dams unweaned onto a restricted allowance (<1,200 kg dry matter/ha) of grass-clover pasture until conventional weaning (93 days after the midpoint of lambing) (Restricted-GrassCW). Results: In 2015, liveweight gain from L58 to L95 of HerbCW and GrassCW lambs did not differ (p>0.05), but were greater than HerbEW lambs. In 2016, HerbCW lambs had greater (p<0.05) liveweight gains from L51 to L93 than GrassCW followed by HerbEW and Restricted-GrassCW lambs. In 2015, liveweight gain from L58 to L95 of HerbEW ewes were greater than both GrassCW and HerbCW ewes while in 2016, liveweight gain of from L51 to L93 GrassCW and HerbCW ewes did not differ (p>0.05) but were greater (p<0.05) than those of HerbEW and Restricted-GrassCW ewes. Conclusion: These results indicate that when grass-clover pasture supply can be maintained at unrestricted intake level, there may be no benefit of weaning lambs early. However, at restricted pasture conditions lambs can achieve greater liveweight gains when weaned early onto a herb-clover mix.

      • THE EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY STELLAR MASS FUNCTION AT<i>z</i>= 4-8: A STEEPENING LOW-MASS-END SLOPE WITH INCREASING REDSHIFT

        Song, Mimi,Finkelstein, Steven L.,Ashby, Matthew L. N.,Grazian, A.,Lu, Yu,Papovich, Casey,Salmon, Brett,Somerville, Rachel S.,Dickinson, Mark,Duncan, K.,Faber, Sandy M.,Fazio, Giovanni G.,Ferguson, He American Astronomical Society 2016 The Astrophysical Journal Vol.825 No.1

        <P>We present galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) at z = 4-8 from a rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) selected sample of similar to 4500 galaxies, found via photometric redshifts over an area of similar to 280 arcmin(2) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS)/Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The deepest Spitzer/IRAC data to date and the relatively large volume allow us to place a better constraint at both the low- and high-mass ends of the GSMFs compared to previous space-based studies from pre-CANDELS observations. Supplemented by a stacking analysis, we find a linear correlation between the rest-frame UV absolute magnitude at 1500 angstrom (M-UV) and logarithmic stellar mass (log M-*) that holds for galaxies with log(M-*/M-circle dot) less than or similar to 10. We use simulations to validate our method of measuring the slope of the log M-*-M-UV relation, finding that the bias is minimized with a hybrid technique combining photometry of individual bright galaxies with stacked photometry for faint galaxies. The resultant measured slopes do not significantly evolve over z = 4-8, while the normalization of the trend exhibits a weak evolution toward lower masses at higher redshift. We combine the log M-*-M-UV distribution with observed rest-frame UV luminosity functions at each redshift to derive the GSMFs, finding that the low-mass-end slope becomes steeper with increasing redshift from alpha = -1.55(-0.07)(+0.08) at z = 4 to alpha = -2.25(-0.35)(+0.72) at z = 8. The inferred stellar mass density, when integrated over M-* = 10(8)-10(13) M-circle dot, increases by a factor of 10(-2)(+30) between z = 7 and z = 4 and is in good agreement with the time integral of the cosmic star formation rate density.</P>

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Preservation of Coagulation Efficiency of Moringa oleifera, a Natural Coagulant

        Katayon, S.,Ng, S.C.,Johari, M.M.N.Megat,Ghani, L.A.Abdul The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengine 2006 Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering Vol.11 No.6

        In recent years, there has been an interest to use Moringa oleifera as the natural coagulant due to cost, associated health and environmental concerns of synthetic organic polymers and inorganic chemicals. However, it is known that M. oleifera as the natural coagulant is highly biodegradable and has a very short shelf life. This research was carried out to investigate the effects of storage temperature, packaging methods, and freeze-drying on the preservation of M. oleifera seeds powders. Non freeze-dried M. oleifera was prepared into different packaging namely open container, closed container and vacuum packing, whilst, freeze-dried M. oleifera was stored in closed container and vacuum packing. Each of the packaging was stored at room temperature ($30\;to\;32^{\circ}C$) and refrigerator ($4^{\circ}C$). The turbidity removal efficiencies of stored M. oleifera were examined using jar test at monthly interval for 12 months. The results indicated that non freeze-dried M. oleifera kept in the refrigerator ($4^{\circ}C$) would preserve its coagulation efficiency. In addition, closed container and vacuum packing were found to be more appropriate for the preservation of non freeze-dried M. oleifera, compared to open container. Freeze-dried M. oleifera retained its high coagulation efficiency regardless the storage temperature and packaging method for up to 11 months. Besides, higher increment in zeta potential values for water coagulated with freeze-dried M. oleifera indicated the higher frequency of charge neutralization and better coagulation efficiency of freeze-dried M. oleifera, compared to non freeze-dried seeds. As a coagulant, M. oleifera did not affect the pH of the water after treatment.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Effect of dietary lactulose supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, and excreta microflora in broilers

        Zhao, P.Y.,Li, H.L.,Mohammadi, M.,Kim, I.H. Elsevier 2016 Poultry science Vol.95 No.1

        <P>A 35 d trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lactulose on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 816 1-day-old male Ross broilers (40.2 +/- 0.4 g) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments using 12 cages with 17 chicks per cage. Treatments were: 1) CON, basal diet; 2) L05, CON + 0.05% lactulose; 3) L10, CON + 0.10% lactulose; and 4) L15, CON + 0.15% lactulose. Higher (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in broilers fed the L15 diet compared with those fed the CON diet during d 22 to 35. During d 0 to 35, BWG was higher (P < 0.05) and FCR was lower (P < 0.05) in broilers fed lactulose diets than those fed the CON diet. Additionally, broilers fed L15 diets had the highest BWG (P < 0.05) and lowest FCR (P < 0.05). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and nitrogen (N) was increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the L15 diet compared with those fed the CON diet. Drip loss was decreased (P < 0.05) in L10 and L15 treatments compared with CON treatment on d 1, d 3, and d 5. On d 3, lowest (P < 0.05) drip loss was observed in the L15 treatment. Excreta E. coli counts in the L15 treatment were decreased (P < 0.05) on d 14, but Lactobacillus counts in the L15 treatment were increased (P < 0.05) on d 14 and d 35 compared with the CON diet. A linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed on BWG (d 22 to 35), FCR (d 0 to 35), the ATTD of DM and N, drip loss, E. coli (d 14), and Lactobacillus (d 14 and d 35) counts. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.15% lactulose can improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility; as well as increase the proliferation of Lactobacillus and decrease E. coli counts in excreta.</P>

      • KCI등재

        Preservation of Coagulation Efficiency of Moringa oleifera, a Natural Coagulant

        S. Katayon,S. C. Ng,M. M. N. Megat Johari,L. A. Abdul Ghani 한국생물공학회 2006 Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering Vol.11 No.6

        In recent years, there has been an interest to use Moringa oleifera as the natural coagulant due to cost, associated health and environmental concerns of synthetic organic polymers and inorganic chemicals. However, it is known that M. oleifera as the natural coagulant is highly biodegradable and has a very short shelf life. This research was carried out to investigate the effects of storage temperature, packaging methods, and freeze-drying on the preservation of M. oleifera seeds powders. Non freeze-dried M. oleifera was prepared into different packaging namely open container, closed container and vacuum packing, whilst, freeze-dried M. oleifera was stored in closed container and vacuum packing. Each of the packaging was stored at room temperature (30 to 3℃) and refrigerator (4℃). The turbidity removal efficiencies of stored M. oleifera were examined using jar test at monthly interval for 12 months. The results indicated that non freeze-dried M. oleifera kept in the refrigerator (4℃) would preserve its coagulation efficiency. In addition, closed container and vacuum packing were found to be more appropriate for the preservation of non freeze-dried M. oleifera, compared to open container. Freeze-dried M. oleifera retained its high coagulation efficiency regardless the storage temperature and packaging method for up to 11 months. Besides, higher increment in zeta potential values for water coagulated with freeze-dried M. oleifera indicated the higher frequency of charge neutralization and better coagulation efficiency of freeze-dried M. oleifera, compared to non freeze-dried seeds. As a coagulant, M. oleifera did not affect the pH of the water after treatment.

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