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      • 공정육모 온실의 표준모델 및 자동화 시스템 개발과 활용기술연구 1 : 제1장 서론 Chapter1 Introduction

        박중춘,민영봉,정병룡,설인준,이영만,윤용철,강호종,김태규,김광용,장사문,정한택,오태한,김평태,김진일,손영걸,박봉식,김시론,이형정,오상석,김명승,조정호,하종규,임동희,이은주,변정희,이정한,최우진,강환규 경상대학교 시설원예연구소 1997 施設園藝硏究 Vol.4 No.-

        Ⅰ. 제목 공정육묘온실의 표준모델 및 자동화 시스템개발과 활용기술연구 Ⅱ. 연구개발의 목적과 중요성 1. 목적 1) 농가보급형 공정육모 표준온실의 설계 2) 공저육모온실의 시설장비의 표준화 3) 공정묘 생산을 위한 시설장비 자동화 시스템 개발 2. 중요성 1) 공정묘 생산을 위한 표준온실 및 자동화시스템의 연구개발은 원예묘의 분업화, 전문화 생력화를 위하여 필요하다. 우리나라 채소류 총소요량은 1996년말 현재 약 140억본으로 추산된다. 이를 위한 공정육모장의 표준시설 설계도가 없을뿐 아니라 재배생산 기술 및 경영체계가 또한 확립되어 있지 않다. 2) 농림부에서는 채소 공정육모장 설치를 위한 자금을 농가에 지원하고 있다. 그러나 적정시설의 규모, 시설설비를 위한 자금의 범위등이 확립되어 있지 않을 뿐아니라 수용농가는 육묘장 관리 및 재배기술이 미흡하며 경영계획 및 경영분석 모델이 확립되어 있지 않아 생산현장에서 많은 애로를 느끼고 있는 실정이다. Ⅲ. 연구개발과 내용 및 범위 1. 공정육묘를 위한 온실 표준화 연구 가. 공정육묘시스템 도입을 위한 검토 나. 공정육모온실의 표준모델 설정 다. 공정육모온실의 시설장비 및 자재 규격화 라. 공정묘 보급과 생산량 예측 및 묘의 표준규격 2. 공정육묘의 자동화 시스템 개발 가. 자동파종시스템 개발 나. 묘 이송라인 개발 다. 발아실 표준규격 정립 라. 온실의 재배관리 장치개발 마. 복합환경제어 장치개발 3. 공정묘 생산기술 개발 가. 공정묘 생산과 보급을 위한 나. 공정묘용 상토 및 액비개발 시험 다. 공정묘에서 양액의 농도와 DIF가 생육에 미치는 영향, 그리고 작부체계 계획 라. 플러그 잡목묘 재배생산시험 마. 공정묘 육성에 식물활성물질 이용효과 시험 바. 고추 공정묘의 생장조절시험 사. 공정육묘의 육묘농가 적응시험 4. 공정육모사업의 경영분석과 경영체계 수립 가. 공정육묘사업의 경제성 분석 나. 공정육묘농장의 경영체계 수립의 실제 Ⅳ. 연구개발 결과 및 활용에 대한 건의 1. 연구개발 결과 공정육묘온실의 표준모델 및 자동화시스템 개발과 농가활용 기술에 관한 연구를 위하여 우리나라 농가에 보급할 수 있는 표준온실설계, 온실내 도입되어야할 시설장비의 자동화시스템 개발과 이들의 표준화 연구, 공정묘 생산을 위한 다각적인 재배기술 시험, 그리고 표준온실에 대한 육묘농가의 경영분석 표준모델 등에 대한 조사분석, 설계, 시험 등을 실시하였든바 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 가. 공정육묘를 위한 온실 표준화 연구 1) 우리나라 원예작물의 묘생산을 공정화 하기 위하여 검토되어야할 플러그묘의 특징, 선진외국 플러그묘의 생산기술 현황, 플러그묘의 이용효과, 우리나라의 육묘현황과 문제점 등을 고찰하였고 또한 육묘의 작업공정별 주요내용을 검토하여 플러그육모 시스템 도입을 위한 문제점을 제시하였다. 이를 표준모델 설정의 기본자료로 삼았다. 2) 공정육묘용 표준온실을 설계하기 위하여 온실구조, 장치, 자재 등에 대한 종류별 특성과 도입규모를 정리하였다. 3) 온실의 설게는 양지붕형 철골유리온실(3G)과 지붕형 경질피복재온실(2P형) 등 2가지 형태로 표준화 하였으며 유리온실은 면적 4,914㎡(1,500평형), 경질재온실은 면적 3,304㎡(1,000평형)으로 각각 설계하였다. 그리고 이들 2형태의 온실을 각각 독립형과 2동 분리형(3G-S형, 2P-S형)으로 설계하였으며 분리형은 여러작물을 동시에 육묘하고자 할 때 환경조절을 용이하게 제어할 수 있도록 하였다. 온실설계에 포함한 내용은 설계도, 1회 최대 묘생산량 예측, 공사비 내역, 시방서, 눈과 바람에 대한 구조안정성 해석등 이며 각 형태별 표준온실도서는 본 연구 보고서의 별책 부록으로 작성하였다. 4) 공정육묘온실의 효율적 안전관리를 위한 작업공정 내용을 자재의 준비부터 묘출하에 이르기까지 17개항에 대하여 세부사항을 기술하였다. 나. 공정육묘온실의 시설장비 및 자재 규격화 1) 육묘온실의 베트, 보온용 커튼개폐장치, 자주식 두상관비장치, 액비혼입기, 무인방제기, 복합환경제어장치, 발아실, 접목활착초진장치, 자동파종시스템 등 공정육묘온실에 도입되어야 할 시설장비에 대한 용도와 성능을 검토하였다. 2) 공정묘 생산에 필수자재인 트레이, 상토 등에 대한 규격, 특성, 묘생산과 관련된 사항 등을 검토하였다. 3) 공정묘의 보급과 관련된 문제점을 관행묘와 비교하여 검토하였으며 양질의 공정묘가 갖추어야할 구비조건을 제시하였다. 4) 우리나라 공정묘의 수요전망과 생산량을 예측하였고 공정묘 보급율 30% 기준에서 2004년까지 적어도 1,500평 규모의 시설이 180여개가 도입외어야 할 것으로 추산되었다. 5) 주요 작물별 공종묘 출하규격과 유통가격을 조사분석 하였으며 이를 트레이 규격별로 산출하여 설계된 표준온실의 경영분석 자료로 활용하였다. 다. 공정육묘이 자동화 시스템 개발 1) 자동파종시스템 개발 자동파종 시스템은 상토의 혼합, 트레이의 공급, 상토의 충전, 진압, 파종, 복토, 관수, 발아실 이송 등의 단계를 자동으로 전체작업이 이루어지도록 하였다. 작업공정은 2인의 작업자가 200공 트레이 150매/시간 의 작업능률를 가질 수 있도록 구성하였다. 자동파종기는 트럼형과 노즐형 2가지 형태로 설계, 제작, 시험하였다. 노즐형파종기의 작업속도는 180트레이/시간 으로 드럼형의 300트레이.시간 보다 늦었다. 반면에 파종효율은 노즐형이 98%로서 드럼형의 90%보다 높고, 또한 종자의 형상과 크기에 관계없이 노즐형이 효과적인 파종이 가능하였다. 따라서 상품화를 위한 파종기는 노즐형으로 하였다. 2) 온실의 묘이송라인 개발 육묘용 베드는 수동좌우이동형으로 하였으며 폭은 1,900mm로 하였고 길이는 40m 이내로하여 온식폭 9m에 4열로 배치하였다. 그리고 베드위에 표준규격 트레이 540x270mm를 길이 방향으로 7열로 배열할 수 있게 하였다. 이때 온실면적에 대한 육묘면적비는 76-79%범위에 있었다. 접목활착실의베드는 고정형으로 하였으며 베드폭은 1,800mm로 하였고 온식폭 9m내에 3열로 배치하였다. 그리고 베드상에 표준트레이 6매를 길이방향으로 배열할 수 있게 하였다. 이때 온실면적에 대한 접목묘면적비는 55-56%범위에 있었다. 트레이 이송방식은 육묘베드상에서 베드자체를 이동하는 방식과 트레이 탑차를 이용하는 방식등 2종류의 시제품을 개발하였다. 그러나 베드이송방식은 생력화면에서 탑차방식보다 5배의 능율이 있었으나 제작비가 약 10배이상 높게 요구될 뿐아니라 아직 베드이 이동라인 활용도가 미흡할 것으로 판단되어 표준온실에는 트레이 탑차방식을 도입하였다. 3) 발아실의 표준규격 정립 발아실은 보온단열성이 높은 200mm 스티로폴 압착판넬을 벽체에 이용하였고 단위면적당 냉난방부하는 36kcal/hr·㎡로 하고, 냉난방용량은 166. 4 kcal/㎡·hr으로 산출되었다. 가열방식은 지면온수난방으로서 방열관은 엑셀파이프(25Ψ)를 15㎝ 간격으로 배열할 때 충분하였다. 가습장치는 냉방시 최대 제습량 0.8g/㎡·min을 고려하여 설계되었으며 이때 가습기의 분무입자 15㎛, 용량은 g/㎡·min에서 10분이내 95% RH 균일가습이 가능하였다. 4) 온실의 재배관리장치 개발 공정육묘온실에 필요한 시설장비는 매우 많다. 본 연구에서 기존의 것들을 개선하기 위하여 시제품을 만들어 개발한 것은 자주식 두상관비장치, 양액혼입장치, 냉방장치, 초미립자 무인방제장치, 온실차단 분리용 수직커튼개폐장치의 응용 등이다. 5) 복합환경제어장치 개발 본 연구에서는 하드웨어와 소프트웨어 개발을 구분하였고, 하드웨어 개발에서는 각 센서의 정밀성, 인터페이스카드와 전용 컨트롤러의 안전성, 현장제어반의 전기배선 최적회로, 서지와 잡음 및 전자파 충격방지 기술개발이 수행되었다. 소프트웨어 개발에서는 농가현장에서 편리하게 사용할 수 있는 메뉴 및 조작 프로그램제작에 주안점을 두었으며 환경설정치의 제어은 P,PID,Fuzzy기법을 도입하였다. 계측항목으로는 온도, 습도, 공기순환, 관수, CO_2공급, 보온, 수막, 이상기후, 양액공급, 정보등이다. 본 장치는 농가에 설치하여 적응시험을 설시하고 평가를 받아본봐 95%이상의 만족도를 보였다. 라. 공종묘 생산기술개발 1) 공정묘 생간과 보급을 위한 육묘관리 및 재배기술 공정묘의 안정적 생산과 묘수용농가 확대를 위한 능율적 보급을 위하여 몇가지 육묘 재배기술에 대한 자료를 정리 고찰하였다. 공정육묘의 생육단계별 환경관리, 상토의 관리, 관수와 시비기술, 적정용수와 양액의 조제, CO_2시비효과, 공정묘의 생육조절과 관련된 몇가지 재배기술, 접목묘의 생산, 다년생식품의 춘화처리 공정묘 특성, 고온기의 온실 냉방방법의 종류, 병해충 관리, 묘생산후의 관리, 공정묘의 정식후 관리 등 여러분야의 내용을 요약하였다. 2) 공정육묘용 상토 및 액비개발 시험 공정육묘용 상토선발 및 액비시용효과 시험을 실시하였다. 개발된 상토는 「토실이」로, 액비는 「양실이」로 각각 명명되어 상품화 하였으며 이들 재료로 주요작물에 대한 적응시험이 수행되었다. 시험내용은 고추, 토마토, 배추 등은 대상으로 국내외 시판상토 비교시험, 상토재원중 피트모스대용 코이어 도입시험, 기비성상토 개발시험 등이 수행되었다. 3) 공정묘에서 양액의 농도와 DIF가 생육에 미치는 영향, 그리고 작부체계 계획공정묘 생산에 있어서 양액의 질소농도와 NH_4:NO_3 비율 및 최초시용시기가 생육에 미치는 영향에 대하여 수박접목묘와 고추묘를 대상으로 시험하였다. 수박접목묘에서는 전반적인 생육과 묘소실면에서 질소농도가 16meq·ℓ^-1, NH_4:NO_3 농도비에서 15:85%인 처리구가 우수하였고 접목이전 양액시용의 효과는 업었다. 고추묘 생육에서는 총이온농도가 25 meq·ℓ^-1 그리고 NH_4:NO_3 비율이 30:70% 정도로 재배하는 것이 적당할 것으로 사료되었다. 주야간 온도차(DIF)가 고추 및 토마토 플러그묘의 생육에 미치는 효과시험에서 +DIF, 0DIF, 변온 DIF를 각각 처리한 바 고추의 경우 조사형질에 따라 다소 차이는 있었으나 초장에서는 처리간에 비슷한 경향을 보였다. 그리고 토마토에서는 고추보다 유의차가 있는 형질의 많았고 특히 초장에서 0 DIF가 가장 짧고, 변은 DIF에서 가장 길며 1%의 유의성을 보였다. 공정묘의 연중생산을 위한 작부체계 모형검토와 작부체계별 생산계획을 위하여 우리나라 주요 공정묘인 고추, 수박, 오이, 토마토를 대상으로 현재조사 결과를 바탕으로 수요창출을 위한 작형을 검토하였다. 4) 플러그 접목묘 재배생산시험 과채료 접목묘 생산을 위한 종합적 검토가 이루어졌다. 즉 접목방법의 이론적 배경과 접목부의 조직학적 관찰, 수박, 오이, 토마토, 가지 등의 접목방법과 접목후 관리방법, 접목친화성, 위조현상, 자근발생, 대목의 부패, 왜화현상 등의 접목묘 생산에 대한 문제점 검토, 접목표의 활착부위정도가 묘생육과 정식후의생육과 수량에 미치는 영향 등에 대한 시험이 수행되었다. 그리고 수박, 오이 등의 작물을 공시하여 핀접목, 꽂이접, 유근접, 단근접 등 접목별로 농가적응시험을 실시하였고, 또한 본 과제에서 개발한 접목할착촉진장치의 이용효과에 대한 시험을 실시하였다. 5) 공정묘 육성에 식물활성물질 이용 효과시험 건전공정묘 육성을 위하여 몇가지 식물활성물질의 처리효과 시험이 수행되었다. 처리된 활성 물질은 Chitornate G, Aika, Hi-Atonic, Menedaeael등이었고 공시작물은 고추, 수박, 토마토, 미니토마토, 배추, 장미 등이었으며 시험내용은 종자침지효과, 묘생육시험, 접목묘생산시험, 공정묘의 노지정식 적응시험, 장미삼목시 발근효과 시험 등이 수행되었다. 6) 고추공정묘의 생산조절기술 플러그묘의 생장조절 필요성을 검토하였으며 또한 몇가지 생장조절기술에 대한 시험과 정식후에 미치는 영향 등에 대하여 실험하였다. 즉 생상조절의 이용, DIF처리에 의한 효과, 그리고 시비량조절에 의한 생장조절 등이었다. 특히 시비량조절에 의한 생장조절 시험에서는 생육단계별로 인산농도를 조절하거나 단비하므로서 초장뿐아니라 생장이 억제되었다. 그리고 인산시비조절에 의한 생장억제묘가 정식후 생육과 수량에 좋은 영향을 미쳤다. 이러한 결과는 경제적이고 가장 안정한 조절방법으로서 금후 고추뿐만아니라 여타작물에 대한 시험이 필요하였다. 7) 공정육묘 생산을 위한 육묘농가 현장 적응시험 공시작물은 토마토와 고추로 하였으며 시험내용은 공정묘의 육묘일수, 관행육묘와 공정육묘의 비교, 두상관수와 저면관수의 비교, 그리고 육묘배지 종류별 양액종류 및 양액농도 비교시험 등을 수행하여 적절한 조건을 규명코져 하였다. 또한 공정묘의 효율적인 보급를 위해 재배농가 실증시험을 실시하여 정식후 초기생육정도를 조사분석하였다. 마. 공정육묘사업의 경영분석과 경영체계 수립 1) 공정육모사업의 경제성 분석 공정육모의 경제성 분석은 본 과제에서 설계된 3G형 유리온실과 2P형 경질재 온실의 2가지 설계도서와 자재비 명세내용을 근거로 분석되었다. 3G형 유리온실은 1,500평 규모에서 평당 914천원이 투자되었고 2P형 경질재온실은 1,000평 규모에서 평당 851천원이 투자되어 투자비용 측면에서는 경질재온실이 상대적으로 낮았다. 공정육모 표준온실의 경영성과 분석에서 순수익율은 약 40-50%수준이었고, 총자본 수익율은 작물의 재배체계의 따라 33-49% 범위에 있어 현재의 경제조건에서는 투자경제성이 있는 것으로 판단되었다. 2) 공정육모농장의 경영체계 수립의 실제 기업형 육묘농장의 합리적 운영을 위하여 계획의 수립에서부터 경영일지 작성까지 제문제에 대하여 분야별 기록장을 예시하였다. 예를들면 육묘면적의 배치계획도 작성, 묘의 출하가격과 출하량예측, 예상되는 수입금 계획과 수지계획, 그리고 종자비, 비료비, 농약비, 상토 및 틀이 구입비, 감가상각비, 묘츌하비용, 노용임금 등에 대한 지출비 계획과 육묘 관리를 위한 작업계획등을 체계적으로 기록작성할 수 있도록 하였으며 이를 기초로 경영 분석과 평가가 이루어질 수 있게 하였다. 2. 활용에 대한 건의 가. 활용계획 1) 농림부-공동육묘장 시설생산유통 지원사업의 기준으로 활용 2) 산업체-온실, 시설장비, 자동화시스템 등의 국산화 개발 - 트레이, 상토, 액비 등 묘생산 자재의 표준화 및 국산화 개발 3 농업인-시설의 도입규모, 육묘장의 운영관리등 생산체계정립에 활용 -공정묘 생산을 위한 필요자재의 선택, 재배생산기술의 향상, 묘 주년 안전생산 정립 4) 학계-화훼류, 목본류의 공정육묘, 시스템 개발을 위한 선행연구 -식물공장형 생산시스템 개발의 기초자료 나. 활용자료 1) 농가보급형 공정육묘 표준온실의 설계도서(보고서 부록) 2) 발표된 논문 (1) 손영걸, 박봉식, 김시론, 임동희, 박중춘. 1996. 고추프러그 육묘에 있어서 상토혼잡 비율이 생육에 미치는 효과. 한국원예학회 발표요지 14(2):250-251. (2) 손영걸, 박봉식, 김시론, 임동희, 박중춘. 1996. 수박 핀 접목에서 접수령과 절단경사별 처리가 가습 활착실 차이에 따른 효과. 한국원예학회 발표요지 14(2):266-267. (3) 정병룡, 손영걸, 박언정, 김진일, 박중츤. 1996. 공정육묘용 상토선발시험, 경상대 시설원예연구보고 1:1-5. (4) 정병룡, 손영걸, 박언정, 이형정, 김진일, 박중춘, 1996. 공정육묘용 상토선발과물거름 시용 효과 시험. 경상대 시설원예연구보고 1:6-13. (5) 손영걸, 박봉식, 임동희, 김시론, 김진일, 박중춘. 1996. 토실이 상토와 국내외 몇가지 상토의 고추 육묘 비교시험, 경상대 시설원예연구보고 1:14-19. (6) 손영걸, 박봉식, 임동희, 김시론, 김진일, 박중춘. 1996. 토실이 상토와 국내외 몇가지 상토의 배추 육묘 비교시험. 경상대 시설원예연구보고 1:20-25. (7) 손영걸, 박봉식, 김시론, 임동희, 김진일, 박중춘. 1996. 토실이 상토의 코이어 도입 시험. 경상대 시설원예연구보고 1:26-32. (8) 박봉식, 이형정, 김시론, 오상석, 손영걸, 박중춘. 1996. 프러그 육묘종 상토의 코이어 혼합비율과 물거름에 목초산 혼합여부가 고추육묘에 미치는 효과 상호비교 시험. 경사대 시설원예연구보고 1:33-41. (9) 손영걸, 박봉식, 박언정, 김시론, 임동희, 이형정, 오상석, 박중춘. 1996. 프러그육묘용 상토의 코이어 혼합비율과 물거름에 목초산 혼합여부가 수박접목 육묘에 미치는 효과 상호비교 시험. 경상대 시설원예연구보고 1:42-48 (10) 손영걸, 박봉식, 박언정, 김시론, 임동희, 이형정, 오상석, 박중춘. 1996. 프러그 육묘용 상토이 코이어 혼합비율과 물거름에 목초산 혼합여부가 배추육묘에 미치는 효과 상호비교 시험. 경상대 시설원예연구보고 1:49-55. (11) 손영걸, 박봉식, 김시론, 임동희, 박중춘 1996. 수박핀 접목에서 접수령과 절단 경사별 활착비교와 가습활착실 이용 효과 분석. 경상대 시설원예연구 용역보고 1:56-64. (12) 박중춘. 1997. 원예용 상토의 개발 방향과 토실이의 특성. 신안그로 창사기념심포지움. 워크샵. 신안그로 1-26. (13) 손영걸. 박봉식, 오상석. 김시론, 박중춘. 1997. 수박 단근핀 접목에서 작물활력소 Menedael의 처리효과 시험(Ⅰ). 경상대 시설원예연구소 연구보고. pp. 7. (14) 손영걸, 박봉식, 오상석, 김시론, 박중춘. 1997. 수박 단근핀 접목에서 작물활력소 Menendael의 처리효과 시험(Ⅱ). 경상대 시설원예연구소 연구보고. pp.7. (15) 박중춘, 민영봉, 장점수, 정영경, 1997. 한국형 공정육묘장의 표준 시설장비와 플러그묘의 생산. 용현농협육묘장 완공세미나 자료집. 1-34. (16) 민영봉, 박중춘, 정한택, 오태한, 이상옥. 1997. 공정육묘장의 자동화를 위한 신개발 시설장비. 용현농협육묘장 완공세미나 자료집. 35-76. (17) 박중춘, 정병룡, 손영걸, 정한택, 장전수. 1997. 육묘용상토 「토실이」와 물거름 「양실이」개발 및 육묘효과 시험. 용현농협육묘장 완공세미나 자료집. 93-146. (18) 이영만, 박중춘. 1997. 공정육묘온실의 경영계획과 분석 프로그램. 용현농협육묘장의 경영시산분석. 용현농협육묘장 완공세미나 자료집. 147-166. (19) 강호종, 구우서, 박중춘. 1997. 접목정도가 수박묘 소질 및 수량에 미치는 효과. 한국원예협회 영남지부 가을 논문발표 요약집. p.16. 3) 출원 또는 등록된 산업재산권 ◁표 삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) For the development and application of standard greenhouse models and of automated systems of plug seedling production, research on the design of standard greenhouses to be introduced in Korea, on development and standardization of facility, equipment and materials of the plug production greenhouses, on plug seedling production techniques, and on management analysis of plug producers was conducted and the results are summarized as follows. 1. Research on the Greenhouse Standardization for the Plug Production Systems 1) Things necessary for mechanization of the plug production system, such as characteristics of the plug seedlings, status and technology of plug production in the developed countries, effects of utilizing plug seedlings, and current status of technology and problems of plug production in Korea, were discussed. In addition, based on the evaluation of major factors involved in each step of seedling culture, problems related to the introduction of plug production systems were suggested. And this information was used as base data for the establishment of the standard models. 2) To design standard greenhouses for plug production, characteristics and introduction sizes of greenhouse structure, facility and materials were systemized. 3) Two greenhouse models, and even-span steel frame glass house (3G) and an even-span greenhouse with rigid covers (2P), with 4,914㎡ (1,500 pyung) and 3, 304㎡ (1,000 pyung), respectively, were chosen as standard models. Both models were designed to be constructed either as one gutter-connected greenhouse or as two separate gutter-connected greenhouses (3G-S and 2P-S, respectively). The latter one was designed for the ease of environment control necessary for raising seedlings of different crops at the same time. The drawings of standard greenhouse designs were attached as a separate book. Greenhouse design, estimates of maximum number of seedlings which can be produced as a time, construction costs, specifications of the construction, and analysis of structure safety against snow and wind loads were included. 4) Seventeen stepwise work processes from materials preparation to seedling marketing were described for an efficient safety management of the greenhouses. 2. Standardization of Facility, Equipment and Materials for the Plug Production 1) Usage and function of the equipment and facility, such as beds, and opening and closing system of thermal curtains, a travelling overhead fertigation system, a fertilizer injector, and automated chemical fogger, an integrated environment control system, a germination chamber, a graft union promoting system, and an automatic seeder, were discussed. 2) Size, characteristics, and other factors related to seedling production, such as trays and germination media which are absolute necessity in plug production, were investigated. 3) Problems related to plug utilization were investigated against the traditional seedlings, and requirements of the high quality plug seedlings were suggested. 4) Estimates on the demand and production capacity of plug seedlings in Korea were predicted. Based on 30% of the total seedlings consumed nationwide are replaced with plug seedlings, it seems that at least 180 of 1,500 pyung plug production greenhouses will be needed by the year 2004. 5) Sizes and prices of the major plug seedling crops were investigated and analyzed, and were used for the analysis of management analysis of the plug greenhouses. 3. Development of Automated Systems 1) Development of automated seeding systems The automated seeding systems developed are automatically capable step by step of medium mixing, tray supplying, medium filling and packing, sowing, covering, irrigation and moving to the germination chamber. The work process needs two persons and has the capacity of 150 200-cell trays per hour. Automated seeders of drum and nozzle types were designed, developed and tested. The capacity of the nozzle seeder is slower with 180 trays per hour compared to the drum seeder which can handle up to 300 trays per hour. However, the nozzle seeder has 98% sowing efficiency, compared to 90% of the drum seeder, and is more effective in terms of handling seeds of irregular shapes and sizes. Therefore, only the nozzle seeder was commercialized. 2) Development of seedling moving lines in the greenhouse The greenhouse beds were built manually movable sideway and were manufactured in sizes of 1,900㎜ wide and less than 40m long so that 4 bed lines fit in each 9m wide greenhouse. On top of each bed 7 rows of standard 540㎜×270㎜ trays fit longitudinally. This arrangement gives effective culture area of 76-79%. The 1,800㎜ wide beds in the graft union promotion tunnels were fixed so that 3 rows fit in 9m greenhouses. On top of each bed 6 rows of standard trays fit longitudinally and this arrangement gives effective culture area of 55-56%. Two tray moving systems, movable beds on top of bed rails, and movable tray racks were developed. Movable beds had 5 times higher efficiency than the tray racks. However, since movable beds costs 10 times more than the tray racks to manufacture and since the bed moving on rails is assumed not commonly used, only the tray racks were introduced. 3) Establishment of standard specifications of the germination chamber 200㎜ thick pressed styrofoam panels which have a high thermal insulation efficiency were used on the walls. The germination chamber was estimated to need a cooling load of 36 ㎉·h^-1·㎡, and cooling and heating capacity of 166. 4 ㎉·h^-1·㎡. Floor heating with 25㎜ XL pipes arranged at a 15㎝ interval as radiators gave sufficient heat. Fogging system was designed considering the maximum removal of 0.8g·min^-1·㎡ of water during cooling. With fog particle size of 15㎛ and with fogging capacity of 5g·min^-1·㎡, 95% relative humidity was achieved in 10 minutes. 4) Development of a greenhouse culture management system There are many facility and equipment which the plug production greenhouses need. Among the facility and equipment which have been improved by making prototype models in this research are a travelling fertigation system, a fertilizer injector, a cooling system, an ultrafine fogger system, and an application of vertical curtain for the separation of greenhouse area into sections. 5) Development of an integrated environment control system Hardwares and softwares were developed. Hardwares with an emphasis on the precision of different sensors, safety of the interface cards and controllers, optimization of the circuit composition of the local control panel, and prevention of surge, noise and shock were developed. Software development was focused on grower-friendly menus and control programs. For the control of environment set points, P, PID and fuzzy technology were introduced. Factors such as temperature, humidity, air circulation, CO^2 supply, insulation, water curtain, abnormal climate, and fertilizer supply are controlled. The grower responses to the field trials showed satisfaction over 95%. 4. Development of Plug Seedling Production Techniques 1) Management and cultural techniques for the production and utilization of plug seedlings For-stable production and popularization of plug seedlings, materials on the plug seedling culture and techniques are collected and analyzed. Information on such cultural management and techniques are summarized as environment control at different stages of seedling growth, medium management, irrigation and fertilization technique, water quality and preparation of nutrient solutions, CO^2 fertilization, control of growth, production of grafted seedlings, vernalization of perennial plug seedlings, and postharvest handling of the plug seedlings. 2) Study on the development of growing media and nutrient solutions Growth of seedlings of major greenhouse crops on different growing media and with different nutrient solutions were evaluated. The medium and nutrient solution developed and commercialized were named “Tosilee” and “Yangsilee”, respectively. Comparison experiments with pepper, tomato and chinese cabbage of different media formulated in Korea as well as in other countries, replacement of peat moss in the media with coir, and inclusion of nutrition in the media were conducted. 3) Effect of nutrient levels, NH_4:NO_3 ratio, and DIF on the growth of plug seedlings, and analysis of cropping systems A study was conducted to examine the effect of N concentration and NH_4:NO_3 ratio of the nutrient solution, and time of first fertigation on the growth of plug seedling of grafted watermelon. Watermelon shoots grafted to gourd rootstock were planted in 50-cell plug trays and were fertilized with one of the nine nutrient solutions starting from either one day prior to or five days after grafting. Nutrient solutions contained either 8.0, 16.0 or 24.0 meq·ℓ^-1 N which consists of either 1:100, 15:85 or 30:70 in % NH_4:NO_3 ratio. Overall grafted seedlings with best growth and quality were produced in treatment with 16 meq·ℓ^1 N with a NH_4:NO_3 ratio of 15%:85%. However, feeding of the seedlings prior to grafting was not beneficial. The second study investigated the growth of pepper plug seedlings as affected by total ion concentration and NH_4:NO_3 ratio of the nutrient solution. Pepper seedlings grew the best with 25 meq·ℓ^-1 total ion concentration and 30%:70% NH_4:NO_3 ratio. In the third experiment, the effect of KIF on the stem elongation of pepper and tomato plug seedlings was studied. The three temperature treatments used were +DIF, 0DIF and alternating temperatures. The results showed that 0DIF was the most effective and alternating temperatures the least effective in suppressing stem elongation in both species. Other growth parameters were also affected by the treatment. In addition, the current cropping systems of plug production greenhouses for pepper, watermelon, cucumber and tomato were investigated, and based on those possible future cropping systems desirable for the creation of demand on plug seedlings were suggested. 4) Study on the culture of grafted plug seedlings Integrated discussion on the grafted seedling production of fruit vegetables was included. In other word, theoretical basis of grafting methods, anatomical observations of the graft unions, grafting methods and care after grafting of the watermelon, cucumber, tomato and eggplant seedlings, and problems related to graft compatibility, wilting, scion rooting, rotting of root stocks and dwarfing, and effect of graft union on growth of the plants and yield were investigated. In addition, pin grafting, radicle grafting, and cutting graft were applied and tested to watermelon and cucumber in commercial plug production greenhouses. And the graft union promoting chamber developed in this study was tested for its efficiency. 5) Study on the Effect of Growth Activating Materials on Plug Seedling Growth In n effort to produce quality plug seedlings, several materials were tested for their effect as growth activators. Seeds of pepper, watermelon, tomato, cherry tomato, and chinese cabbage, and cuttings of rose were soaked in solutions of Chitomate G, Aika, Hi-Atonic, and Menedael, and effect of these materials on plug seedling growth, grafted seedling growth, seedling transplanting, and rooting was examined. 6) Study on the Growth Regulation of Pepper Plug Seedling The need for growth control of the plug seedlings was discussed and several growth control methods were evaluated for their effectiveness and effect on plant growth and development after transplanting, These include use of growth regulators, use of DIF, and use of controlled fertilization. In the controlled fertilization experiment, control of phosphate at different stage of seedling growth or no fertilization gave suppressed height and growth. However, the growth suppressed-seedlings gave increased growth the yield after transplanting. This method seems to be very economical and safe and needs to be tested for other species. 7) Field Trial Experiments in the Commercial Greenhouses on the Plug Seedlings Production The experiment compared growth of plug seedling of pepper and tomato as affected by seedling age, traditional seedlings vs plug seedlings, overhead vs flood irrigation, growing medium, and type and total ion concentration of the nutrient solution. In addition, in an effort to promote plug seedling utilization early stage growth of theses species after transplanting to commercial greenhouses was evaluated. 5. Management Analysis of Plug Production Business and Establishment of Management System 1) Economic Analysis of the Plug Production Business Economic analysis of the plug production business was made based on the construction design and material specifications necessary for the two greenhouse types, 3G glass house and 2P rigid cover greenhouse. A 1,500 pyung 3G glass house needs capital investment of 914,000 won per pyung and a 1,000 pyung 2P rigid cover greenhouse 851,000 won per pyung, which is lower that the 3G glass house. Analysis of management effect of the standard greenhouses showed net return rate of 40-50%, and total capital return rate of 33-49%, depending on the cropping system. Therefore, under current economic conditions, it is thought that plug greenhouses are worthy of economic investment. 2) Practical Establishment of Management System of the Plug Production For sound management of enterprise-type plug greenhouses, recording booklet for different parts from establishment of plan to writing of a management diary was exemplified. For example, drawing of culture area arrangement, prediction of seedling prices and demand, predicted income and balance, expenses for seeds, fertilizers, chemicals, trays, growing medium, facility depreciation, marketing and labor, and work plan for seedling culture can be systematically recorded and the management effect can be evaluated based on theses factors.

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Probing the impact of quercetin-7-O-glucoside on influenza virus replication influence

        Gansukh, E.,Kazibwe, Z.,Pandurangan, M.,Judy, G.,Kim, D.H. G. Fischer 2016 Phytomedicine Vol.23 No.9

        <P>Background: Influenza virus is still at large and seriously affects social welfare and health. Dianthus superbus is a well-known medicinal plant widely used in Mongolian and Chinese traditional medicine for anti-inflammatory purposes. Purpose: To investigate the influence of this novel herbal medicinal product over virus infection and virus-induced symptoms Method: Quercetin-7-O-glucoside was isolated by bioassay (anti-influenza)-guided fractionation. The structural elucidation was made with 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Influenza A/Vic/3/75 (H3N2), A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), B/Maryland/1/59 and B/Lee/40 viruses were used for the evaluation of the antiviral activity. Virus-induced reactive oxygen species and autophagy formation levels were studied. The antiviral mechanism was elucidated via time-dependent, pre-, post-incubation assay methods. The viral RNA replication inhibition of Q7G was analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR method. The blocking of polymerase basic protein subunits of influenza viral RNA polymerase by Q7G was detected by in silico molecular docking assays using AutoDock Vina program with m(7)GTP. Additionally, Q7G was tested against M-MuLV RNA polymerase. Results: Q7G was not cytotoxic (CC50 > 100 mu g/ml) in MDCK cells and it showed 3.1 mu g/ml, 6.61 mu g/ml, 8.19 mu g/ml and 5.17 mu g/ml IC50 values against influenza A/PR/8/34, A/Vic/3/75, B/Lee/40 and B/Maryland/1/59 virus strains, respectively. Treatment of Q7G highly reduced ROS and autophagy formation induced by influenza virus infection. Q7G did not reduce NA activity and did not directly interact with the virus particles. Since viral RNA synthesis was blocked by treatment of Q7G. We targeted viral RNA polymerase for further probing. Interestingly, the binding energy of Q7G on viral PB2 protein was -9.1 kcal/mol and was higher than m(7)GTP recorded as -7.5 kcal/mol. It also was observe to block M-MuLV RNA polymerase. Conclusion: Isolated compound Q7G showed strong inhibition activity against influenza A and B viruses. It also reduced virus-induced ROS and autophagy formation. Q7G does not directly bind to the virus particles and did not affect NA activity. These results indicated that Q7G inhibits viral RNA polymerase, and that it occupies the binding site of m(7)GTP on viral PB2 protein. (C) 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.</P>

      • KCI등재후보

        Effect of Genotype on Whole-body and Intestinal Metabolic Response to Monensin in Mice

        Y. K. Fan,W. J. Croom, Jr.,Linda Daniel,B. W. McBride,M. Koci,G. B. Havenstein,E. J. Eisen 아세아·태평양축산학회 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.4

        Two lines of mice, M16 selected for rapid growth and a randomly selected control ICR as well as their reciprocal crosses were used to study the effects of genotype on whole-body energetics and intestinal responses to monensin. Six mice, eight weeks of age, from each line or reciprocal cross were assigned to one of two treatments, 1) drinking water containing 20 mmol/L monensin dissolved in 0.5% V/V ethanol, and 2) drinking water containing 0.5% V/V ethanol (control) for two weeks. After 11 days (age of 9 weeks and 4 days), whole-body O2 consumption was measured. At the end of two weeks, jejunal O2 consumption, intestinal tissue composition and histomorphometrics as well as the rate and efficiency of glucose absorption were estimated. In comparison with the control, monensin administration in drinking water resulted in less daily water intake (13.4 vs. 15.5 ml/mouse, p<0.01), less protein to DNA ratio of jejunal mucosa (5.41 vs. 6.01 mg/mg, p<0.05), lower villus width (88 vs. 100 쨉m, p<0.05), and less jejunal tissue O2 consumption enhancement by alcohol (7.2 vs. 10.5%, p<0.01) in mice. Other than those changes, monensin had little (p>0.05) effect on variables measured in either line of mice or their reciprocal cross. In contrast, the M16 line, selected for rapid growth, as compared to the ICR controls or the reciprocal crosses, had less initial (pre-monensin treatment) whole-body O2 consumption per gram of body weight (1.68 vs. 2.11-2.34 쨉mol/min쨌g BW, p<0.01) as compared to the ICR and reciprocal crosses. In addition, the M16 mice exhibited greater growth (412 vs. 137-210 mg/d, p<0.05), better feed efficiency (41.7 vs. 19.9-29.3 mg gain/g feed, p<0.05), shorter small intestines adjusted for fasted body weight (1.00 vs. 1.22-1.44 cm/g FBW, p<0.05), wider villi (109 vs. 87-93 쨉m, p<0.05), more mature height of enterocytes (28.8 vs. 24.4-25.1 쨉m, p<0.05) and a lower rate (91 vs. 133-145 管mol glucose/min??g jejunum, p<0.05) and less energetic efficiency (95 vs. 59-72 管mol ATP expended/管mol glucose uptake, p<0.05) of glucose absorption compared to the ICR line and the reciprocal cross. Monensin had little (p>0.05) effect on whole-body O2 consumption and jejunal function, whilst selection for rapid growth resulted in an apparent down-regulation of intestinal function. These data suggest that genetic selection for increased growth does not result in concomitant changes in intestinal function. This asynchrony in the selection for production traits and intestinal function may hinder full phenotypic expression of genotypic growth potential. Two lines of mice, M16 selected for rapid growth and a randomly selected control ICR as well as their reciprocal crosses were used to study the effects of genotype on whole-body energetics and intestinal responses to monensin. Six mice, eight weeks of age, from each line or reciprocal cross were assigned to one of two treatments, 1) drinking water containing 20 mmol/L monensin dissolved in 0.5% V/V ethanol, and 2) drinking water containing 0.5% V/V ethanol (control) for two weeks. After 11 days (age of 9 weeks and 4 days), whole-body O2 consumption was measured. At the end of two weeks, jejunal O2 consumption, intestinal tissue composition and histomorphometrics as well as the rate and efficiency of glucose absorption were estimated. In comparison with the control, monensin administration in drinking water resulted in less daily water intake (13.4 vs. 15.5 ml/mouse, p<0.01), less protein to DNA ratio of jejunal mucosa (5.41 vs. 6.01 mg/mg, p<0.05), lower villus width (88 vs. 100 쨉m, p<0.05), and less jejunal tissue O2 consumption enhancement by alcohol (7.2 vs. 10.5%, p<0.01) in mice. Other than those changes, monensin had little (p>0.05) effect on variables measured in either line of mice or their reciprocal cross. In contrast, the M16 line, selected for rapid growth, as compared to the ICR controls or the reciprocal crosses, had less initial (pre-monensin treatment) whole-body O2 consumption per gram of body weight (1.68 vs. 2.11-2.34 쨉mol/min쨌g BW, p<0.01) as compared to the ICR and reciprocal crosses. In addition, the M16 mice exhibited greater growth (412 vs. 137-210 mg/d, p<0.05), better feed efficiency (41.7 vs. 19.9-29.3 mg gain/g feed, p<0.05), shorter small intestines adjusted for fasted body weight (1.00 vs. 1.22-1.44 cm/g FBW, p<0.05), wider villi (109 vs. 87-93 쨉m, p<0.05), more mature height of enterocytes (28.8 vs. 24.4-25.1 쨉m, p<0.05) and a lower rate (91 vs. 133-145 管mol glucose/min??g jejunum, p<0.05) and less energetic efficiency (95 vs. 59-72 管mol ATP expended/管mol glucose uptake, p<0.05) of glucose absorption compared to the ICR line and the reciprocal cross. Monensin had little (p>0.05) effect on whole-body O2 consumption and jejunal function, whilst selection for rapid growth resulted in an apparent down-regulation of intestinal function. These data suggest that genetic selection for increased growth does not result in concomitant changes in intestinal function. This asynchrony in the selection for production traits and intestinal function may hinder full phenotypic expression of genotypic growth potential.

      • Restricted growth of U‐type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout cells may be linked to casein kinase II activity

        Park, J W,Moon, C H,Harmache, A,Wargo, A R,Purcell, M K,Bremont, M,Kurath, G Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011 Journal of fish diseases Vol.34 No.2

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>Previously, we demonstrated that a representative M genogroup type strain of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from rainbow trout grows well in rainbow trout‐derived RTG‐2 cells, but a U genogroup type strain from sockeye salmon has restricted growth, associated with reduced genome replication and mRNA transcription. Here, we analysed further the mechanisms for this growth restriction of U‐type IHNV in RTG‐2 cells, using strategies that assessed differences in viral genes, host immune regulation and phosphorylation. To determine whether the viral glycoprotein (G) or non‐virion (NV) protein was responsible for the growth restriction, four recombinant IHNV viruses were generated in which the G gene of an infectious IHNV clone was replaced by the G gene of U‐ or M‐type IHNV and the NV gene was replaced by NV of U‐ or M‐type IHNV. There was no significant difference in the growth of these recombinants in RTG‐2 cells, indicating that G and NV proteins are not major factors responsible for the differential growth of the U‐ and M‐type strains. Poly I:C pretreatment of RTG‐2 cells suppressed the growth of both U‐ and M‐type IHNV, although the M virus continued to replicate at a reduced level. Both viruses induced type 1 interferon (IFN1) and the IFN1 stimulated gene Mx1, but the expression levels in M‐infected cells were significantly higher than in U‐infected cells and an inhibitor of the IFN1‐inducible protein kinase PKR, 2‐aminopurine (2‐AP), did not affect the growth of U‐ or M‐type IHNV in RTG‐2 cells. These data did not indicate a role for the IFN1 system in the restricted growth of U‐type IHNV in RTG‐2 cells. Prediction of kinase‐specific phosphorylation sites in the viral phosphoprotein (P) using the NetPhosK program revealed differences between U‐ and M‐type P genes at five phosphorylation sites. Pretreatment of RTG‐2 cells with a PKC inhibitor or a p38MAPK inhibitor did not affect the growth of the U‐ and M‐type viruses. However, 100 μ<SMALL>m</SMALL> of the casein kinase II (CKII) inhibitor, 5,6‐dichloro‐1‐β‐<SMALL>d</SMALL>‐ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), reduced the titre of the U type 8.3‐fold at 24 h post‐infection. In contrast, 100 μ<SMALL>m</SMALL> of the CKII inhibitor reduced the titre of the M type only 1.3‐fold at 48 h post‐infection. Our data suggest that the different growth of U‐ and M‐type IHNV in RTG‐2 cells may be linked to a differential requirement for cellular protein kinases such as CKII for their growth.</P>

      • Multiple heterologous M2 extracellular domains presented on virus-like particles confer broader and stronger M2 immunity than live influenza A virus infection

        Kim, M.C.,Lee, J.S.,Kwon, Y.M.,O, E.,Lee, Y.J.,Choi, J.G.,Wang, B.Z.,Compans, R.W.,Kang, S.M. Elsevier/North-Holland 2013 Antiviral research Vol.99 No.3

        The influenza M2 ectodomain (M2e) is poorly immunogenic and has some amino acid changes among isolates from different host species. We expressed a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e sequences (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian origin influenza A viruses on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) in a membrane-anchored form. Immunization of mice with M2e5x VLPs induced protective antibodies cross-reactive to antigenically different influenza A viruses and conferred cross protection. Anti-M2e antibodies induced by heterologous M2e5x VLPs showed a wider range of cross reactivity to influenza A viruses at higher levels than those by live virus infection, homologous M2e VLPs, or M2e monoclonal antibody 14C2. Fc receptors were found to be important for mediating protection by immune sera from M2e5x VLP vaccination. The present study provides evidence that heterologous recombinant M2e5x VLPs can be more effective in inducing protective M2e immunity than natural virus infection and further supports an approach for developing an effective universal influenza vaccine.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Gα<sub>12</sub> gep oncogene deregulation of p53-responsive microRNAs promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma

        Yang, Y M,Lee, W H,Lee, C G,An, J,Kim, E-S,Kim, S H,Lee, S-K,Lee, C H,Dhanasekaran, D N,Moon, A,Hwang, S,Lee, S J,Park, J-W,Kim, K M,Kim, S G Macmillan Publishers Limited 2015 Oncogene Vol.34 No.22

        Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor prognosis owing to aggressive phenotype. Gα<SUB>12</SUB> gep oncogene product couples to G-protein-coupled receptors, whose ligand levels are frequently increased in tumor microenvironments. Here, we report Gα<SUB>12</SUB> overexpression in human HCC and the resultant induction of zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) as mediated by microRNA deregulation. Gα<SUB>12</SUB> expression was higher in HCC than surrounding non-tumorous tissue. Transfection of Huh7 cell with an activated mutant of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> (Gα<SUB>12</SUB>QL) deregulated microRNA (miRNA or miR)-200b/a/429, -194-2/192 and -194-1/215 clusters in the miRNome. cDNA microarray analyses disclosed the targets affected by Gα<SUB>12</SUB> gene knockout. An integrative network of miRNAs and mRNA changes enabled us to predict ZEB1 as a key molecule governed by Gα<SUB>12</SUB>. Decreases of miR-200a/b, -192 and -215 by Gα<SUB>12</SUB> caused ZEB1 induction. The ability of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> to decrease p53 levels, as a result of activating protein-1 (AP-1)/c-Jun-mediated mouse double minute 2 homolog induction, contributed to transcriptional deregulation of the miRNAs. Gα<SUB>12</SUB>QL induced ZEB1 and other epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers with fibroblastoid phenotype change. Consistently, transfection with miR-200b, -192 or -215 mimic prevented the ability of Gα<SUB>12</SUB>QL to increase tumor cell migration/invasion. In xenograft studies, sustained knockdown of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> decreased the overall growth rate and average volume of tumors derived from SK-Hep1 cell (mesenchymal-typed). In HCC patients, miR-192, -215 and/or -200a were deregulated with microvascular invasion or growth advantage. In the HCC samples with higher Gα<SUB>12</SUB> level, a correlation existed in the comparison of relative changes of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and ZEB1. In conclusion, Gα<SUB>12</SUB> overexpressed in HCC causes ZEB1 induction by deregulating p53-responsive miRNAs, which may facilitate epithelial–mesenchymal transition and growth of liver tumor. These findings highlight the significance of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> upregulation in liver tumor progression, implicating Gα<SUB>12</SUB> as an attractive therapeutic target.

      • KCI등재후보

        Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communications in Vehicular Networks

        ( M. J. Booysen ),( J. S. Gilmore ),( S. Zeadally ),( G. J. Van Rooyen ) 한국인터넷정보학회 2012 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Syst Vol.6 No.2

        To address the need for autonomous control of remote and distributed mobile systems, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are rapidly gaining attention from both academia and industry. M2M communications have recently been deployed in smart grid, home networking, health care, and vehicular networking environments. This paper focuses on M2M communications in the vehicular networking context and investigates areas where M2M principles can improve vehicular networking. Since connected vehicles are essentially a network of machines that are communicating, preferably autonomously, vehicular networks can benefit a lot from M2M communications support. The M2M paradigm enhances vehicular networking by supporting large-scale deployment of devices, cross-platform networking, autonomous monitoring and control, visualization of the system and measurements, and security. We also present some of the challenges that still need to be addressed to fully enable M2M support in the vehicular networking environment. Of these, component standardization and data security management are considered to be the most significant challenges.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communications in Vehicular Networks

        Booysen, M.J.,Gilmore, J.S.,Zeadally, S.,Rooyen, G.J. Van Korean Society for Internet Information 2012 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Syst Vol.6 No.2

        To address the need for autonomous control of remote and distributed mobile systems, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are rapidly gaining attention from both academia and industry. M2M communications have recently been deployed in smart grid, home networking, health care, and vehicular networking environments. This paper focuses on M2M communications in the vehicular networking context and investigates areas where M2M principles can improve vehicular networking. Since connected vehicles are essentially a network of machines that are communicating, preferably autonomously, vehicular networks can benefit a lot from M2M communications support. The M2M paradigm enhances vehicular networking by supporting large-scale deployment of devices, cross-platform networking, autonomous monitoring and control, visualization of the system and measurements, and security. We also present some of the challenges that still need to be addressed to fully enable M2M support in the vehicular networking environment. Of these, component standardization and data security management are considered to be the most significant challenges.

      • HCV, Alcoholic : PE-134 ; Hemoglobin decline during peginterferon Alfa-2B (PEG-2B)/ribavirin (RBV) treatment in real-Life is associated with favorable SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients with HCV genotype 1 (G1) infection

        ( G Teuber ),( S Mauss ),( D Huppe ),( E Zehnter ),( M P Manns ),( T Dahhan6 ),( U Meyer ),( T Witthoft ),( B Moller9,),( N Dikopoulos ),( J Brack ),( B Stade ),( M Bilzer ),( The Bng Hepatitis Study 대한간학회 2012 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2012 No.-

        Background and Aims: Recently, it has been shown for the overall G1 population that anemia as well as the maximal hemoglobin (Hb) decline during peginterferon/RBV treatment is associated with higher SVR rates. We here investigated whether the maximal Hb decline influences SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients undergoing Peg2b/RBV therapy for HCV G1 infection in real-life. Methods: Data of patients treated for G1 infection within the German Peg2b/RBV observational study were retrospectively analyzed. In this real-life cohort study G1 infection was treated with Peg2b 1.5 μg/kg/wk + weight-based RBV (800-1200 mg/day) for up to 48 wks at 285 sites. Subjects who discontinued for non-response or for any other reasons were included in the analysis. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA 24 wks after EOT response. Only one patient received erythropoietin treatment for anemia. Results: 1851 patients had baseline and at least one Hb measurement during therapy. Overall SVR rate was 42.6% (789/1851). SVR rates were only slightly higher for subjects with an absolute Hb decline >3 g/dL (44.3%, 493/1114) compared to those with maximum Hb declines <3 g/dL (40.2%, 296/737) (p=0.08). In contrast, a significant (p=0.0004) difference in SVR rates was obtained by comparing subjects with Hb declines >2 g/dL (44.6%, 673/1510) with those who experienced Hb declines <2 g/dL (34.0%, 116/341). Similar SVR rates of 46.1% (164/356) and 44.1% (509/1154) in patients with Hb declines >2 g/dL even if they did/did not become anemic (Hb<10 g/dL) strongly support Hb decline, and not anemia, as primary beneficial mechanism improving SVR. As summarized in the table, Hb declines >2 g/dl were significantly associated with higher SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients, such as subjects elder than 50 years or subjects with high baseline viral load >600.000 IU/ml. Interestingly no beneficial effect was observed in patients with low platelet count (<150/nL), an indicator of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Patients who first developed a Hb decline >2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 were likely to achieve similar SVR (41.3%, 365/883) than those who developed a Hb decline <2 g/dL (44.9%, 386/859). In contrast, a Hb decline >2 g/dL compared to <2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 was associated with a 2-3 fold higher risk of anemia in female (16.6% vs 40.5%) and male patients (7.3% vs 19.0%) when compared with a Hb decline <2 g/dL. Conclusions: Patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and in particular the subgroup of difficult-to-treat patients elder than 50 years or with HVL, achieve up to 15% higher SVR rates when they develop a Hb decline >2 g/dL during Peg2b/RBV therapy. However, patients with low platelet count <150/nL do not achieve this beneficial virologic effect.

      • HCV : PE-134 ; Hemoglobin decline during peginterferon Alfa-2B (PEG-2B)/ribavirin (RBV) treatment in real-life is associated with favorable SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients with HCV genotype 1 (G1) infection

        ( G Teuber ),( S Mauss ),( D Huppe ),( E Zehnter ),( M P Manns ),( T Dahhan ),( U Meyer ),( T Witthoft ),( B Moller ),( N Dikopoulos ),( J Brack ),( B Stade ),( M Bilzer ),( Bng Hepatitis Study Group 대한간학회 2012 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2012 No.1

        Background and Aims: Recently, it has been shown for the overall G1 population that anemia as well as the maximal hemoglobin (Hb) decline during peginterferon/RBV treatment is associated with higher SVR rates. We here investigated whether the maximal Hb decline influences SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients undergoing Peg2b/RBV therapy for HCV G1 infection in real-life. Methods: Data of patients treated for G1 infection within the German Peg2b/RBV observational study were retrospectively analyzed. In this real-life cohort study G1 infection was treated with Peg2b 1.5 μg/kg/wk + weight-based RBV (800-1200 mg/day) for up to 48 wks at 285 sites. Subjects who discontinued for non-response or for any other reasons were included in the analysis. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA 24 wks after EOT response. Only one patient received erythropoietin treatment for anemia. Results: 1851 patients had baseline and at least one Hb measurement during therapy. Overall SVR rate was 42.6% (789/1851). SVR rates were only slightly higher for subjects with an absolute Hb decline >3 g/dL (44.3%, 493/1114) compared to those with maximum Hb declines <3 g/dL (40.2%, 296/737) (p=0.08). In contrast, a significant (p=0.0004) difference in SVR rates was obtained by comparing subjects with Hb declines >2 g/dL (44.6%, 673/1510) with those who experienced Hb declines <2 g/dL (34.0%, 116/341). Similar SVR rates of 46.1% (164/356) and 44.1% (509/1154) in patients with Hb declines >2 g/dL even if they did/did not become anemic (Hb<10 g/dL) strongly support Hb decline, and not anemia, as primary beneficial mechanism improving SVR. As summarized in the table, Hb declines >2 g/dl were significantly associated with higher SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients, such as subjects elder than 50 years or subjects with high baseline viral load >600.000 IU/ml. Interestingly no beneficial effect was observed in patients with low platelet count (<150/nL), an indicator of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Patients who first developed a Hb decline >2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 were likely to achieve similar SVR (41.3%, 365/883) than those who developed a Hb decline <2 g/dL (44.9%, 386/859). In contrast, a Hb decline >2 g/dL compared to <2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 was associated with a 2-3 fold higher risk of anemia in female (16.6% vs 40.5%) and male patients (7.3% vs 19.0%) when compared with a Hb decline <2 g/dL. Conclusions: Patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and in particular the subgroup of difficult-to-treat patients elder than 50 years or with HVL, achieve up to 15% higher SVR rates when they develop a Hb decline >2 g/dL during Peg2b/RBV therapy. However, patients with low platelet count <150/nL do not achieve this beneficial virologic effect.

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