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        • KCI등재

          Transmission of Shared Tendencies in Contemporary Japanese Architecture

          Kim,,Lawrence 대한건축학회지회연합회 2019 대한건축학회연합논문집 Vol.21 No.3

          Department of Architecture, Pusan National University (Corresponding author, Email: lawrence.b.kim@gmail.com) This work was supported by a 2-year Research Grant of Pusan National University. Over the past two decades after the collapse of the bubble economy, Japanese architecture emerged onto the international stage as one of the most influential in contemporary architecture. However, its emergence to a position of such acclaim is intriguing in that unlike the past generations of architects in the modern era, the leading Japanese architects practicing today do not share a strong paradigm nor operate as a cohesive group. Nonetheless, there exists lineage of relationships and cross-pollination of ideas which have developed into shared architectural tendencies. The similar architectural sensibility is particularly evident in the younger generation of architects who have established their practice in the years following the collapse of the bubble economy. These generations of practitioners show tendencies to strive for diagrammatic quality, flimsy and light minimalism, and two-dimensional spatiality in their work. Distinctive qualities which are increasingly being identified with the leading architects practicing in Japan currently. The critical examination of the selected works produced by the architects reveals certain paradoxical ideas appears to be at work. First, utilizing what is a fundamentally explanatory device, diagram, as a performative device and the end goal. Second, striving for minimalistic aesthetics of utmost simplicity which require complex and extraordinary levels of work. Third, striving for two-dimensional spatiality in what is a three-dimensional discipline in its core. While such seemingly arbitrary and stylistic inclinations have attracted some criticism, such inclinations appear to have been shaped by the cultural sensibility, societal change, and needs of an era.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재
        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Brunei's Response to China's Belt and Road Initiative: Embracing Asymmetry, Enhancing Authority

          Ithrana,Lawrence 경남대학교 극동문제연구소 2021 ASIAN PERSPECTIVE Vol.45 No.2

          This article examines Brunei's response to China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Brunei has welcomed investments from China since well before the launch of the BRI in 2013 and has become even more receptive as the investments have grown. Brunei's low-profile but enthusiastic receptivity to the BRI is motivated primarily by its ruling elite's legitimation-driven pragmatism to maintain its authority by diversifying Brunei's energy-based economy. The convergence between the sultan's Brunei Vision 2035 (Wawasan Brunei 2035) and Xi Jinping's BRI has increased the political importance of Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) to Brunei. Thus, embracing the BRI is key to the elite's development-based performance legitimation, which is augmented by an ideology-based pathway of particularistic justification, in the form of a Malay Islamic Monarchy. Since this ideology is not nationalistic, there is little political risk to Brunei downplaying China's territorial claims over the South China Sea while simultaneously engaging China to maximize economic benefits and forge functional cooperation. These complementary pathways are central to maintaining the Brunei regime's domestic authority.

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Hybrid Approach for Tsunami Protection: Effect of Embankment-type Seawall and Vegetation on Tsunami Reduction

          Sean,Lawrence,N.,A.,K.,Nandasena 대한토목학회 2019 KSCE JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Vol.23 No.6

          A hybrid system for tsunami mitigation made up of a seawall and a vegetation belt (Pohutukawa trees) was numerically modeled and analysed to see how it performed under a simplified tsunami wave. The seawall and vegetation belt properties in the mitigation system were varied and subjected to different tsunami periods and beach slopes to reflect a New Zealand context. The modelling results suggest that larger seawalls in the mitigation system reduced tsunami inundation lengths thus run-up heights, and damage forces considerably more than smaller seawalls. Vegetation belts in the system did not contribute to reducing tsunami inundation lengths. Longer vegetation belts did however reduce the damage force of the tsunami. Individually, the seawall structure played a more significant role than the Pohutukawa vegetation belt in the mitigation system.

        • KCI등재

          Learner Receptiveness Towards Mobile Technology in a College English Program

          Barry,Lawrence 한국영어교육학회 2015 ENGLISH TEACHING(영어교육) Vol.70 No.1

          This study examines learner receptiveness towards using smartphones to enhance EFL learning at a Korean university in various manners and contexts, exploring predictors of learner attitude towards mobile devices. A survey of 159 L2 learners was conducted within a college English program. Results indicated that nearly half of the participants demonstrated positivity towards integration, while others were ambivalent, with only a small proportion actively against integration. In the classroom, attitude was most favorable towards using smartphones as mini-computers with Wi-Fi capabilities to obtain information in collaborative projects. Outside class, interaction with classmates and teachers via email, voicemail, and video clip was favored. Multiple regression analysis indicated that belief in the language learning potential of smartphones was a significant predictor of attitude across usage contexts, as was inherent device motivation. Motivation to develop L2 digital literacy was a significant predictor outside the classroom. Further, learners most receptive to smartphones were consistently so inside and outside the classroom.

        • 설득력 있는 설교의 준비

          Lacour,,Lawrence 연세대학교 신과대학·연합신학대학원 1986 연세대학교 연신원 목회자 하기 신학세미나 강의집 Vol.- No.6

          우리가 어려서 학교 다닐 때 읽은 글 가운데는 우화가 많이 있었다. 그 우화들 중에서 "바람과 해"라는 이야기가 있었다. 스토리가 진행되면서 바람과 해는 누가 더 힘이 센가하는 논쟁을 벌이게 된다. 그들은 서로 자기가 강하다고 주장하여 결국 시합을 하기로 하였다. 그들은 무거운 외투를 입고 공원벤치에 앉아 있는 사람을 발견했다. 그리고 그 사람으로 하여금 외투를 벗게 하는데 성공하는 쪽이 승자가 되는 것으로 결정했다. 바람이 먼저 하기로 하였다. 처음에 바람은 부드럽게 불었다 .그러나 그 사람은 아무 반응도 없었다. 그래서 바람을 좀 더 세게 불었더니 그는 외투를 여미고 모든 단추를 잠가 버렸다. 그는 더욱 더 외투를 끌어안으며 외투 깃을 목까지 세웠다. 마침내 바람은 자신이 실패했음을 인정하며 멈추었다. 다음에는 해가 부드러운 햇살을 그 사람에게 내려 쏘였다. 그러자 그는 긴장을 풀고 외투 깃을 내렸다. 해가 햇볕을 더욱 따갑게 하자 그는 외투 단추를 풀기 시작했다. 햇볕의 열이 더욱 높아지자 그는 외투를 열고 마침내 일어서서 그것을 벗어버리는 것이었다. 해는 바람이 한 바람 불어도 해낼 수없던 일을 부드러운 일기로 성취해 낸 것이다.

        • KCI등재

          Transmission of Shared Tendencies in Contemporary Japanese Architecture

          Kim,,Lawrence 대한건축학회지회연합회 2019 대한건축학회연합논문집 Vol.21 No.3

          1)Over the past two decades after the collapse of the bubble economy, Japanese architecture emerged onto the international stage as one of the most influential in contemporary architecture. However, its emergence to a position of such acclaim is intriguing in that unlike the past generations of architects in the modern era, the leading Japanese architects practicing today do not share a strong paradigm nor operate as a cohesive group. Nonetheless, there exists lineage of relationships and cross-pollination of ideas which have developed into shared architectural tendencies. The similar architectural sensibility is particularly evident in the younger generation of architects who have established their practice in the years following the collapse of the bubble economy. These generations of practitioners show tendencies to strive for diagrammatic quality, flimsy and light minimalism, and two-dimensional spatiality in their work. Distinctive qualities which are increasingly being identified with the leading architects practicing in Japan currently. The critical examination of the selected works produced by the architects reveals certain paradoxical ideas appears to be at work. First, utilizing what is a fundamentally explanatory device, diagram, as a performative device and the end goal. Second, striving for minimalistic aesthetics of utmost simplicity which require complex and extraordinary levels of work. Third, striving for two-dimensional spatiality in what is a three-dimensional discipline in its core. While such seemingly arbitrary and stylistic inclinations have attracted some criticism, such inclinations appear to have been shaped by the cultural sensibility, societal change, and needs of an era.

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