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본 연구는 사회적 기업에 대한 정부재정지원의 효과를 다각도로 살펴보고자 정부재정지원 규모 및 정부 재정비중(또는 정부재정의존도)의 성과영향을 분석하였다. 이를 위해 한국사회적 기업진흥원의 자율경영 공시제도에 참여한 사회적 기업들의 2018년 데이터를 기반으로 부스트래핑 기법을 활용하여 분석을 수행하였다. 분석결과, 정부재정지원 규모는 사회적 기업의 경제적 성과와 정(+)의 관계를 가지는 반면, 정부 재정비중은 사회적 기업의 경제적 성과와 부(-)의 관계를 가지는 것으로 분석되었다. 한편, 정부재정지원 규모는 사회적 기업의 사회적 성과와 통계적으로 유의미한 관계가 없다고 나타난 반면, 정부재정비중은 사회적 기업의 다양한 사회적 성과 중 사회서비스 수혜자 수와 정(+)의 관계를 가지는 것으로 나타났다. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of government funding on the organizational performance of social enterprises in Korea. Using data of the Korea Social Enterprise Promotion Agency in 2018, both the impact of the size of government funds and the proportion of government funds were investigated. The findings from a bootstrapping regression model show that the greater the amount of government funding, the more positive the economic performance of social enterprises. However, financial publicness(proportion of funding from government) has a negative relationship with the economic performance of social enterprises. On the other hand, the size of government financial support showed no relationship with the social performance of social enterprises, while financial publicness has a positive relationship with the amount of social service.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>As data-driven innovation becomes a main trend in the energy sector, explainability of data-driven actions is becoming a major fairness issue for the residential applications, and it is expected to become a requirement for regulatory compliance. Explainability, however, often demands a sacrifice in prediction performance and affects the effectiveness of data-driven actions. In this study, we consider data-driven customer targeting in an incentive-based residential demand response program, and investigate the explainability-performance tradeoff when using simple-rule based, machine learning, and credit scoring methods. Credit scoring, that has been a popular solution in the finance discipline for over 60 years, is a scorecard based modeling method that can surely provide explainability. We first provide the detailed steps of applying credit scoring to the demand response problem. Then, we use a dataset of 14,525 households obtained from a real demand response program and analyze two prediction problems – participation prediction and behavior change prediction. The results show that credit scoring can achieve a comparable performance as the best-performing machine learning methods while providing full explainability. Our results suggest that credit scoring can be a promising explainability option for broader energy sector problems.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> A quantitative analysis of data-driven targeting in residential DR. </LI> <LI> Explainability of data-driven actions and its relation to fairness. </LI> <LI> Details of implementing credit scoring, which has good explainability, for DR. </LI> <LI> A case study of incentive DR, where the DR was operated through a smartphone app. </LI> <LI> Credit scoring can achieve a comparable performance as machine learning methods. </LI> </UL> </P>
Lee, Mi-Kyung,Kim, Hee-Eun,Park, Eun-Byeol,Lee, Janghyun,Kim, Ki-Hun,Lim, Kyungeun,Yum, Seoyun,Lee, Young-Hoon,Kang, Suk-Jo,Lee, Joon-Hwa,Choi, Byong-Seok Oxford University Press 2016 Nucleic acids research Vol.44 No.17
<P>Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) recognizes specific molecular patterns of viral RNAs for inducing type I interferon. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RIG-I binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) with the 5′-triphosphate (5′-PPP), which induces a conformational change in RIG-I to an active form. It has been suggested that RIG-I detects infection of influenza A virus by recognizing the 5′-triphosphorylated panhandle structure of the viral RNA genome. Influenza panhandle RNA has a unique structure with a sharp helical bending. In spite of extensive studies of how viral RNAs activate RIG-I, whether the structural elements of the influenza panhandle RNA confer the ability to activate RIG-I signaling has been poorly explored. Here, we investigated the dynamics of the influenza panhandle RNA in complex with RIG-I CTD using NMR spectroscopy and showed that the bending structure of the panhandle RNA negates the requirement of a 5′-PPP moiety for RIG-I activation.</P>
<P>Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca2+-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca2+-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose-and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes.</P>
The mixed Abies holophylla-broadleaved deciduous forest is mature relative to other forest types in the midland of South Korea. The spatial distribution patterns of eight dominant canopy tree species were analyzed using Ripley’s K function. This study was conducted to clarify interspecific and intraspecific associations among growth stages and to interpret the coexistence mechanism among such species, by extension, to forecast their future. Disturbance-driven site heterogeneity has spatially separated disturbance-resistant Magnolia sieboldii from the other seven species. Spatial distribution of other species is affected by dispersal mechanisms and interspecific and intraspecific competition. These species were classified into three groups. The first group, composed of A. holophylla, Tilia amurensis, Acer pseudo-sieboldianum, and Quercus mongolica,was the most dominant and intraspecifically affinitive. Additionally, it seemed that they were established before the others. Q. mongolica and T. amurensis are poorly resistant to shade and are likely to be crowded out. In contrast, the other two species may continue, as they are highly resistant to shade and have high reproductivity. The second group was composed of Carpinus cordata, Acer tegmentosum, and Acer mono, i.e., latesuccessional species that wait for chances with shade tolerance and high reproductivity. These species are expected to occupy much of the Q. mongolica and T. amurensis space. M. sieboldii,i.e., the third group, were negatively related with other species and have dominated the valleys where intense disturbances are repeated. Understories have poor reproductivity, but a stationary population is expected to be maintained if canopy gaps are created by occasional disturbances.
Lee, Junghee,Kim, Yunha,Liu, Tian,Hwang, Yu Jin,Hyeon, Seung Jae,Im, Hyeonjoo,Lee, Kyungeun,Alvarez, Victor E.,McKee, Ann C.,Um, Soo‐,Jong,Hur, Manwook,Mook‐,Jung, Inhee,Kowall, Neil W.,Ry John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2018 Aging cell Vol.17 No.1
<P><B>Summary</B></P><P>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Despite decades of study, effective treatments for AD are lacking. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been closely linked to the pathogenesis of AD, but the relationship between mitochondrial pathology and neuronal damage is poorly understood. Sirtuins (SIRT, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog in yeast) are NAD‐dependent histone deacetylases involved in aging and longevity. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between SIRT3 and mitochondrial function and neuronal activity in AD. SIRT3 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in AD cerebral cortex, and Ac‐p53 K320 was significantly increased in AD mitochondria. SIRT3 prevented p53‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal damage in a deacetylase activity‐dependent manner. Notably, mitochondrially targeted p53 (mito‐p53) directly reduced mitochondria DNA‐encoded ND2 and ND4 gene expression resulting in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced mitochondrial oxygen consumption. ND2 and ND4 gene expressions were significantly decreased in patients with AD. p53‐ChIP analysis verified the presence of p53‐binding elements in the human mitochondrial genome and increased p53 occupancy of mitochondrial DNA in AD. SIRT3 overexpression restored the expression of ND2 and ND4 and improved mitochondrial oxygen consumption by repressing mito‐p53 activity. Our results indicate that SIRT3 dysfunction leads to p53‐mediated mitochondrial and neuronal damage in AD. Therapeutic modulation of SIRT3 activity may ameliorate mitochondrial pathology and neurodegeneration in AD.</P>
<P>A monovalent sodium-functionalized graphene oxide fiber (Na-GO) structure was synthesized <I>via</I> facile and simple liquid coagulation of a graphene oxide solution. Supported by the stable GO framework, the readily accessible sodium site of this alkali-metal-carbon heterostructure allows effective removal of Cs<SUP>+</SUP> in aqueous medium with a rapid equilibrium time (∼30 min) and a large adsorption capacity (220 mg g<SUP>−1</SUP>). Na-GO possesses physical and chemical integrity in a broad pH range (4-10), and the adsorption behavior is influenced by the hydration radius of the targeting cation, charge effect, π-M<SUP>+</SUP> interaction, and pH-dependent GO hydrophilicity. In utilizing the chemical potential effect of Na-GO, a simple regeneration process with NaOH solution selectively releases captured Cs<SUP>+</SUP> and replenishes functional sodium sites within the Na-GO structure, providing a rechargeable Cs<SUP>+</SUP> remediation functionality. This study demonstrates the successful adaptation of the alkali-metal-induced reversible ion-exchange principle for a versatile GO fiber structure.</P>
Lee, Duk-Hee,Ha, Myung-Hwa,Kam, Sin,Chun, Byungyeol,Lee, Jangkyu,Song, Kyungeun,Boo, Yongchool,Steffen, Lyn,Jacobs Jr., David R. Oxford University Press 2006 American Journal of Epidemiology Vol.163 No.1
<P>Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) concentration, within its normal range, has recently been proposed as a reliable marker of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays a central pathogenic role in many metabolic and/or cardiovascular diseases, incidences of which have recently increased in South Korea. Since serum GGT has strong associations with these diseases and their risk factors, the authors hypothesized a corresponding secular trend of increasing serum GGT levels in South Korea. Study subjects were 8,072 male workers at a large steel company who were aged 24–44 years at baseline and had received annual physical examinations from 1996 to 2003. The secular trend was a 0.1066-units/liter increase in ln(GGT) level per calendar year (a 180% increase during the 7-year follow-up period) (<I>p</I> < 0.01). Adjustment for body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise, and cholesterol level as time-dependent covariates did not change the results. Although cholesterol is commonly used as a marker of epidemiologic transition, there was a less dramatic secular trend in ln(serum cholesterol) level, and it disappeared after adjustment for the secular trend in serum GGT. These findings suggest that serum GGT concentration can be used as a sensitive marker of epidemiologic transition, and they portend a continuing rise in incidences of metabolic and/or cardiovascular diseases in this population in the coming years.</P>
Objectives: This study was performed to understand farmers’ health status by general characteristic, and to find out the related factors. Methods: All the 984 subjects were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire and SF-12. Among them, only 812 were eligible for analysis. Statistical methods used included frequency, t-test, ANOVA, binary logistic regression with SPSS 19.0. Results: In binary logistic regression, marital status, smoking, regular exercise and monthly day off were associated with physical component score. Marital status, smoking and score of pesticide protective device wearing were associated with mental component score. Conclusions: This study suggests that effort to develop health promotion programs for workers of agricultural industry considering these results can improve their perceived health status.