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This experiment was conducted to obtain basic informations for an integrated control of the disease by studying the occurrence, damage disease cycle comprising virusinsect vector-plant, host range, and, testing methods for varietal resistance. The results obtained are as follow. It is expected that the disease be limited to southern area below the line connecting Daejon, Boeun and Uljin in Korea because viruliferous vectors are not able to overwinter in the area above the line. As a result, rice dwarf does not occur in seedling bed in the northern area although the disease may be found in the paddy field by infection by viruliferous vectors moved from southern area. High yield strains have been planted extensively for their high yield. In southern area ratoons of the high yield strains remain alive 8-30 days after harvest. The ratoons of infected plants serve insect vectors for acquisition of the virus by feeding and contribute to the increased number of the overwintered viruliferous insect vectors. Foot path serves as a habitat for insect vectors and contribute to higher disease occurrence near the foot path than in the middle of the field. When rice plants were inoculated at different leaf stages with the virus, high yield strains showed less infection than japonica strains in vegetative growth stage, but difference between the two strains was minor inreproductive growth stage. Incubation period in the plant was also longer in high yield strains than in Japonica strains. Inoculation of japonica strain rice at 3-9 leaf stage resulted in a high percentage of withering, whereas high yield strains inoculated at 5 leaf stage or later showed relatively low percentage of withering. Heading was possible only when rice plants of both high yield and japonica strains were inoculated at 7 to 9 leaf stages or later and ripening only at 9 leaf stage or later. Thirty five species of plants including cereals and weeds were tested for host of the rice dwarf virus. Twenty nine of them were identified to be hosts of the virus. There were Oryza sativa L. Nagdongbyeo, Hordeum sativum Jess. Olbori, Triticum aestivum L. Dahong mil, Avena sativa L. Zea mays L. Suwoen╋29, Setaria italica Beauv, Alopecurus aequalis Sosbol, Echinochloa hispidula Nakai, Echinochloa echinata Nakai, Glyceria acutiflora, Panicum miliaceum, Phleum pratense L., Poa annua L., Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumentosa, Secal cereal L. Digitaria sanguinalis L. var. cilialis, Digitaria sanguinalis Scopoli var. aultinervis Honda, Eleusine indica Gaert., Zoysis japonica Steudel, Arthraxon hispidus (Thunberg), Leersia sayanuka, Setaria viridis Beauvis var. purpurascens, Eragrostis curvular Mees, Eleocharis acicularis L., Eriocaulon atrvm Nakai, Eriocaulon robustius Nees., Elymus arenarius L. Coix agrestis Lour, Isachne globosa Kuniz. When the rice dwarf virus was double inoculated with other viruses such as rice stripe virus and rice black-streaked dwarf virus, only 6.7 to 17.0% of double infection was obtained. But the rate was relatively low compared to single inoculation indicating that infection is inhibited by double inoculation. Only 0.5 to 1.6% of barley seedlings infected with rice dwarf virus servived winter. This suggests that overwintering of the virus on infected plants is almost impossible. In fluctuation in occurrence of vectors, peak period was late July. Percentage of infected hills rapidly increase early in July and late in August. This suggests that overwintered adults, nymphs of second generation, and nymphs of third generation served as transmission of the virus. The percentage of viruliferous vectors was the highest in the second generation ones. Insect vectors can acquire infectivity by feeding infected plants only for 48 hours. Incubation period in the insect body was about 10 to 18 days. Vectors could be infective by injection with juice of infected plants or viruliferous insects. The transmission activity was high in nymphal stage and virus affinity was relatively highl in ecotype Ⅱ-a vectors collected from southern part of the peninsula. Inoculating seedlings at 3 leaf stage with an inoculum level of 1 to 2 insects was effective. On the physiopathological ecology of viruliferous vectors, viral infection reduced oviposition period of female vectors, and the number of hatched nymphs from oviposited eggs. Especially infected insects were sensitive to alternating temperature with low Causal virus of the rice dwarf disease was purified by an improved method. Purity was 3.24㎎/ml. Purified virus was injected to rabbit as an antigen and an antiserum with a titer of 1/4096 was obtained. When viruliferous vector and infected leaves were used as an antigen, detection of the virus was possible upto 1/8192 dilution by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) test. Seedlings of ninety lines of rice were inoculated for testing resistance. Eight lines including Milyang 30 were resistance, 23 lines including Nampung were moderate resistance and 60 lines including Kaya were susceptible. In mass screening of seedlings, of the 20 lines tested, Milyang 30 was resistance Naekyung and Nampung were moderate resistance and all the rest 17 lines were susceptible. In field screening, of the 64 lines tested, 20 lines including Milyang 30 were resistance, 15 lines including Baekyang were moderate resisance and 29 lines including Kaya were susceptible. temperature.
Several ecological factors were investigated for the virus disease occurring on the horticultural crops (Solanaceae spp). The results obtained were as follows: In the survey of primary biological inoculum, 42 weed species showing viral symptoms were collected on the circumference of pepper, potato and tomato fields. The number of weed species showing viral symptoms were ; 38 species on pepper field, 24 species on potato field and 21 species on tomato field, respectively. The screening of viruses revealed that more weeds are infected by Cucumber Mosaic Virus(CMV) and Potato Virus Y(PVY) than by Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Potato Virus X (PVX). In single and double infection with viruses such as TMV, CMV and P VY on the pepper fields, the virus infection phases were different according to the area and according to the screening time. The pepper plants cultivated in Youngyang area were much more infected by virus than in Taegu, Namji and Kimchun area where the improved field hygien was applied. The severity of the disease in Youngyang area was mainly due to the double infection from the early growth stage. Transmission activity of TMV in different cultivation method on tomato was distinguishably higher in outdoor cultivation with furrow irrigation than vinyl house cultivation with furrow irrigation and outdoor cultivation without furrow irrigation. No significant difference the transmission activities was found between of vinyl house cultivation with furrow irrigation and outdoor cultivation without furrow irrigation.
As the results of this research to the plant parasitic nematodes associated with apple trees in Kyungpook Province, Korea, 25 species belonging to 19 genera under 11 families were detected. Among them two species; Hemicycliophora koreana and Merlinius koreanus were already described as new species from apple orchards by the author separately. Seven species are newly recorded from apple trees; Eutylenchus africanus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Hemicriconemoides varionodus, Merlinius nothus, Neolobocriconema serratum, Pratylenchus penetrans, Xiphinema americanum. Nematode species and density in each surveyed localities are given. The genus Tylenchorhynchus is dominant genus at apple orchards in kyungpook province, and the second is the genus Pratylenchus.
Lee, Dong Soo,Chung, June Key,Kim, Sang Eun,Lee, Myung Chul,Lee, Young Min,Koh, Chang Soon,Choi, Chang Woon,Yoon, Byung Woo,Roh, Jae Kyu,Bae, Sang Kyun,Hong, Seung Bong,Hong, Mee Kyung 대한핵의학회 1992 핵의학 분자영상 Vol.26 No.1
The coat protein (CP) gene of kyuri green mottle mosaic virus zucchini strain (KGMMV-Z) isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) in Chonfu, Korea in 1999 was sequenced by the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate and generate primers originated from tobamoviruses. The degenerate primers were very effective in amplification of KGMMV-Z CP region. The KGMMV-Z CP gene consisted of 486 nucleotides and had the same nucleotide length compared with those of cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. KGMMV-Z CP gene shared 43.8, 44.2, and 44.4% nucleotide sequence similarity with the CP gene of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus watermelon strain (CGMMZ-W), CGMMV-KW1, and CGMMV-SH, respectively, whereas three CGMMV strains among themselves showed 98.6-99.6% nucleotide similarity. The deduced amino acids of KGMMV-Z CP gene were 161 amino acid residues with the molecular weight of 17,181 daltons. The first 24 codons of KGMMV-Z CP gene corresponded to the sequences of the N-terminal amino acid of the viral capsid protein. The amino acid sequences of KGMMV-Z CP had 45.3% similarity compared with those of three CGMMV strains. However, the amino acid sequences of CGMMV strains were identical. These results showed that two cucurbit-infecting tobamovirus members, KGMMV-Z and CGMMV were genetically distantly related.
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We have anlayzed the polar maps of dipyridamole stress/rest Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT and compared the quantitated perfusion defects of dipyridamole stress polar map and the findings of coronary angiograraphy in 56 pateints with coronary artery diseases. We performed the same day dipyridamole stress-rest myocardial SPECT, reconstructed the polar maps according to Cedars-Sinai method and quantitated perfusion defects of total myocardium and the territory of each artery, comparing the polar maps of patients with normal files. Stenosis more than 50 percent was considered significant and myocardial ischemic score was calculated as summed score of percents of main coronary arteries. Positive concordance of myocardial SPECT with coronary angiography were 82.6% with left anterior descending artery(LAD), 85.7% with left circumflex artery(LCx) and 78.6% with right coronary artery(RCA). Perfusion defect of SPECT polar map and the stenosis of coronary artery showed the contingency phi of 0.55(p〈0.0001) with total atreries, 0.3(p=0.016) with LAD, 0.50(p〈0.0001) with LCx and 0.40 (p=0.007) with RCA. Dipyridamole stress percent defect of polar map was correlated with myocardial ischemic score with Spearman's rho of 0.47(p=0.001) in total arteries, 0.48(p=0.001) in LAD, 0.56 (p〈0.001) in LCx and 0.38(p=0.002) in RCA. These findings revealed that defect of the dipyridamole stress myocardial Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT and the percent extent of this defect were related with significant artery stenosis of individual arteries and the degree of stenosis. We thought that we could use the defects in the polar map of dipyridamole stress Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT for the quantification of myocardial perfusion decrease.