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        Ultrasonic Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Seawater and Brackish Water

        So Young Park,Jong Sung Park,Ha Yoon Lee,Ji Yong Heo,Yeo Min Yoon,Kyung Ho Choi,Nam Guk Her 대한환경공학회 2011 Environmental Engineering Research Vol.16 No.3

        In this study, a series of experiments was conducted on the relative degradation of commonly known endocrine-disrupting compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (Ee₂) in a single-component aqueous solution using 28 and 580 kHz ultrasonic reactors. The experiments were conducted with three different types of model water: deionized water (DI), synthetic brackish water (SBW), and synthetic seawater (SSW) at pH 4, 7.5, and 11 in the presence of inert glass beads and humic acids. Significantly higher sonochemical degradation (93-97% for BPA) occurred at 580 kHz than at 28 kHz (43-61% for BPA), regardless of water type. A slightly higher degradation was observed for Ee₂ compared to that of BPA. The degradation rate of BPA and Ee₂ in DI water, SBW, and SSW after 30 min of ultrasound irradiation at 580 kHz increased slightly with the increase in pH from 4 (0.073-0.091 min-1 for BPA and 0.081-0.094 min-1 for Ee₂) to 7.5 (0.087-0.114 min-1 for BPA and 0.092?0.124 min-1 for Ee₂). In contrast, significant degradation was observed at pH 11 (0.149-0.221 min-1 for BPA and 0.147-0.228 min-1 for Ee₂). For the given frequencies of 28 and 580 kHz, the degradation rate increased in the presence of glass beads (0.1 mm and 25 g) for both BPA and Ee₂: 0.018-0.107 min-1 without beads and 0.052-0.142 min-1 with beads for BPA; 0.021-0.111 min-1 without beads and 0.054-0.136 min-1 with beads for Ee₂. A slight increase in degradation of both BPA and Ee₂ was found as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, humic acids) increased in both SBW and SSW: 0.107-0.115 min-1 in SBW and 0.087-0.101 min-1 in SSW for BPA; 0.111-0.111 min-1 in SWB and 0.092-0.105 min-1 in SSW for Ee₂. After 30 min of sonicating the humic acid solution, DOC removal varied depending on the water type: 27% (3 mg L-1) and 7% (10 mg L-1) in SBW and 7% (3 mg L-1) and 4% (10 mg L-1) in SSW.

      • 쿠싱증후군 환자에서 당 대사 이상 정도에 따른 인슐린 감수성과 인슐린 저항성의 변화

        정인경,김성훈,정재훈,민용기,이명식,이문규,유형준,안규정,노정현,김동준,김광원 대한내분비학회 2003 Endocrinology and metabolism Vol.18 No.4

        연구배경 당질 코르티코이드는 당 대사에 매우 중요한 호르몬으로 내인성 당질 코르티코이드 과다상태인 쿠싱증후군에서는 말초조직에서 인슐린 저항이 증가하고 이를 보상하고자 인슐린 분비의 증가로 고인슐린혈증이 동반된다고 보고되고 있다. 하지만 생체 내에서와 달리 시험관내에서는 췌도세포에 당질 코르티코이드를 장시간 처리하면, 인슐린 분비 및 생합성이직접적으로 억제됨이 확인된 바 있어 쿠싱증후군 환자에서 당뇨병의 원인으로는 아마도 말초조직에서 증가된 인슐린 저항성 뿐 아니라 이를 충분히 보상하지 못하는 췌장에서의 인슐린 분비 저하가 같이 동반되어있지 않을까 하는 가설을 세우게 되었고, 아직까지 당질코르티코이드가 당대사 이상을 일으키는 기전에 대해 쿠싱증후군을 당대사 정도에 따라 인슐린 감수성과 분비능을 분석한 연구는 없었기에 이를 알아보고자 하였다. 방법: 삼성서울병원에서 쿠싱증후군으로 진단 받은 환자 15명을 대상으로 하였다. 이에 대한 대조군으로는 쿠싱증후군 환자와 같은 성별 그리고 체질량지수를 갖은 15명의 건강한 성인을 대상으로 비교 하였다 쿠싱증후군 환자를 대상으로 경구당부하 검사를 통해 당대사 정도를 정상군, 내당능장애군, 그리고 당뇨병군으로 나눈 후 정맥 당부하 검사를 시행하여 각군의 인슐린 저항성과 인슐린 분비능의 지표를 비교하고, 수술 후 쿠싱증후군이 완치된 상태에서 수술 전후의 당대사 지표의 변화를 조사하였다. 결과: 1) 쿠싱증후군 환자 중 정상인은 20%, 내당능 장애는 27%, 그리고 당뇨병은 53%였다. 체질량지수, 나이, 그리고 발병 기간은 세 군간에 의미 있는 차이가 없었으나, 24시간 소변검사의 코르티솔 농도는 당뇨병군에서 의미있게 높았다. 2) 정맥당부하 검사 결과, 인슐린 감수성 지표인 Sl는쿠싱증추린」서 1.58±0.10[×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]로 정상 대조군의 3.37±0.49[×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]에 비해 의미있게 낮았으나(P=0.024), 쿠싱증후군 환자 중 NGT, IGT, DM 군간에 서로 통계적인 차이는 없었다. 3) SG는 정상 대조군과 쿠싱증후군 환자간에는 의미있는 차이가 없었고, 쿠싱 증후군에 있어서 당대사가 악화될수록 감소하는 경향을 보였으나 의미있는 차이는 없었다. 4) 인슐린 분비능의 지표인 AIRg는 정상인에 비해 전체 쿠싱증후군 환자의 경우 증가하는 경향을 보였으나 의미있는 차이는 없었다. 하지만 쿠싱증후군 환자중에서 당대사 상태에 따라 NGT군은 1299 (1297∼1310)(mu/g/min ×10^(-2))로 정상 대조군(368.9±98.6[mu/g/min ×10^(-2)]) 보다도 의미있게 높았고, DM군{202.2 (91.1~371.4) [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)}은 NGT군에 비해 의미있게 낮았다(P=0.0031). 5) 15명중 현재 완치 상태에 있는 6명에 대해 수술전과 후로 비교하였다. 수술 전 당대사 상태가 1명은정상, 1명은 내당능 장애, 그리고 4명은 당뇨병이었으나 수술 후 시행한 경구 당부하 검사상 모두 정상 당대사 상태를 보였다. 6) 수술 후 완치된 환자 6명에 있어 인슐린 감수성지표인 Sl는 수술전에 중앙값이 1.22[×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]로 대조군에 비해 의미있게 감고』어 있었으나(p.0.05), 수술후 10.95 [×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]로 정상 수준으로 회복되었고(P=0.0022), 인슐린 분비능을 나타내는 AIRg [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)] 값도 정상수준으로 회복되었다. 특히 인슐린 분비능의 회복양상은 혈당농도에 따라 판이하게 나타나서, 정상과 내당능장애 상태에 있던 2명은 수술전에 1201 [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)]로 증가되어 있던 AIRg 값이 수술 후 정상 수준으로 감소하였고, 수술 전에 당뇨병 상태에 있던 4명의 경우 245.9 [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)]로 인슐린 분비능이 감고il어 있었는데 이들은 수술 후 모두 정상 수준으로 증가되었다 (P=0.0286). 결론: 쿠싱증후군 환자에서 당대사 이상은 80%로 높은 유병률을 보였다. 모든 쿠싱증후군환자에서 인슐린 감수성은 정상인에 비해 저하되어 있어 말초조직의 인슐린 저항이 선행됨을 시사하며, 인슐린 분비능은 당대사의 정도에 따라 다르게 나타났는데, 정상 당대사군에서는 인슐린의 저항성을 극복할 만큼 정상 대조군보다 더 많은 양의 인슐린 분비를 하다가 고코르티솔혈증이 심할수록 인슐린 분비능의 감소로 당뇨병으로 진행됨을 확인할 수 있었고, 이런 인슐린 저항성과 인슐린 분비장애는 수술 후 다시 회복되는 가역적인변화를 보였다. Background: Glucocorticoid plays an important role in the control of carbohydrate metabolism. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have been reported to have an increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance due to peripheral insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, although the exact incidence and nature of this disorder have remained unclear. Few results have been published about insulin resistance and insulin secretion according to the level of glucose concentration, or about the reversibility of such defects in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Methods: To assess the effect of glucocorticoid on the insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in Cushing's syndrome, 15 patients with Cushing's syndrome were classified into 3 groups (normal glucose tolerance: NGT, impaired glucose tolerance: IGT, diabetes: DM) according to the degree of glucose tolerance based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin modified, frequently sampled, intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) was performed before and after curative surgery on these patients and on 15 healthy control subjects. Data were evaluated by non-parametric statistical analysis. Results: 1) Among the 15 patients with Cushing's syndrome, 3 (20%) were NGT, 4 (27%) IGT, and 8 (53%) DM, based on OGTT. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) was significantly higher in the DM group. 2) Insulin sensitivity index (SI) of Cushing's syndrome was significantly lower than that of the control group p=0.0024), but was not significantly different among the three Cushing's syndrome groups of NGT, IGT and DM. 3) Glucose mediated glucose disposal (SG) (Ed- confirm this abbreviation; it does not seem to match the definition) of Cushing's syndrome was not significantly different from that of the control group. 4) Insulin secretion (AIRg) of Cushing's syndrome tended to be high, but it was not significantly different from that of control. However, according to the level of glucose concentration there was significant difference in AlRg among the three Cushing's syndrome groups p=0.0031); AIRg of DM was significantly lower than that of NGT. 5) After surgical treatment, parameters of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were normalized in 6 cured patients; 1 with NGT, 1 with IGT, and 4 with DM, preoperatively. Median SI of all 6 patients was significantly improved up to the normal range postoperatively p=0.0022). Median AIRg of these 6 patients was balanced around that of normal control postoperatively p=0.0286). Conclusion: Eighty percent of patients with Cushing's syndrome had abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin sensitivity was significantly decreased in Cushing's syndrome. Insulin secretion was significantly higher only in the NGT and IGT groups of Cushing's syndrome. As the hypercortisolemia is exacerbated, insulin secretion is significantly decreased and causes DM, suggesting that glucocorticoid has a direct or indirect toxic effect on the pancreatic beta cell (J Kor SOC Endocrinol 18:392-403, 2003).

      • KCI등재

        원저 : 태연혈(太淵穴)의 유침 시간에 따른 체온 변화 -적외선체열촬영(赤外線體熱撮影)을 중심으로-

        이봉효 ( Bong Hyo Lee ),이경민 ( Kyung Min Lee ),박지하 ( Ji Ha Park ),김민서 ( Min Seo Kim ),김산들 ( San Deul Kim ),박병규 ( Byeong Gyu Park ),양현동 ( Hyun Dong Yang ),예성호 ( Sung Ho Yea ),이호정 ( Ho Jung Lee ),최재원 ( Jae 대한경락경혈학회 2012 Korean Journal of Acupuncture Vol.29 No.2

        Objectives: This study was performed to find the desirable remaining time of needle in the acupuncture treatment. Methods: The 21 volunteers were given acupuncture at LU9 vertically and needles were remained for 2 min, 10 min, 15 min, 30 min, respectively. The thermographic change induced by acupuncture was measured with Digital Infrared Thermographic Image at the following acupoints: LU11, LU10, LU9, LU8, LU5, LU1, and PC7. The statistical significance of thermographi change was evaluated using paired t-test and post hoc Wilcoxon test. Results: The most significant changes after acupuncture were produced when needles were remained for 10 min or 15 min. LU11, LU5, LU1, and PC7 were the point at which all of the remaining time produced significant change commonly. At LU11, the biggest change was produced when needle was remained for 15 min, while at LU5, LU1, and PC7, the biggest change was produced when needle was remained for 30 min, and the smallest change was produced when needle was remained for 10 min at all of acupoints of LU11, LU5, LU1, and PC7. The unbalance between left side and right was decreased the most largely in 15 min group. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the desirable remaining time of acupuncture needle might be 15 min.

      • KCI등재

        연구논문 : 모과내 기능성 유용성분 용매추출공정의 최적화

        전주영 ( Ju Yeong Jeon ),조인희 ( In Hee Jo ),경현규 ( Hyun Kyu Kyung ),김현아 ( Hyun A Kim ),이창민 ( Chang Min Lee ),최용희 ( Yong Hee Choi ) 한국산업식품공학회 2010 산업 식품공학 Vol.14 No.2

        본 연구에서는 모과내의 여러 가지 기능성 유용성분을 효과적으로 추출하기 위해서, 모과나무의 익은 열매로 만든 약재인 모과를 사용 하였다. 모과의 기능성 유용성분용매 추출 공정의 최적 조건을 확립하고자 하였다. 모과를 에탄올에 추출하여 반응표면 분석법으로 모니터링하여 최적 용매 조건을 설정하였다. 중심합성계획법에 따라 시료에 대한 용매비(X1)와 추출온도(X2), 추출시간(X3)을 요인변수로 하고 추출수율(Y1), 총페놀 함량(Y2), 전자공여능(Y3), 갈색도(Y4), 환원당(Y5)을 종속변수로 하여 시행하였다. 실험 결과 추출수율은 추출 온도와 추출 시간에 유의하게 영향을 받음을 알 수 있었다. 안장점에서 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비는 26.38mL/g, 추출온도는 72.82oC, 추출시간은 74.86 min에서 최대값을 나타내었다. 총페놀 함량은 용매비와 시간에 영향을 거의 받지 않았고 추출시간에는 영향을 받았으며, 최대값은 20.70mg/mL 로 나타났다. 이때의 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비는 22.61mL/g, 추출온도는 84.49oC, 추출시간은 77.25 min으로 나타났다. 전자공여능은 추출온도에 따라 유의하게 영향을 받은 것으로 나타났다. 안장점에서의 추출조건인 시료에 대한 용매비 10.65mL/g, 추출온도 67.78oC, 추출시간 96.75 min에서 추출수율은 94.12%로 예측되었다. 갈색도에 대한 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비 23.77mL/g, 추출온도 87.27oC, 추출시간 96.68 min 일 때 안장점이 나타났다. 환원당은 시료에 대한 용매비 26.83mL/g, 추출온도 82.167oC, 추출시간 81.94 min에서 10.55mg/mL로 최대값을 나타내었고 추출시간에 영향을 받았다. In this study, various active functional components in Chinese Quince were extracted by solvent extraction method. A central composit design for optimization was applied to investigate the effects of independent variables such as solvent to sample ratio (X1), extraction temperature (X2), and extraction time (X3) on the soluble solid contents (Y1), total phenols (Y2), electron donating ability (Y3), browning color (Y4) and reducing sugar contents (Y5). It was found that extraction temperature and extraction time were the main effective factors in this extraction process. The maximum soluble solid contents of 35.77% was obtained at 26.38mL/g (X1), 72.82oC (X2) and 74.86 min (X3) in saddle point. Total phenols were rarely affected by solvent ratio and extraction time, but it was affected by extraction temperature. The maximum total phenols of 20.70% was obtained at 22.61mL/g (X1), 84.49oC (X2), 77.25 min (X3) in saddle point. The electron donating ability was affected by extraction time. The maximum electron donating ability of 94.12% was obtained at 10.65mL/g (X1), 67.78oC (X2), 96.75 min (X3) in saddle point. The maximum browning color of 0.32% was obtained at 23.77mL/g (X1), 87.27oC (X2), 96.68 min (X3) in saddle point. The maximum value of reducing sugar content of 10.55% was obtained at 26.83mL/g (X1), 82.167oC (X2), 81.94 min (X3). Reducing sugar content was affected by extraction time.

      • KCI등재

        High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis for Quantitation of Marker Compounds of Artemisia capillaris Thunb.

        Kyung Min Park,손종근,Ying Li,Bora Kim,Haiyan Zhang,Kyong Hwangbo,Dong Gen Piao,Mei Juan Chi,우미희,최재수,이제현,문동철,장현욱,김재룡 대한약학회 2012 Archives of Pharmacal Research Vol.35 No.12

        Two stable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed that could quantitatively analyze 10 major marker compounds of Artemisia capillaris Thunb and could also distinguish among ‘Injinho’ and ‘Myeon-injin’ and ‘Haninjin’ – A. capillaris collected in autumn,A. capillaris collected in spring and A. iwayomogi, which can be misused as ‘Injinho’ in Korean herbal drug markets. The first HPLC method was a reversed-phase chromatography using a C18 column with an isocratic solvent system of phosphoric acid (0.05%) and acetonitrile at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, ultraviolet (UV) detection wavelength at 254 nm and column temperature at 40oC. Calibration and quantitation were made by using acetaminophen as an internal standard (I.S-A) and chlorogenic acid (1) was determined within 20 min. The second HPLC method was a reversed-phase chromatography using a C18 column with a gradient solvent system of phosphate buffer (0.015 M, pH 6) and acetonitrile at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, UV detection wavelength at 254 nm and column temperature at 40oC. Calibration and quantitation were made by using ethylparaben as an internal standard (I.S-B) and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (2), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), hyperoside (5), isoquercitrin (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-robinobioside (7), isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (8), isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (9) and scoparone (10) were determined within 60 min. Pattern recognition analysis of data from the 60 samples classified them clearly into three groups. These assay methods could be applied for QA/QC of A. capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi.

      • KCI등재

        민(MIN) 설계 방법을 이용한 무인기 수평이동제어 알고리즘에 관한 연구

        왕현민(Hyun-Min Wang),허경무(Kyung-Moo Huh),우광준(Kwang-Joon Woo) 대한전자공학회 2009 電子工學會論文誌-SC (System and control) Vol.46 No.3

        최근 무인기의 형태는 다양한 형태로 개발되고 있으며, 탑재 장비의 고성능 소형화를 바탕으로 무인기는 소형화 되고 있다. 이러한 소형화되고 일반적인 형태가 아닌 무인기 개발에 있어, 기존의 개발방법으로는 이러한 비선형적인 요소로 인하여 정확한 모델링 및 제어기 알고리즘의 정형화하기가 어렵다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 기존이 비행체 개발 방법이 아닌, 하중 제어 개념을 적용한 Min 설계 방법의 첫 번째 단계로, 원통형 무인기에 적용하여, 수평 비행 조건과 특성 그리고 제어기 설계 알고리즘을 찾아보았다. 이러한 Min 설계 방법은 고성능 컴퓨터를 사용한 무인기 개발에 있어 실시간 시뮬레이션을 통한 비용절감과 개발기간을 단축시킬 수 있다. Recently, UAV(unmanned aerial vehicle) has evolved into various figure and become miniaturized. On using existing design method, it is hard to make modelling and standardizing design of flight control system of the figure including cylinder like pipe. These problems are caused by uncorrect express of nonlinearity in controller design. Therefore, it is developed through step of correct modelling and simulation on real time using high efficiency computer in aircraft development of various figure. This is reducing period and expense of aircraft development. For the shake of solving these problems, Min-design method has been devised by H.M. Wang. In this paper, an object of control is cylindrical UAV instead of the general figure of aircraft. It was analyzed flight condition, specification about level flight of the UAV and was presented algorithm to find control value.

      • High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis for Quantitation of Marker Compounds of Artemisia capillaris Thunb

        ( Kyung Min Park ),( Ying Li ),( Bora Kim ),( Haiyan Zhang ),( Kyong Hwangbo ),( Dong Gen Piao ),( Mei Juan Chi ),( Mi Hee Woo ),( Jae Sue Choi ),( Je Hyun Lee ),( Dong Cheul Moon ),( Hyeun Wook Chang 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2013 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.23 No.0

        Two stable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed that could quantitatively analyze 10 major marker compounds of Artemisia capillaris Thunb and could also distinguish among `Injinho` and `Myeon-injin` and `Haninjin`--A. capillaris collected in autumn, A. capillaris collected in spring and A. iwayomogi, which can be misused as `Injinho` in Korean herbal drug markets. The first HPLC method was a reversed-phase chromatography using a C18 column with an isocratic solvent system of phosphoric acid (0.05%) and acetonitrile at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, ultraviolet (UV) detection wavelength at 254 nm and column temperature at 40°C. Calibration andquantitation were made by using acetaminophen as an internal standard (I.S-A) and chlorogenic acid (1) was determined within 20 min. The second HPLC method was a reversed-phase chromatography using a C18 column with a gradient solvent system of phosphate buffer (0.015 M, pH 6) and acetonitrile at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, UV detection wavelength at 254 nm and column temperature at 40°C. Calibration and quantitation were made by using ethylparaben as an internal standard (I.S-B) and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (2), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), hyperoside (5), isoquercitrin (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-robinobioside (7), isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (8), isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (9) and scoparone (10) were determined within 60 min. Pattern recognitionanalysis of data from the 60 samples classified them clearly into three groups. These assay methods could be applied for QA/QC of A. capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        대장내시경검사의 전처치로서 항콜린제 사용에 관한 연구 : 전향적, 이중맹검법으로

        박경남,한동수,이민호,최호순,박준용,손주현,이오영,함준수,전용철,송승찬,기춘석,윤병철,이종희 대한소화기내시경학회 1997 Clinical Endoscopy Vol.17 No.3

        Background: Use of antispasmodic medication prior to colonoscopy is controversial but someone believes antispasmodic may improve visualization of colonic mucosa and ease colonoscope insertion. So, we designed a study to assess the effect of premedication with the antispasmodic, hyoscine-N-butyl bromide(Buscopan') on the performance of colonoscopy. Methods: This study was prospective, double blinded, randomized, controlled study, One hundred three consecutive patients were randomized to receive intravenous buscopan lml(n=52) or placebo(n=51) combined with our standard initial medication(me- peridine 50 mg and midazolam 2 mg). Insertion of colonoscopy was timed, and 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS) were used for asscssing difficulty of procedure, colonic motility, frequency of positional change, frequency of external compression, difficulty of assistance and degree of discomfort experienced by the patients. Results: There were no significant differences of intubation time between buscopan group(mean time, 7.23 min., range 2~15) and placebo group(7.07 min., range 3-25), (p=0.83) and withdrawal time between buscopan group (6.46 min., range 2-22) and placebo group(6.76 min., range 2 25), (p=0.69). Also, there was no significant differences in intubation time between males and females(buscopan; males 7.00 min., females 7.60 min., p=0.34, placebo; males 7.0~5 min., females 7.08 min., p 0.44). The VAS scores checked by endoscopist(p=0.29), assistant(p=0.32) and patient (p=0.15) were not significantly different in both groups. There were no significant differences in intubation time, VAS scores nf endoscopist, assistant, and patients. Conclusion: Premedication with intravenous bu.opan has no advantage on colonoscopy procedure. Use of antispasmodic medication prior to colonoscopy was not considered as recommendable agent.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
      • SCOPUSSCIEKCI등재

        총경동맥 폐쇄시간에 따르는 국소 뇌혈류 변화 : 실험적 연구 An Experimental Cat Model

        강준기,성태경,조병일,백민우,김문찬,허춘웅,하영수,송진언 대한신경외과학회 1983 Journal of Korean neurosurgical society Vol.12 No.3

        The microvasculature of the brain is also quite susceptible to ischemic insult, and substantial portions of the brain are not reperfused after restoration of the blood supply following overtime of critical ischemic periods. The purpose of this series of experiments was to determine the effects of ischemia on subsequential regional cerebral blood flow measurements and cortical electric activities following reperfusion after ischemia and also to define the proper time of vascular occlusion without irreversible neural damage. Cerebral ischemia was induced in cat by bilateral common carotid occlusions for periods of 10, 30, to 60 minutes, and the blood supply was reperfused for 3 hours after clamp-off. Regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) was measured by hydrogen clearance technique following ischemia, restoration of blood supply and electroencephalogram recovery could be predicted according to the rCBF. Forty adult cats weighing 2.7 to 4.0㎏ were used in this study. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 10 cats each : normal control, 10 min-clamped, 30 min-clamped, and 60 min-clamped groups. The results obtained were as follows : 1) The mean rCBF was 24.6±7.0㎖/100g/min in control group. 2) Bilateral carotid occlusions resulted in a reduction of the rCBF(12.4±4.1㎖/100g/min) to 50% of control flow on both hemispheres. 3) Sequential changes of the rCBF after reperfusion : (1) There was restored the rCBF(21.3±5.1㎖/100g/min) to control flow in the 10 minutes-clamped group. (2) There was a 85% recovery of control flow in the 30 minutes-clamped group. (3) There was a only 25% recovery of control flow in the 60 minutes-clamped group. 4) A close correlation was found between cortical electrical activity and rCBF suggesting a threshold relationship. (1) The changes of cortical electric activity began to notice at rCBF less than 17.4±4.7㎖/100g/min. (2) The recovery of cortical electric activity noted at rCBF more than 10.2±2.3㎖/100g/min. 5) There was no evidence of ischemic involvement at the cortex, white matter and basal ganglia in the 10 minutes clamped group, but demonstrated a dense wedge shaped infarct at the cortex and uncus herniation in the 60 minutes clamped group. The rCBF and cortical electric activity restored to normal values in reperfusion within 10 minutes after occlusion of both common carotid arteries.

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