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Object : The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of fungal infection and ulcer on the feet of diabetic patients and the existence of correlation between ulcer and fungal infection. Methods : A total 21,693 outpatients diagnosed as diabetes mellitus at the department of endocrinology of 32 hospitals were examined. The diabetic patients with foot problems were consulted to the department of dermatology. Physical examination and KOH preparation were performed. Results : 13,271 patients had certain kinds of foot problem, accounting for 61.2% of 21,693 diabetics examined. Of these, fungal foot disease were found in 10,403 that constituted 78.4% (48.0% of the entire diabetic population). Tinea pedis was the diagnosis in 6,496 (29.9%), onychomycosis in 7,783 (35.9%), and coexistence was in 3,883 (17.9%). Foot deformity was in 1,346 (6.2% of diabetics; 10.1% of foot disease), non-palpable pulse in 1,051 (4.8% ; 7.9%), and foot ulcer was in 425 (2.0% ; 3.2%), following in a descending order of frequency. Odds ratios for diabetic foot ulcer were 2.5 in patients with the foot deformity, 1.6 with fungal foot disease and 2.2 with non-palpable pulse. Conversely, Odds ratios for fungal foot disease were 2.5 with foot deformity, and 1.6 with foot ulcer. A total of 5,486 patients paid a visit to the department of dermatology. Of these, 4,519 patients were diagnosed with fungal infection through physical examination and KOH smear by dermatologists. The population comprised of 2,272 males and 2,247 females, showing similar prevalence between sexes. However, age did have positive correlation regarding prevalence of fungal foot disease. The number of diabetic patients with toenail problems was 3,847 patients (70%) and onychomycosis was proven mycologically in 3,276. Onychomycosis of distal subungal type was the most common clinical finding, most frequently involving the great toenails. Abnormal skin findings of the foot were seen in 3,885(70.8%) and tinea pedis was found in 3,209 (58.5%), most commonly involving the soles. Conclusion : This study showed that fungal infection might be regarded as a risk factor of foot ulcer. Treatment of fungal infection in diabetic patients might prevent diabetic foot disease such as ulcer and reduce the disability, morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(7) : 908~915)
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Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of heart rate variability after antidepressant treatment in depressed or anxious patients. We tried to find the usefulness of heart rate variability as a predictive marker of response to pharmacological treatments in the psychiatric field. Methods : Forty-seven patients with major depression, anxiety disorder, and somatoform disorder were treated over 4 weeks with antidepressants and were then classified as responders or nonresponders according to Hamilton depression scales or CGI scores. The HRV variables were measured and compared among the responders/nonresponders and the matched normal control. Results : The responders group exhibited low heart rate, low PSI, high SDNN, RMSSD, HRV index, NN50, pNN50, LNTP, LNLF, and LNHF compared with the nonresponders after 4 weeks antidepressant treatment. However, no significant differencein HRV vanables was observed between the responders group after treatment and the nonnal control group and the responsegroup after treatment. Conclusion : These results indicate that HRV variables would are normalized after successful antidepressant treatment and it that HRV has some possible uses as a predicting marker of antidepressant response.
十全大補湯加味方과 抗癌 化學療法劑인 mitomycin C의 倂用投與와 관련된 寶驗을 施行하여 아래와 같은 結論을 얻었다. 1. Ascites form of Ehrlich carcinoma에 十全大補湯加味方抽出物과 mitomycin을 倂用投與한 結果 十全大補湯加味方 抽出物에 의하여 mitomycin C의 抗腫瘍倂效果가 약간 增加하는 경향을 보였으며,마우스의 平均 生存期間도 增加하였다. 2. Solid form of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma에서 十全大補湯加味方 抽出物과 mitomycin C를 倂用投與한 結果 單獨投與時 보다 抗腫瘍效果가 더욱 뚜렷하여 腫瘍의 크기를 顯著하게 減少시켰다. 3. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell의 lysosomal enzymes의 총 活性度는 mitomycin C의 單獨投興時 보다 十全大補瘍加味方 抽出物의 投與時 顯著하게 蒸加하였으며,mitomycin C와 十숲大補瘍加味方 抽出物을 倂用投與한 경우에는 더욱 顯著하게 增加하였다. 4. 十全大補瘍加味方 抽出淚으로 前處理時 NK細胞의 標的細胞와의 結合能은 물론 結合된 標的細胞의 融解能도 促進되었다. 以上으로 보아 十全大補瘍加味方 抽出物이 자체로는 顯著한 抗腫瘍效果가 없다고 할지라도 腫瘍을 發生시킨 마우스의 生存率을 增加시키고,抗癌化學療法劑인 mitomycin C의 細胞毒性 및 NK細胞의 活性度를 亢進시키는 것으로 思料된다. Mainly side effects of antitumor chemotherapy are fatigue, G-I trouble(such as vomitting, nausea, diarrhea) and reduction of medullary function etc. Differentiated from syndromes in oriental medicine, above symptoms are recognized to "Deficiency of both ki(vital energy) and blood". And SDT(Sipjeondaebotang) has been widely used in "Deficiency of both ki(vital energy) and blood". SDTG(Sipjeondaebotanggamibang) consists of SDT plus several herb medicines-these have antitumor effect and reduce chemotherapheutic side effect. This experiment was undertaken to study the effects of SDTG on chemotheraphy. The results obtained in this study were as follows: 1. Antitumor activities of the ethanol extract from SDTG(Sipjeondaebotang -gamibang) and MMC(Mytomycin) on ascitis form of carcinoma in mice is a little improved. Especialy mean survival times of the group of SDTG(200mg/kg) and MMC(O.1mg/kg) is improved over 50%. 2. When SDTG and MMC is administrated together, the weight of tumor is more decreased than MMC alone. 3. 'The effect of the ethanol extract from SDTG and MMC on the lysosomal enzymes in Ehrich ascites carcinoma cell are more significantly improved than MMC alone. 4. SDTG extract increases both NKcell conjugation and cyto-lysis against target cell. According to the above results it is recognized that SDTG increases the chemotherapheutic effect of MMC and the activity of NKcell.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of ZrO2 addition in borosilicate glasses on the mechanical properties of alumina-glass composites. Porous alumina compacts were prepared by slip casing and sintered at 1100℃ for 2 hours. Dense composites were made by infiltration of molten glass into partially sintered alumina at 1200℃ for 6 hours. Specimens were polished sequentially from #800 to #2000 diamond disk, and the final surface finishing on the tensile side was received an additional polishing sequence through 0.3㎛ diamond paste. Biaxial flexure test was conducted by using ball-on-three-ball method at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Fracture toughness was measured by a single edge V-notched beam (SEVNB) method with 2.5×5×20 mm rectangular bar. To examine the microstructural aspect of crack propagation in the alumina-glass composites, Vickers-produced indentation crack was made on the tensile surface at a load of 49.0 N and dwell time of 15 sec, and the radial crack patterns were examined by an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The minimum biaxial flexure strength was obtained with an addition of 2 mol% ZrO₂ in glass composition and strength values increased with the increase of ZrO₂ content. 2. The minimum fracture toughness was obtained with an addition of 2 mol% ZrO₂ in glass composition and toughness values decreased with the increase of ZrO₂ content. 3. Fracture surfaces indicated the frictional interlocking of rough surfaces left behind the fracture front.
Kye Yongmook wrote 45 short stories from 1924 to 1950. His fiction writing training started with the reception of aestheticism, technicalism and nihilism through the literary journal The Creation. He clung to technicalism and nihilism to the end, while seeking after aestheticism, and realism from time to time. He viewed the lives of all the people of his days as tragic, and tried to depict those who fell into tragic plights in all his works. The whole period of his creative life can be divided into three: first, from late 1920s to early 1930s, second, from late 1930s to early 1940s and third, after the National Liberation. In the first period, he pursued literary realism in his stories, where he depicted the farmers who fell into tragic situations because of the barrier of class distinctions. In the second period, his works were oriented towards aestheticism, portraying diverse people who fell into tragic plights because of various obstacles including diseases. In the third period, he came back to realism, and described the national tragedy caused by the contradictions after the Liberation. But there is no character who gets out of the tragic situation in his stories, as he/she does not analyse its causes, nor try to find a way out, nor fight actively to escape from it. It resulted from the facts that Kye Yongmook, the writer, couldn't recognize the reality of his days deeply, and lacked in the unique insight of life. Consequently, Kye Yongmook stopped writing fiction at the early age of 46 in spite of good health without leaving many good works, for he didn't have an eye for the national realities and lives of the people, and couldn't develop new sources for literary creation. Thanks to the two of his works, “Adada, the Idiot” and “Counting Stars”, which can be evaluated as well written, he has been regarded as a writer who should be recorded in the modern fiction history of Korea, though he cannot belong to the main writers' group.
Si₃N₄/SiO₂/Si₃N₄ 열차단막을 이용한 크로멜-알루멜(chromel-alumel) 열전(thermoelectric) 유량센서를 제작하였다. 백금 박막 히터의 저항온도계수는 약 0.00397/℃이었고, 크로멜-알루멜 열전쌍(thermocouple)의 Seebe다 계수는 약 36 μN/K이었다. 기체의 열전도도가 증가할수록 유량센서가 나타내는 열기전력은 감소하였으며, 히터의 온도가 증가하거나 히터와 열전쌍 사이의 간격이 감소할수즉 유량센서의 N₂유량에 대한 심도는 증가하였다. 히터 전압을 약 2.5 V로 하였을 때 유량센서의 N₂ 유량에 대한 감도는 약 1.5 ㎷/sccm^(1/2)이었고, 열 응답시간은 약 0.18초이었다. 크로켈-알루켈 열전 유량센서의 유량감도에 있어서 신형 범위가 Bi-Sb 유량센서의 것보다 더 넓게 나타났다. A chromel-alumel thermoelectric flow sensor using Si₃N₄/SiO₂/Si₃N₄thermal isolation membrane was fabricated. Temperature coefficient of resistance of thin film Pt-heater was about 0.00397/℃, and Seebeck coefficient of chromel-alumel thermocouple was about 36 ㎶/K. The sensor showed that thermoelectric voltage decreased as thermal conductivity of gas increased, and N₂-flow sensitivity increased as heater voltage increased or the distance between heater and thermocouple decreased. When heater voltage was about 2.5 V, N₂-flow sensitivity and thermal response time of the sensor were about 1.5 ㎷/sccm^(1/2) and 0.18 sec., respectively. Linear range in flow sensitivity of the flow sensor was wider than that of Bi-Sb flow sensor.
Zero to tension fatigue tests and strain controlled fatigue tests were carried out to find how initial strain induced martensite, α' affects low and high cycle fatigue behavior and fatigue crack growth mechanisms. Microscopic study and phase analysis were carried out with TEM, SEM, EDAX, Optical Microscope, Ferriscope, and X-ray diffractometry. The amount of Initial α' was controlled from 0% to 33% by controlling the temperatures for cold working and heat treatment. Lower contents of initial α' showed higher fatigue resistance in low cycle fatigue but lower fatigue resistance in high cycle fatigue because it is ascribed to the more transformation of α' martensite during low cycle fatigue and higher ductility. In high cycle fatigue, fatigue life is attributed to the strength and phase transformation of austenite into α' during fatigue was negligible. γ boundary, γ/twin boundary, and γ/α' boundary were found to be the preferred site of fatigue crack initiation.
To develop the biomarkers for the immune dysfunction induced by dioxin, 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD was administered C57BL/6N mice 0.1㎍ TCDD/㎏ body weight. Colony forming assay showed that the proliferation potential of hemotopoieti progenitor cells in bone marrow was reduced 35-55% more by earlier exposure. The microarray experiments were duplicated, and the candidates were restricted for the genes expressed greater than 121-fold. Resulting candidates were 55 genes. The expression patterns of the whole genes were analyzed by self-organizing maps (SOM). From these results, we selected the stage-specific genes : one genes (SOM c21 : nadh dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene) for gestational 13.5day, 13 genes (c0 : sialophorin ; spn gene, etc) for postnatal 3 week. The above genes are proposed to be a potential use of biomarker for dioxin exposure in the case of immume dysfunctions. 내분비교란물질로 가장 잘 알려진 다이옥신에 의한 면역장애는 면역기관이 성숙된 후에 나타나므로 다이옥신의 노출에 의한 것인지 인과관계의 평가가 매우 어렵다. Dioxin ( 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD)에 의한 면역기능의 저하 및 그 재표 유전자를 발굴하기 위해, C57BL/6 생쥐에서 임신 및 발생 성장 시기별로 dioxin을 노출하였다. 면역지표로서 골수 혈액줄기세포의 집락 형성이 현저하게(35~55%) 감소하였다. 말초혈액에서 유전자 발현의 변화를 생쥐용 고밀도(11K) oligonucleotide microarray로 측정하였고, 각 시기별로 대변이 가능한 유전자는 Selforganization maps (SOM) clustering으로 분석하였다. Biomarker로서 유용성을 위해 2회 반복하여 공통된 유전자를 선택하였고, 이 중 유전자 발현의 변동 폭이 2 이상 되는 유전자를 선택한 결과 55개를 고를 수 있었다. 시기별 대변이 가능한 SOM과 그 결과가 서로 일치하는 유전자는 임신 1305일에서 SOM c21인 1개(nadh dehydrogenase subunit 5), 생후 3주에서 c0 유전자 10개와 c16 유전자 3개(c0 : sialophorin ; spn 외 9개, c16 : ribosomal protein 113a ; rp113a 외 2개)를 발굴할 수 있었다. 다이옥신에 의한 면역 장애 및 노출 영향을 평가하는 biomarker로 사용할 수 있음을 알았다.