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      • Compost of Swine Manure Slurry Using the Thermophilic Aerobic Oxidation (TAO) Syst

        Lee, W.I.,Tsujii, H.,Lee, M.G.,Cha, G.C.,Chung, J.C. The Korean Society of Animal Environmental Science 2004 축산시설환경학회지 Vol.10 No.1

        현장규모 (8.6${\times}$2.5${\times}$2.4 m) 및 파이롯트규모 (1.39${\times}$0.89${\times}$0.89 m)의 고온호기산화장치를 이용하여 공기투입량 및 처리온도에 따른 양돈분뇨의 감량화 효율을 검토하였다. 현장규모에서 공기투입장치, 거품제거장치의 설치조건이 양돈슬러리 증발량과 처리온도에 모두 영향을 미치고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 현장규모 연구는 3가지의 처리방법 (처리A:공기공급량 120㎥/h, 수중펌프 2대, 소포장치2대: 처리 B: 공기공급량 180㎥/h, 수중펌프 3대, 소포장치 3대; 처리C: 공기공급량 180㎥/h, 수중펌프 3대, 소포장치 4대)으로 실행되었다. 1일 5㎥ 양돈슬러리를 동일하게 투입하면서 얻어진 연구결과, 수위변화, 온도변화 및 증발량은 각각 처리A: 50∼100cm, 31∼$64^{\circ}C$, 55L/$\m^2$ㆍday, 처리B: 40∼90cm, 29∼$52^{\circ}C$, 75L/$\m^2$ㆍday, 처리C: 40∼70cm, 45∼$54^{\circ}C$, 120L/$\m^2$ㆍday이었다. 한편 파이롯트 규모 연구는 반 연속식으로 양돈분뇨를 투입하면서 매일 투입량을 처리1: 50L/2h, 처리2: 50L/3h, 처리3: 40L/3h, 처리4: 60L/4h으로 하여 최대 슬러리 감량조건을 도출하기 위해 수행하였다. A field-scale(8.6${\times}$2.5${\times}$2.4 m) and pilot-scale(1.39${\times}$0.89${\times}$0.89 m) thermophilic aerobic oxidation (TAO) units were installed to investigate the volume reduction efficiency of slurry, by varying the aeration and treatment temperature of swine manure, and the collected liquid was evaluated as a liquid fertilizer. In the field-scale unit, the aeration level and numbers of foam breakers made different effects on the slurry volume and temperature in the TAO system. The experiments were peformed for three cases, using different levels of aeration and numbers of foam breakers: Treat-A (aeration rate; 120 ㎥ air/hr using 2 air pumps and 2 foam breakers), Treat-B (aeration rate; 180 ㎥ air/hr using 3 air pumps and 3 foam breakers) and Treat-C (aeration rate; 180 ㎥ air/hr using 3 air pumps and 4 foam breakers). With the same input volume (5 ㎥/day) of swine manure slurry, the resulting liquid levels, temperatures and evaporation rates were 50∼100 cm, 31∼$64^{\circ}C$ and 55 $\ell/m^2$/day for Treat-A; 40∼90 cm, 29∼$52^{\circ}C$ and 75 $\ell/m^2$/day for Treat-B; and 40∼70 cm, 45∼$54^{\circ}C$ and 120.0 $\ell/m^2$/day for Treat-C. In the pilot-scale unit, semi-continuous flow of swine manure slurry was introduced. 50 $\ell$ every 2hr(T-1), 50 $\ell$ every 3hr(T-2), 40 $\ell$ every 2hr (T-3) and 60 $\ell$ every 4hr (T-4) within 24 hours, in order to find the maximum slurry volume reduction conditions.


        Microneedle patch delivery to the skin of virus-like particles containing heterologous M2e extracellular domains of influenza virus induces broad heterosubtypic cross-protection

        Kim, M.C.,Lee, J.W.,Choi, H.J.,Lee, Y.N.,Hwang, H.S.,Lee, J.,Kim, C.,Lee, J.S.,Montemagno, C.,Prausnitz, M.R.,Kang, S.M. Elsevier Science Publishers 2015 Journal of controlled release Vol.210 No.-

        A broadly cross-protective influenza vaccine that can be administrated by a painless self-immunization method would be a value as a potential universal mass vaccination strategy. This study developed a minimally-invasive microneedle (MN) patch for skin vaccination with virus-like particles containing influenza virus heterologous M2 extracellular (M2e) domains (M2e5x VLPs) as a universal vaccine candidate without adjuvants. The stability of M2e5x VLP-coated microneedles was maintained for 8weeks at room temperature without losing M2e antigenicity and immunogenicity. MN skin immunization induced strong humoral and mucosal M2e antibody responses and conferred cross-protection against heterosubtypic H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza virus challenges. In addition, M2e5x VLP MN skin vaccination induced T-helper type 1 responses such as IgG2a isotype antibodies and IFN-γ producing cells at higher levels than those by conventional intramuscular injection. These potential immunological and logistic advantages for skin delivery of M2e5x VLP MN vaccines could offer a promising approach to develop an easy-to-administer universal influenza vaccine.

      • Multiple heterologous M2 extracellular domains presented on virus-like particles confer broader and stronger M2 immunity than live influenza A virus infection

        Kim, M.C.,Lee, J.S.,Kwon, Y.M.,O, E.,Lee, Y.J.,Choi, J.G.,Wang, B.Z.,Compans, R.W.,Kang, S.M. Elsevier/North-Holland 2013 Antiviral research Vol.99 No.3

        The influenza M2 ectodomain (M2e) is poorly immunogenic and has some amino acid changes among isolates from different host species. We expressed a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e sequences (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian origin influenza A viruses on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) in a membrane-anchored form. Immunization of mice with M2e5x VLPs induced protective antibodies cross-reactive to antigenically different influenza A viruses and conferred cross protection. Anti-M2e antibodies induced by heterologous M2e5x VLPs showed a wider range of cross reactivity to influenza A viruses at higher levels than those by live virus infection, homologous M2e VLPs, or M2e monoclonal antibody 14C2. Fc receptors were found to be important for mediating protection by immune sera from M2e5x VLP vaccination. The present study provides evidence that heterologous recombinant M2e5x VLPs can be more effective in inducing protective M2e immunity than natural virus infection and further supports an approach for developing an effective universal influenza vaccine.

      • Regulation of cancer cell death by a novel compound, C604, in a c-Myc-overexpressing cellular environment

        Jo, M.J.,Paek, A.R.,Choi, J.S.,Ok, C.Y.,Jeong, K.C.,Lim, J.H.,Kim, S.H.,You, H.J. North-Holland ; Elsevier Science Ltd 2015 european journal of pharmacology Vol.769 No.-

        <P>The proto-oncogene c-Myc has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Several c-Myc targets have been studied; however, selective regulation of c-Myc is not easy in cancer cells. Herein, we attempt to identify chemical compounds that induce cell death in c-Myc-overexpressing cells (STF-cMyc and STF-Control) by conducting MTS assays on approximately 4000 chemical compounds. One compound, C604, induced cell death in STF-cMyc cells but not STF-Control cells. Apoptotic proteins, including caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PAPP), were cleaved in C604-treated STF-cMyc cells. In addition, 5W620, HCT116 and NCI-H23 cells, which exhibit higher basal levels of c-Myc, underwent apoptotic cell death in response to C604, suggesting a role for C604 as an inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells with c-Myc amplification. C604 induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in cells, which was not affected by apoptotic inhibitors. Interestingly, C604 induced accumulation of c-Myc and Cdc25A proteins. In summary, a chemical compound was identified that may induce cell death in cancer cells with c-Myc amplification specifically through an apoptotic pathway. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>

      • TmSR-C, scavenger receptor class C, plays a pivotal role in antifungal and antibacterial immunity in the coleopteran insect Tenebrio molitor

        Kim, S.G.,Jo, Y.H.,Seong, J.H.,Park, K.B.,Noh, M.Y.,Cho, J.H.,Ko, H.J.,Kim, C.E.,Tindwa, H.,Patnaik, B.B.,Bang, I.S.,Lee, Y.S.,Han, Y.S. Pergamon Press ; Elsevier Science Ltd 2017 Insect biochemistry and molecular biology Vol.89 No.-

        Scavenger receptors (SRs) constitute a family of membrane-bound receptors that bind to multiple ligands. The SR family of proteins is involved in removing cellular debris, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and pathogens. Specifically, class C scavenger receptors (SR-C) have also been reported to be involved in phagocytosis of gram-positive and -negative bacteria in Drosophila and viruses in shrimp. However, reports are unavailable regarding the role of SR-C in antifungal immune mechanisms in insects. In this study, a full-length Tenebrio molitor SR-C (TmSR-C) sequence was obtained by 5'- and 3'-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The TmSR-C full-length cDNA comprised 1671 bp with 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of 23- and 107-bp, respectively. TmSR-C encodes a putative protein of 556 amino acid residues that is constitutively expressed in all tissues of late instar larvae and 2-day-old adults, with the highest transcript levels observed in hemocytes of larvae and adults. TmSR-C mRNA showed a 2.5-fold and 3-fold increase at 24 and 6 h after infection with Candida albicans and β-glucan, respectively. Immunoassay with TmSR-C polyclonal antibody showed induction of the putative protein in the cytosols of hemocytes at 3 h after inoculation of C. albicans. RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing and phagocytosis assays were used to understand the role of TmSR-C in antifungal immunity. Silencing of TmSR-C transcripts reduced the survivability of late instar larvae at 2 days post-inoculation of C. albicans, Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, in TmSR-C-silenced larvae, there was a decline in the rate of microorganism phagocytosis. Taken together, results of this study suggest that TmSR-C plays a pivotal role in phagocytosing not only fungi but also gram-negative and -positive bacteria in T. molitor.

      • Fabrication of ex situ processed MgB<sub>2</sub> wires using nano carbon doped powder

        Lee, C.M.,Park, J.H.,Hwang, S.M.,Lim, J.H.,Joo, J.,Kang, W.N.,Kim, C.J. North-Holland 2009 Physica. C, Superconductivity Vol.469 No.15

        We fabricated ex situ MgB<SUB>2</SUB> wires using C-doped MgB<SUB>2</SUB> powder as a precursor in order to improve the core density of the wires and their C doping content. The C-doped powder was prepared with Mg, B, and nano carbon (NC) powders by the in situ technique and then MgB<SUB>2-x</SUB>C<SUB>x</SUB> (x=0, 0.01, and 0.03) wires were fabricated by the ex situ technique using the powder-in-tube method. The phase formation, lattice change, and microstructure were characterized and correlated with the T<SUB>c</SUB> and J<SUB>c</SUB> variations. We observed that the ex situ wire had a higher core density than the in situ wire, however its morphology consisted of agglomerated particles, indicating that sintering and grain growth did not occur completely, even though the sintering was conducted at high temperature (1000<SUP>o</SUP>C). As the C content increased, T<SUB>c</SUB> decreased, while the decrease of J<SUB>c</SUB> with increasing magnetic field became smaller. The J<SUB>c</SUB> of MgB<SUB>1.97</SUB>C<SUB>0.03</SUB> wire made by the ex situ technique was 3.34kA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at 6.6T and 5K which is comparable to that of the in situ wire (4.81kA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at 6.6T and 5K).

      • Moracin M inhibits airway inflammation by interrupting the JNK/c-Jun and NF-κB pathways in vitro and in vivo

        Lee, J.H.,Ko, H.J.,Woo, E.R.,Lee, S.K.,Moon, B.S.,Lee, C.W.,Mandava, S.,Samala, M.,Lee, J.,Kim, H.P. North-Holland ; Elsevier Science Ltd 2016 european journal of pharmacology Vol.783 No.-

        <P>The therapeutic effectiveness of moracins as 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives against airway inflammation was examined. Moracin M, O, and R were isolated from the root barks of Morus alba, and they inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 production from IL-1 beta-treated lung epithelial cells (A549) at 101-00 mu M. Among them, moracin M showed the strongest inhibitory effect (IC50=8.1 mu M). Downregulation of IL-6 expression by moracin M was mediated by interrupting the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun pathway. Moracin derivatives inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-catalyzed NO production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated alveolar macrophages (MH-S) at 50-100 mu M. In particular, moracin M inhibited NO production by downregulating iNOS. When orally administered, moracin M (20-60mg/kg) showed comparable inhibitory action with dexamethasone (30mg/kg) against LPS-induced lung inflammation, acute lung injury, in mice with that of dexamethasone (30mg/kg). The action mechanism included interfering with the activation of nuclear transcription factor-kB in inflamed lungs. Therefore, it is concluded that moracin M inhibited airway inflammation in vitro and in vivo, and it has therapeutic potential for treating lung inflammatory disorders. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        정상인 및 당뇨병환자에서의 경구당부하시 혈중 Insulin과 C-Peptide의 변동

        이명철,고창순,최성재,김응진,민헌기 대한핵의학회 1977 핵의학 분자영상 Vol.11 No.1

        저자들은 정상인 및 당뇨병환자에서 insulin과 C-peptide의 변동양상의 의의를 관찰하고 또한 비만이 insulin 반응에 영향을 끼치는 것을 보고자 정상인 15명 (비비만형 10명, 비만형 5명), 중등도당뇨병환자 22례 (비비만형 13례, 비만형 9례) 및 중증당뇨병환자 9례, 총 46명을 대상으로 경구적 당부하시험을 시행하고 각 혈중 insulin과 C-peptide를 방사면역법으로 측정하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었기에 보고하는 바이다. 1) 10명의 비비만형정상인에서의 insulin치는 공복시 및 100 gm 경구당부하후 30, 60, 90, 120분에서 각각 15.7±3.4, 48.3±9.8, 4.4±6.7, 37.4±6.5 및 26.0±4.2uU/ml(Mean±S.E.)이고 C-peptide는 각각 1.9±0.3, 3.9±0.6, 6.3±0.6, 5.7±0.5 및 4.0±0.5 ng/ml로서 insulin가 C-peptide 평행한 반응을 보였고 insulin은 30분에서 최고치를 나타낸 반면 C-peptide는 60분에서 최고치를 보였다. 2) 비만형정상인 5례에서 insulin은 각각 38.9±12.3, 59.5±12.3, 59.2±17.1, 56.1±20.0 및 48.4±17.2uU/ml이고 C-peptide는 각각 5.5±0.4, 6.8±0.5, 7.9±0.8, 7.9±0.8 및 7.8±2.0ng/ml로서 비비만형에 비하여 반응이 현저히 증가함을 보였다. 3) 13례의 비비만형중등도당뇨병환자의 혈장내 insulin은 각각 27.1±4.9, 44.1±6.0, 37.3±6.6, 35.5±8.1 및 34.7±10.7uU/ml이고 C-peptide는 각각 2.7±0.4, 4.9±0.7, 6.5±0.5, 7.0±0.3 및 6.7±1.0ng/ml로서 비비만형정상군에 비하여 insulin 및 C-peptide의 차이는 없으나 지연되는 양상을 보였다. 4) 비비만형중등도당뇨병환자 9명에서의 insulin은 각각 22.1±7.9, 80.0±19.3, 108.0±27.0, 62.0±17.6 및 55.5±10.1 uU/ml이었으며 C-peptide는 5.2±0.4, 8.0±1.0, 10.4±1.6, 10.4±1.7 및 10.0±10ng/ml로서 insulin과 C-peptide 반응이 비비만형중둥도당뇨병환자군에 비해 각각 항진됨을 볼 수 있었다. 5) 중증당뇨병환자 9례에서의 혈중 insulin은 8.0±3.8, 12.1±3.5, 16.8±4.6, 19.6±5.2 및 15.0±5.0uU/ml이며 C-peptide는 1.6±0.3, 2.4±0.4, 4.1±0.6, 4.0±0.8 및 4.5±0.7ng/ml로서 insulin과 C-peptide가 각각 현저히 감소하였다. 이 각 당뇨병환자군에서의 총 insulin 및 C-peptide 면적, 그리고 insulinogenic index와 C-peptide index를 산출한 결과 당뇨병정도에 따른 유의한 차이를 관찰하였다. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the significance of the insulin and the C-peptide rseponse to oral glucose loads in normal and diabetic subjects and to establish the effects of the obesity. In this study, the authors have measured plasma insulin and C-peptide by means of radioimmunoassay in 10 nonobese normal, 5 obese normal, 13 nonobese moderate diabetic patients, 9 obese moderate diabetic patients and 9 severe diabetic patients. The results obtained were as follows; 1) In 10 nonobese normal subjects, the plasma insulin level at fasting state and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after oral glucose loads were 15.7±3.4, 48.3±9.8, 40.4±6.7, 37.4±6.5 and 26.0±4.2uU/ml(Mean±S.E.) and C-peptide were 1.9±0.3, 3.9±0.6, 6.3±0.6, 5.7±0.5 and 4.0±0.5ng/ml. The change of C-peptide was found to go almost parallel with that of insulin and the insulin value reaches to the highest level at 30 min whereas C-peptide reaches to its peak at 60min. 2) The plasma insulin level in 5 obese normal subjects were 38.5±12.3, 59.2±17.1, 56.1±20.0 and 48.4±17.2 uU/ml and the C-peptide were 5.5±0.4, 6.8±0.5, 7.9±0.8, 7.9±0.8 and 7.8±2.0ng/ml. The insulin response appeared to be greater than nonobese normal subjects. 3) In 13 nonobese moderate diabetic patients, the plasma insulin levels were 27.1±4.9, 44.1±6.0, 37.3±6.6, 35.5±8.1 and 34.7±10.7uU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 2.7±0.4, 4.9±0.7, 6.5±0.5, 7.0±0.3 and 6.7±1.0ng/ml. There was little significance compared to nonobese normal groups but delayed pattern is noted. 4) In 9 obese moderated diabetic patients, the plasma insulin levels were 22.1±7.9, 80.0±19.3, 108.0±27.0, 62.0±17.6 and 55.5±10.luU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 5.2±0.4, 8.0±1.0, 10.4±1.6, 10.4±1.7 and 10.1±1.0ng/ml and its response was also greater than that of nonobese moderate diabetic patients. 5) The plasma insulin concentrations in 9 severe diabetic subjects were 8.0±3.8, 12.1±3.5, 16.8±4.6, 19.6±5.2 and 15.0±5.0uU/ml and the C-peptide levels were 1.6±0.3, 2.4/ml and the insulin and C-peptide responses were markedly reduced in severe diabetic groups. 6) There were significant differences between each groups of patients on the magnitude of total insulin or C-peptide areas, the insulinogenic index and the C-peptide index. $quot;

      • 아마씨의 급여가 착유우의 영양소 소화율 , 유생산성 및 유지방내 지방산조성에 미치는 영향

        송만강,정태영,김종민,문철성,김동일,심정석 한국영양사료학회 1996 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.20 No.5

        착유우 사료에 아마씨(flaxseed)를 첨가하여 젖소의 영양소 이용효율과 유생산량, 유조성분 및 유지방내 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향을 조사하여 flaxseed의 우유내 효율적인 이행을 위한 기법을 연구하기 위하여 본 연구를 실시하였다. 평균산차 1.75산, 분만후 107.9일이 경과하고, 평균유량이 20㎏인 젖소 8두를 공시하여 Double 4 × 4 Latin Square design에 의해 ① 대조구(control), ② 진지 flaxseed 10% 첨가구(WF10%), ③ Rolled flaxseed 10% 첨가구(RF10%), ④ Rolled flaxseed 15%(RF15%) 첨가구 등 4개구로 나누어 한 period당 21일간씩 실시한 시험결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 농후사료에 flaxseed를 첨가하여 착유우에게 급여할 때 가공방법이나 첨가수준에 관계없이 조사료와 농후사료의 건물섭취량은 변화가 없었다. 2. Flaxseed의 첨가에 의해 건물, 조단백질, cell content NDF 및 ADF 등의 소화율은 감소하는 경향이었으나, 조지방의 소화율은 유의적으로 증가하였다(P$lt;0.05). Rolled flaxseed 처리구는 whole flaxseed 처리구보다 그리고 RF15%가 RF10% 보다 이상의 결과가 더욱 뚜렷하게 나타났다. 3. Flaxseed 첨가로 우유내 C_(12:0), C_(14:0), C_(14:1) 및 C_(16:0) 지방산함량은 감소하였으며(P$lt;0.05), 압연파쇄시에 전지의 경우보다 그 감소경향이 더 컸다. C_(18:0), C_(18:1ω9), C_(18:2ω6), C_(18:3ω3), C_(20:1ω9) 및 C_(20:4ω6)는 증가하였다(P$lt;0.05). 그 증가 효과는 RF15%$gt;RF10%$gt;WF10%$gt;Control 순이었다. 4. C_(12:0), C_(14:0) 및 C_(16:0) 지방산등 포화지방산은 유의하게 낮아졌고(P$lt;0.05), PUFA는 압연파쇄시 유의하게 증가되었다(P$lt;0.05). C_(16:0)에 대한 C_(18:0)+C_(18:1ω9)의 비율은 무첨가구의 1.23에서 RF15%구의 2.15로 증가하였다(P$lt;0.05). 5. 유량과 유조성분의 량과 함량은 flaxseed의 첨가에 의해 영향을 받지 않았다. 이상에서 살펴본 바와 같이 조지방을 제외한 각종 영양소의 소화율을 저하시키긴 하나 flaxseed를 농후사료에 15%까지 첨가하더라도 사료섭취량, 유량 또는 유조 성분에 영향을 미치지 않으면서 유지방내 지방간 조성은 인체내 유익한 방향으로 나타나고 있는데 특히 flaxseed를 압연파쇄하여 15%까지 농후사료에 첨가하였을 때 그 효과는 뚜렷하였다. The experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of flaxseed supplementation to dairy diets on nutrients utilizing efficiency, fatty acid composition of milk fat and productivity in milking cows. Eight lactating Holstein cows with an average 107.9 days postpartum were devided into four treatments ; control whole flaxseed 10%(WF10%), rolled flaxseed 10%(RF10%) and rolled flaxseed 15%(RF15%) in a double Latin Square design for 84 days. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Feed intakes were not significantly different among treatments. 2. The digestibilities of dry matter(DM), crude protein(CP), NDF and ADF tended to decrease by flaxseed supplement. On the other hand, digestibility of Ether extract(EE) significantly increased(P$lt;0.05). When compared at the same supplement level(10%) in which processing forms were different, the digestibilities of DM, CP, NDF and ADF except EE tended to be lower with rolled vs whole. 3. As supplement level of flaxseed increased up to 15% of concentrate, the concentration of C_(12:0), C_(14:0), C_(14:1) and C_(16:0) in milk significantly decreased(P$lt;0.05). When compared at the same supplement level(10%) in which processing forms were different, the concentration of C_(12:0), C_(14:0), C_(14:1) and C_(16:0) tended to be lower in RF10% group than in WF10% one. On the other hand, the concentrations of C_(18:0), C_(18:1ω9), C_(18:2ω6), C_(18:3ω3), C_(20:1ω9) and C_(20:4ω6) significantly increased(P$lt;0.05) by flaxseed supplement and were the highest in RF15% group. 4. Flaxseed supplement increased the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, on the contrary, significantly decreased(P$lt;0.05) that of saturated fatty acids. The concentration of saturated fatty acids(C_(12:0)+C_(14:0)+C_(16:0)) decreased about 25% in RF15% group when compared with the control. The ratio of C_(18:0)+C_(18:1ω9) to C_(16:0) increased by about 74% with RF15% group compared with the control. 5. There were no significant different among treatments by supplement with flaxseed in milk yield and composition. Conclusively, this study indicate that flaxseed supplement to milking cows showed positive effects on the fatty acids profile in milk with little negative effect on feed intake and digestibility of diet.


        Polyphasic delimitation of a filamentous marine genus, Capillus gen. nov. (Cyanobacteria, Oscillatoriaceae) with the description of two Brazilian species

        Caires, Taiara A.,Lyra, Goia de M.,Hentschke, Guilherme S.,da Silva, Aaron Matheus S.,de Araujo, Valter L.,Sant'Anna, Celia L.,Nunes, Jose Marcos de C. The Korean Society of Phycology 2018 ALGAE Vol.33 No.4

        Lyngbya C. Agardh ex Gomont is a nonheterocytous cyanobacterial genus whose evolutionary history is still poorly known. The traditionally defined Lyngbya has been demonstrated to be polyphyletic, including at least five distinct clades, some of which have been proposed as new genera. Intraspecific diversity is also clearly underestimated in Lyngbya due to the lack of unique morphological characters to differentiate species. In this study, we describe the new genus Capillus T. A. Caires, C. L. Sant'Anna et J. M. C. Nunes from benthic marine environments, including two new Brazilian species (here described as C. salinus T. A. Caires, C. L. Sant'Anna et J. M. C. Nunes, and C. tropicalis T. A. Caires, C. L. Sant'Anna et J. M. C. Nunes), and two species yet to be described, one of them from India (Capillus sp. 2.1), and the other from United States of America, based on strain PCC 7419. Capillus species presented cross-wise diagonal fragmentation, assisted or not by necridic cells, which has not been previously mentioned for Lyngbya. Ultrastructural analyses showed that C. salinus and C. tropicalis have numerous gas vesicles, which are rarely described for benthic marine species. The new genus formed a well-supported clade, and the D1-D1' and Box B secondary structures of internal transcribed spacer also supported the proposal of its new species. These findings help to clarify the diversity of species in the Lyngbya complex and the taxonomy of the group, and highlight the need of further floristic surveys in tropical coastal environments, which remain poorly studied.

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