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      • 문인들의 빠리

        Lebrun,,He′le`ne 프랑스문화학회 1996 프랑스 문화읽기 Vol.1 No.1

        On peut dire qu'il n'y a aucune oeuvre litte´raire franc¿aise ou` Paris ne soit pas e´voque´. Des textes du Moyen Age tre`s varie´s comme les Grandes Chroniques de France, des poe`mes d'Eustache Deschamps ou de Villon, ou les journaux de bourgeois de Paris et des lettres dont les auteur restent inconnus nous permettent de connai^tre l'aspect de la ville, l'impression qu'elle faisait a` ceux qui la de´ouvraient et la vie quotidienne des parisiens. On peut se rendre compte que de`s cette e´poque Paris est un centre commercial et intellectuel qui attire des gens de tous les pays. Des te´moignages tre`s re´alistes te´moignent aussi que les proble`mes des grandes villes (traitement des ordures, odeurs, circulation, se´curite´) e´taient de´ja` se´rieux. Il serait possible de faire une anthologie qui comprendrait des textes d'auteurs aussi divers que les Grandes Chroniques, Boileau, Audiberti ou Le Clezio. En fonction de leur attitude a` l'e´gard de Paris, on pourrait re´partir les e´crivains franc¿ais en deux grandes familles. Les uns aiment Paris qui est un lieu cosmopolite et ouvert a` toutes les rencontres, un espace de cre´ation. Pour de tels e´crivains, quelle que soit l'e´poque a` laquelle ils appartiennent, la vocation de la France est universaliste et Paris en est le symbole. Les autres de´noncent la corruption de cette grande Babylone et pro^nent le respect des valeurs que repre´s entent le terroir et la vie villageoise. Les uns aspirent au progre`s que rend possible le choc des cultures. Les autres louent la sagesse de la tradition et l'enracinement dans la terre des ance^tres. Pour un certain nombre d'e´crivains, qu'ils soient personnellement parisiens ou provinciaux, Paris est le lieu de l'initiation ou` un jeune fait l'expe´rience de la re´alite´ et de ses propres limites comme de ses potentialite´s. La ville est alors un mirage ou un tremplin. De tels e´crivains se situent dans une perspective plus individuelle que les pre´ce´dents qui ont davantage pre´sent a` l'esprit les proble`mes politiques et internationaux. A partir de Baudelaire, Paris est le signe de la modernite´ L'importance de Paris dans son oeuvre correspond a` une transformation profonde de l'esthe´tique. De´sormais la beaute´ ne correspond plus a` un canon ide´al. Elle est a` de´couvrir au coeur du re´el le plus minable. Elle est un nouveau regard sur la re´alite´. Pour les poe`tes qui ont eu l'expe´rience de la seconde guerre mondiale et de la re´sistance au nazisme, Paris devient un symbole, celui de la liberte´ et du combat contre toutes les formes de tyrannie. Avec la parution d'oeuvres e´crites par des e´crivains d'anciennes colonies franc¿aises, un nouveau visage de Paris se dessines dans la litte´rature francophone.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        Perspectives cavalières et lignes de fuites sur le Nombre d'Or

        Le,Rhapsode-trouvère 고려대학교 응용문화연구소 2021 에피스테메 Vol.- No.25

        A constant in the whole Universe: “the Golden Number”. It is the basis of the artistic evolution which leads to beauty, and  formulates its parameters. All these parameters generate a grammar, which will also have a determining impact on social reality. Can one escape the influence of the Golden Number ? The notion of Territory will open up avenues to transform differences into complementarities. This will lead us to the development of implementation rituals. Une constante dans tout l'Univers : « le Nombre d'or ». C'est la base de l'évolution artistique qui tend à la beauté, dont il formule les paramètres. L'ensemble de ces paramètres forment une grammaire, qui aura aussi une répercussion déterminante sur la réalité sociale. Peut-on échapper à l'emprise du Nombre d'or ? La notion de Territoire va nous ouvrir des pistes pour transformer des différences en complémentarités. Cela nous conduira à l'élaboration de rituels de mise en œuvre.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Enzymatic characteristics of polyphenoloxidase from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) and its inhibition by a novel hydroxypyridinone derivative

        Le-Le,Shao,Jia-Min,Zhou,Qing,Zhu,Xiao-Ling,Wang,Robert,C.,Hider,Tao,Zhou 한국식품과학회 2019 Food Science and Biotechnology Vol.28 No.4

        Melanosis developed in shrimp (Penaeus vannamei)is mainly initiated by polyphenoloxidase (PPO),thus understanding of the characteristics of PPO in shrimpis important for controlling the melanosis of shrimp. Theshrimp cephalothorax turns black most rapidly amongst allthe tissues during the chilled storage. Crude PPO extractedfrom this cephalothorax has an optimal pH of 6.0 and anoptimal temperature of 50 C. PPO is relatively stable underneutral and weak alkaline conditions (pH 5.5–9.0) andthe temperature range of 25–35 C. The kinetic parametersKm and Vmax were recorded as 3.02 mM and 54.3 U/mg ofprotein, respectively, using L-Dopa as a substrate. Themolecular weight of PPO was estimated as 200–220 kDaby an activity staining test. A hydroxypyridinone derivative,5-hydroxy-1-octyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridine-2-carbaldehydeO-ethyl oxime, was demonstrated to efficientlyinhibit the PPO, indicating that this compound might findapplication as a shrimp preservative.

      • KCI등재

        FINDS OF VIETNAMESE ANCIENT CALENDAR

        ( Le Thanh Lan Nguyen Thi Truong ) 한국철학사상연구회 2017 시대와 철학 Vol.28 No.1

        The paper written about the causes of misunderstanding about the nature of Vietnamese calendars; about the ancient Vietnamese calendar finding process; about the results of the study three old calendars; from which to draw the calendars of Vietnamese dynasties, find out the differences with the Chinese calendars and the difference between two calendars when they exists simultaneously and finally some consequences of the found of those ancient Vietnamese calendars.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Banking Sector Depth and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Vietnam

        LE,,Thi,Thuy,Hang,LE,,Trung,Dao,TRAN,,Thi,Dien,DUONG,,Quynh,Nga,DAO,,Le,Kieu,Oanh,DO,,Thi,Thanh,Nhan Korea Distribution Science Association 2021 The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Busine Vol.8 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The Vietnamese economy is a developing country that has brought many opportunities and challenges for the banking system. Commercial banks have developed strongly from quality to quantity, which plays a vital role in developing the economy. They play an important role in capital formation, which is essential for the economic development of a country. They provide financial services to the general public and businesses, ensuring economic and social stability and sustainable growth of the economy. Therefore, the relationship between bank depth and economic growth is of importance in research. This paper used a VAR (Vector Autoregressive Models) estimator for time series data models. The data is collected quarterly from the first quarter of the year 2000 to 2020. The study uses the VAR model to examine the causal relationships of economic growth, growth in money supply expansion, private sector capital requirement, and banks' domestic credit. The results indicate a general short-run relationship between banking sector depth and economic growth with a positive connection, but in the long term, the relationship between these variables can be reversed because of other macro factors. The findings show the two-way causal relationship between GDP growth and banking depth factors. This research contributes to policy-making by underlining the banking sector depth determinants when setting regulations and policies to develop the banking sector.

      • Political concepts and trends in France after the national elections

        Daniel,Le,Gargasson 한독사회과학회 2002 한독사회과학논총 Vol.12 No.2

        1958년 헌법에 의해 탄생한 제 5 공화국의 제도상 특징은 행정부에 두 수반 즉, 실권을 지닌 국가의 수반인 대통령과 정부의 수반인 총리가 존재한다는 것이다. 헌법 초안자들은 이 둘이 동일 정당이나 연합 출신일 것을 가정하였으나 1986년 이래로 의회선거 결과로 인하여 대통령이 총리를 야당에서 임명해야 하는 경우가 세 차례 있었으며 이와 같이 선택이나 서로간 선호에 관계없이 공존해야 하는 현상을 “동거정부(cohabitation)”라고 한다.세 번의 동거정부에서 총리는 대통령 선거에 출마하였으나 계속 패배하였으며, 세 번 중 두 번은 제2차 선거에도 나가지 못했다. 이는 동거정부 하에서 총리가 실제 행정권을 행사하는데 비해 대통령은 국내문제에 전면으로 나서지 않음으로써 총리는 유권자들에게는 정부의 실패의 주범으로 그리고 유권자들의 실망과 좌절의 희생양이 됨으로써 동거정부기간동안 그의 이미지를 점차 잠식당하기 때문인 것으로 보인다.2002년 프랑스 대통령 선거에서는 놀라운 결과가 나타났다. 선거 여론조사에 의한 예측과는 달리 제1차 선거에서 온건 좌익 후보는 16%로 3위에 머물렀으며, 프랑스 정치 스펙트럼에서 극우를 대표하는 국가 전선(Front national) 후보인 장 마리 르 펜(Jean-Marie Le Pen)이 17%로 2위 그리고 자크 시라크(Jaque Chirac)는 20%에 미치지 못하는 투표율로 1위를 하였다.과거 수년간의 선거를 보면 소위 주류 정치권 밖의 군소정당에 대한 지지가 점차 증가하는 것을 알 수 있다. 2002년 4월의 제2차 선거는 한편으로는 안심스러운 결과이기도 하지만 프랑스의 정치인들은 유권자들이 분명하게 보여준 불만의 근본적인 원인이 무엇인지 시급히 찾아야 할 것이며, 그렇지 못할 경우 제 5공화국은 얼마가지 못할 것이다.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        The Adjuvant Effect of Sophy β-Glucan to the Antibody Response in Poultry Immunized by the Avian Influenza A H5N1 and H5N2 Vaccines

        ( Thanh Hoa Le ), ( Tran Binh Le ), ( Thanh Huong Thi Doan ), ( Dong Van Quyen ), ( Kim Xuyen Thi Le ), ( Viet Cuong Pham ), ( Mitsuru Nagataki ), ( Haruka Nomura ), ( Yasunori Ikeue ), ( Yoshiya Watanabe ), ( ) 한국미생물 · 생명공학회 2011 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.21 No.4

        Avian influenza virus vaccines produced in oil-emulsified inactivated form with antigen content of at least 160 hemagglutinin units (HAU) induced immunity in birds. However, in addition to enhancing the effect of the adjuvant(s), other additional supplemented biological compounds included in inactivated vaccines could produce higher levels of antibody. We examined in chickens, Vietnamese ducks, and muscovy ducks the adjuvant effect of Sophy β-glucan (SBG), a β-1,3-1,6 glucan produced by the black yeast Aureobasidium pollulans strain AF0-202, when administered with an avian influenza H5 subtype vaccine. In Experiment 1, 40 chickens (ISA Brown hybrid), allocated to four groups of ten each, were immunized with Oil-H5N1(VN), Oil-H5N1(CN), Oil-H5N2(CN), and saline (control group), respectively. In Experiment 2, chickens (ISA Brown hybrid), muscovy ducks (French hybrid), and Vietnamese ducks (indigenous Vietnamese) were used to further assess the effect of SBG on immunogenicity of the Oil-H5N1(VN) Vietnamese vaccine. ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody response. The H5 subtype vaccines initiated significantly higher immune responses in the animals dosed with SBG, with 1.0-1.5 log2 higher HI titers and 10-20% ELISA seroconversion, compared with those not dosed with β-glucan. Notably, some of the animals dosed with SBG induced HI titers higher than 9.0 log2 following boosting immunization. Taken together, our serial studies indicated that SBG is a potential effector, such as enhancing the immune response to the H5 vaccines tested.

      • KCI등재

        Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance Syndrome among Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study from Central Vietnam

        Minh,Tam,Le,Vu,Quoc,Huy,Nguyen,Quang,Vinh,Truong,Dinh,Duong,Le,Viet,Nguyen,Sa,Le,Ngoc,Thanh,Cao 대한내분비학회 2018 Endocrinology and metabolism Vol.33 No.4

        Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies among reproductive-age women. Its metabolic features often overlap with those associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). Theobjective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of MS and IRS in infertile Vietnamese women with PCOS. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary fertility centre at Hue University Hospital from June 2016 to November 2017. A total of 441 infertile women diagnosed with PCOS based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam consensus criteria were enrolled. MS and IRS were defined based on the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association Adult Treatment Panel III 2005 and American College of Endocrinology IRS 2003 criteria, respectively. Complete clinical and biochemicalmeasurements of 318 women were available for analysis. Independent predictors of MS and IRS were identified using multivariatelogistic regression. Results: The overall prevalence of MS and IRS in women with PCOS was 10.4% and 27.0%, respectively. We identified older age(>30 years) and obesity as independent predictors of MS and IRS. Elevated anti-Müllerian hormone levels increased the risk of IRS,but not that of MS. Conclusion: MS and IRS are prevalent disorders among infertile Vietnamese women with PCOS. PCOS is not solely a reproductiveproblem. Screening and early intervention for MS and/or IRS based on anthropometric, metabolic, and reproductive hormone riskfactors should be an integral part of fertility care.

      • KCI등재

        Factors Affecting the Choice of Banks: Do Bank's Interest Rate, Employee Image and Brand Matter?

        Le,Kieu,Oanh,DAO,Huynh,Huu,LOC,Van,Chien,NGUYEN,Le,Thi,Thuy,HANG,Thi,Tuyet,DO 한국유통과학회 2021 The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Busine Vol.8 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The banking system provides a number of important functions for the economy and is also the lifeblood and financier of the economy in each country. Large amounts of idle money have not been exploited by banks; however, banks still depend on loans, including loans from foreign banks, to meet the growing demand, as such, for banks, the cost of capital is high, the stability and business efficiency are low and banks have not promoted their internal resources to grow steadily. To achieve the goal, this research analyzes the factors affecting the choice of bank for the deposit decisions of customers in Vietnam. The study used a sample data of 250 individuals and SPSS software was used to analyze the data. The results showed that customer policy has a positive effect on customers' deposit decisions in a bank, and this is new evidence regarding behavioral theory in the case of Vietnam. Results further demonstrated that other factors such as employee image, brand, interest rate, relative influencing, and transaction time positively impact the choice of bank for the deposit decisions of customers. However, the bank's promotion strategies had no impact on the choice of bank for the deposit decisions of customers. Besides, employee image is the most influential factor in the deposit decisions, followed by the bank's brand and interest rate.

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