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      • KCI등재

        Pediatric Sedation in the Emergency Department: Trends from a Nationwide Population-based Study in Korea, 2007–2018

        Lee Jeong-Yong,Choi Seung Jun,Park Jun Sung,Lee Jong Seung,Ryu Jeong-Min,Yum Mi-Sun 대한의학회 2021 Journal of Korean medical science Vol.36 No.33

        Background: Pediatric sedation in the emergency department (ED) is widely performed in Korea; thus exploring the trends of its use is necessary. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients and sedatives use in the ED and verify their changes over recent years. Methods: A nationwide population-based retrospective study was conducted including pediatric patients aged ≤ 15 years who received sedative medication in the ED and were discharged during 2007–2018, using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. Patient characteristics (age, sex, level of ED, and diagnosis) and type of sedative used were analyzed. Results: Sedation was performed in total 468,221 visits during 2007–2018 (399,320 visits, at least 3.8% of overall ED visits during 2009–2018). Among these, 71.0% were children aged 1–3 years and 93.5% were sedated to support diagnosis of injury. An increase in total sedation was observed in patients aged 4–6 years during the study period (from 13.8% to 21.8%). A gradual decrease in the use of chloral hydrate (CH) compared with an increase in ketamine use was observed (CH, from 70.6% to 28.6%; ketamine, from 23.8% to 60.7%). Therefore, ketamine was the most used sedative since 2014. The most frequently used sedatives over the study period differed according to age groups (CH in <1 year and 1–3 years; ketamine in 4–6 years and 7–10 years; and midazolam in 11–15 years). Conclusions: The characteristics of patients related to sedatives use in the ED have changed over time. These changes should be considered in the development of future Korean guidelines regarding pediatric sedation in the ED.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS
      • KCI등재

        Cyanide Poisoning Deaths Detected at the National Forensic Service Headquarters in Seoul of Korea

        Sang Ki Lee,Jong Sook Rhee,Hye Sun Yum 한국독성학회 2012 Toxicological Research Vol.28 No.3

        The records of 255 cyanide poisoning deaths obtained from National Forensic Service (NFS) headquarters, located in Seoul of Korea, from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age was 41.88 ± 13.09 and range was 6~80 years (unknown in seven cases). The number of deaths of males and females were 200 and 53, respectively (unknown in two cases). The largest number of cases occurred in people aged 40-49 years (81 cases, 31.8%), followed by the age groups 30~39 years (51 cases, 20%), 50~59 years (44 cases, 17.2%) and 20~29 years (43 cases, 16.9%). The total number of deaths among other age groups (below 10, 10~19, 60~69, 70~79, over 80 years and unknown) were 36, representing only 14.1%. Of all cyanide poisoning deaths, 97.3% were due to suicide, and 14.5% of the total number who died received medical treatment. The most frequent site for ingestion was the person"s own residence (120 cases, 47.1%) and the route of administration was mainly oral (252, 98.8%). From the total of 255 cyanide poisoning cases, white powders were submitted for analysis in 92 cases. Potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide occupied 51 and 41 cases, respectively. This study showed that poisoning deaths due to cyanide are one of the continuously reported public health problems in Korea. Enforcement of regulations and safety education to prevent cyanide poisoning should be carried out by the government.

      • Fast Verification of Hash Chains with Reduced Storage

        YUM, Dae Hyun,KIM, Jin Seok,LEE, Pil Joong,HONG, Sung Je The Institute of Electronics, Information and Comm 2011 IEICE transactions on fundamentals of electronics, Vol.ea94 No.1

        <P>A hash chain <I>H</I> for a hash function <B>hash</B>(·) is a sequence of hash values <<I>x<SUB>n</SUB></I>,<I>x</I><SUB><I>n</I>-1</SUB>,...,<I>x</I><SUB>0</SUB>>, where <I>x</I><SUB>0</SUB> is a secret value, <I>x<SUB>i</SUB></I> is generated by <I>x<SUB>i</SUB></I> = <B>hash</B>(<I></I>x<SUB><I>i</I>-1</SUB>) for 1≤ <I>i</I> ≤ <I>n</I>, and <I>x<SUB>n</SUB></I> is a public value. Hash values of <I>H</I> are disclosed gradually from <I>x</I><SUB><I>n</I>-1</SUB> to <I>x</I><SUB>0</SUB>. The correctness of a disclosed hash value <I>x<SUB>i</SUB></I> can be verified by checking the equation $x_n \\stackrel{?}{=} \\hash^{n-i}(x_i)$. To speed up the verification, Fischlin introduced a check-bit scheme at CT-RSA 2004. The basic idea of the check-bit scheme is to output some extra information <B>cb</B>, called a check-bit vector, in addition to the public value <I>x<SUB>n</SUB></I>, which allows each verifier to perform only a fraction of the original work according to his or her own security level. We revisit the Fischlin's check-bit scheme and show that the length of the check-bit vector <B>cb</B> can be reduced nearly by half. The reduced length of <B>cb</B> is close to the theoretic lower bound.</P>

      • Factors that control heavy snowfalls in the eastern coast of Korea

        Lee, Seoung Soo,Kim, Byung-Gon,Nam, Hyoung-Gu,Yum, Seong Soo,Choi, Yong-Sang,Jung, Chang-Hoon Chinese Geoscience Union 2018 TAO Vol.29 No.3

        <P>This study examines mechanisms which control heavy snowfalls in the eastern coast of Korea. Previous observational studies have indicated that heavy snowfalls are caused by the advection of cold and dry air over the warm ocean off the eastern coast. Previous studies have not considered the effects of surface heat fluxes on heavy snowfalls. It is likely that the warm ocean produces strong surface heat fluxes that are able to invigorate convection and enhance precipitation. Motivated by this, this study examines not only the effect of the advection on heavy snowfalls but also that of surface heat fluxes and compare these two types of effects. In addition to this, this study looks into microphysical and dynamic processes which are associated with heavy snowfalls, considering that previous studies have not given us information on these processes. By running high-resolution simulations, this study finds that surface heat fluxes are a main driver of heavy snowfalls and the roles played by the advection in them are negligible. Surface heat fluxes induce strong updrafts and large deposition onto snow and cloud ice, which enables the efficient growth of snow and heavy snowfalls. This demonstrates that for better understanding of heavy snowfalls in the eastern coast of Korea, we have to better understand the surface processes that are linked to surface heat fluxes.</P>

      • Quantitative Analysis Method of GPR Image for Road-Cavity Section

        Sang-yum Lee,Jung-moo Kim,Dae-yeol Kwak 한국도로학회 2018 한국도로학회 학술대회 발표논문 초록집 Vol.2018 No.05

        The Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) is a typical non-destructive test equipment which is widely used in seeking a cavity or underground facility. Test results are generally expressed 2D monochrome or color images, distribution of the parabolic waveforms are used to determine the existence of cavity and facility. (Fig. 1) But, an analysis method of image may cause errors depending on the knowledge and experience of analyst. In this study, we analyzed the coefficient of correlation between A-Scan data of GPR to judge the existence of cavity located under the pavement layer. The correlation analysis was performed based on the assumption that the relationship of correlation between a number of A-Scan data passing through a non-cavity section is larger than a small number of A-Scan data passing through a cavity section, and relationship of correlation was visualized using Surfer Program. (Fig. 2) In addition, apart from the correlation analysis, we compared the Power spectrum of the A-scan data for the cavity section and non-cavity section. In other words, assuming that the size of the energy changes depending on the existence of the cavity, PSD (Power Spectrum Density) is obtained for all the B-Scan data, and the tendency of the energy size is confirmed using the 3D wireframe map of the Surfer program. (Fig. 3) As a result, the correlation coefficient shows a small tendency in the cavity section and the PSD shows a large tendency, which is intuitively recognized that the energy attenuation in the cavity section is smaller than other material. But, there are some ambiguous sections to judge the tendency clearly, this is estimated to be noise on the underground facility and it is necessary to take measure of mitigating this.

      • Gene editing platform in Cattle

        Sang-Eun Hahn,Soo-Young Yum,Song-Jeon Lee,Choong-Il Lee,Hee-Soo Kim,Hyeong-Jong Kim,Woo-Jae Choi,Ji-Hyun Lee,Woo-Sung Lee,Goo Jang 한국수정란이식학회 2016 한국수정란이식학회 학술대회 Vol.2016 No.10

        The CRISPR/Cas9 system is proved to be a powerful tool for knock-out and knock-in in various species. By introducing genetic materials of two components (Cas9 and small guide (sg) RNA) into cells or pronuclear of the fertilized embryo, gene editing occurs. Some studies reported that efficiency of gene editing would be increased as Cas9 was integrated into cells or animals since Cas9 is indispensable in the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Accordingly, the production of Cas9 expressing cattle may provide the broadly used gene editing platform in cattle. For this study, Cas9 and RFP genes were cloned into PiggyBac (PB) transposon system. PB-Cas9-RFP and transposase were microinjected into 1436 in vitro fertilized embryos and 241 blastocysts were formed. Blastocysts with RFP expression accounting for 14.1% of total formed blastocysts were selected and transferred into 5 recipient cow. After gestation periods, four transgenic cattle were delivered without any veterinary assistance. From a transgenic cattle, ear skin tissue was collected for primary culture. On those primary cells, sgRNAs in DNA form for various genes such as PRNP, RB1 and BLG were transfected as 2ug of sgRNA per 5x105 cells using Nucleo factor system (Neon®, invitrogen, program#16). As expected, every group of each sgRNA delivered was confirmed to be mutated by T7E1assay. Those data demonstrated that for the first time, transgenic cattle with Cas9 expression were born, grown up to date and will be avaluable resource for genome-editing in cattle. This work was supported by BK21PLUS Program for Creative Veterinary Science and Seoul Milk Coop (SNU550-20160004).

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Intravenous levetiracetam versus phenobarbital in children with status epilepticus or acute repetitive seizures

        Lee, Yun-Jeong,Yum, Mi-Sun,Kim, Eun-Hee,Ko, Tae-Sung The Korean Pediatric Society 2016 Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics (CEP) Vol.59 No.1

        Purpose: This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous (i.v.) phenobarbital (PHB) and i.v. levetiracetam (LEV) in children with status epilepticus (SE) or acute repetitive seizure (ARS). Methods: The medical records of children (age range, 1 month to 15 years) treated with i.v. PHB or LEV for SE or ARS at our single tertiary center were retrospectively reviewed. Seizure termination was defined as seizure cessation within 30 minutes of infusion completion and no recurrence within 24 hours. Information on the demographic variables, electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, previous antiepileptic medications, and adverse events after drug infusion was obtained. Results: The records of 88 patients with SE or ARS (median age, 18 months; 50 treated with PHB and 38 with LEV) were reviewed. The median initial dose of i.v. PHB was 20 mg/kg (range, 10-20 mg/kg) and that of i.v. LEV was 30 mg/kg (range, 20-30 mg/kg). Seizure termination occurred in 57.9% of patients treated with i.v. LEV (22 of 38) and 74.0% treated with i.v. PHB (37 of 50) (P=0.111). The factor associated with seizure termination was the type of event (SE vs. ARS) in each group. Adverse effects were reported in 13.2% of patients treated with i.v. LEV (5 of 38; n=4, aggressive behavior and n=1, vomiting), and 28.0% of patients treated with i.v. PHB (14 of 50). Conclusion: Intravenous LEV was efficacious and safe in children with ARS or SE. Further evaluation is needed to determine the most effective and best-tolerated loading dose of i.v. LEV.

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