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<P>Microwave is thought of as a useful electromagnetic radiation tool because it is often used in real life as well as in a variety of chemical processes. Meanwhile, activation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which must be essentially done to remove coordinating and pore-filling solvents before the use of MOFs for various applications, has been performed commonly with the methods of heat supply or solvent exchange. Here, we show a new methodological microwave activation (MA), realizing it with various MOFs such as HKUST-1, UiO-66, and MOF-74s. For instance, microwave irradiation to the MOF samples for 4-35 min leads to the complete activation of the MOFs without structural damage. As described below, we further demonstrate that the solvent-assisted MA, which is the MA process performed after the solvent exchange, can substantially reduce the time for the activation by 4 min.</P> [FIG OMISSION]</BR>
오이속의 조효소액에 존재하는 Superoxide dismutase(SOD)활성의 pH 안정성은 pH 8.0에서 가장 안정하였고 pH5.0~9.0 사이의 범위에서는 비교적 안정하였다. 최적 온도는 25℃였고 열 안정성은 60℃까지는 안정하였다. 100℃에서 5분간 보관하였을 경우에는 12%만이 남아있었다. 오이에 존재하는 SOD 활성이 섭취 후에도 안정한가를 확인하기 위한 실험에서는 위속의 pH와 동일하도록 오이속의 조효소액의 pH를 2.0으로 변형시킨 후 36.7℃에서 3시간 동안 보관 후에 잔존활성이 10%였고, 장내의 환경인 pH 7.0으로 바꾸어 6시간 동안 둔 후 잔존하는 SOD의 활성은 25%로 활성이 증가되었다. 다양한 열처리 후에 잔존하는 오이의 SOD활성은 오이속은 데치기에서(끓는 물에서 2분) 25%, 껍질은 찌는 동안에(3분) 53%, 그리고 속과 껍질로 분리하지 않은 오이는 데치기에서 27%의 활성잔존률을 보였다. 4℃에서는 20일간 보관한 후에 오이속의 조효소액은 81%활성이 있었고, 30℃에서는 17%의 활성이 남아 있었다. 투석한 결과 SOD의 활성은 변화가 없었으므로 오이속에 존재하는 SOD는 적어도 분자량이 12,000 이상의 물질로 추정된다. The superoxide dismutase(SOD) in peeled pericarp of cucumber was most stable at pH 8.0 and relatively stabe between pH 5.0 and 9.0. The enzyme was stable up to 60℃ and retained 12% by heat treatment at 100℃ for 5 min. At pH 2.0, the peeled pericarp enzyme activity was decreased to 10% by incubation for 3 hrs. However, the enzyme activity was increased above 25% after incubating the enzyme at pH 7.0 for 6 hrs. Retention of SOD activity in cucumber by various heating methods was also measured. The residual SOD activities of peeled pericarp and whole cucumber was estimated to be 25% and 27% after blanching (2 min), respectively. The skin enzyme retained 53% of its activity after steaming (3 min). When the peeled peri carp enzyme was incubated at 4℃ for 20 days, the enzyme activity remained about 81%. However, when the enzyme incubated at 30℃ for 20 days, the peeled pericarp enzyme activity decreased to 17% of its original activity. The enzyme activity of peeled pericarp cucumber was not changed after exhaustive dialysis for 3 days, which indicated that the SOD activity in cucumber seems to have molecular weight above 12,000.
이상민 ( Sang Min Lee ),김은수 ( Eun Soo Kim ),박경식 ( Kyung Sik Park ),조광범 ( Kwang Bum Cho ),김동춘 ( Dong Choon Kim ),강유진 ( Yu Jin Kang ),이유진 ( Yoo Jin Lee ),이정민 ( Jung Min Lee ),최은성 ( Eun Sung Choi ),최재혁 ( Ja 대한소화기학회 2014 대한소화기학회지 Vol.64 No.4
Background/Aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an effective procedure for en-bloc curative resection of the colorectal tumor. As it requires high technical skills and experience in therapeutic endoscopy, it is important to understand learning curve of ESD technique. The aim of this study was to retrospectively describe the clinical results of ESD and to evaluate learning curve for the ESD of colorectal tumors. Methods: A total of 90 patients with 90 colorectal neoplasms, who had undergone ESD at a tertiary referral hospital from July 2009 to December 2012, were enrolled. The ESD was performed by a single endoscopist. All ESD cases were divided into three periods: first, cases 1-30; second, cases 31-60; and third, cases 61-90. Results: The en-bloc resection rates in third period (100%) was significantly higher than that of the first (93.3%) and second period (80%) (p=0.025). The perforation rate in third period (0%) also significantly decreased compared with that of the first (13.3%) and second period (20%) (p=0.032). To calibrate the difference of tumor size among periods, proficiency was calculated, as the procedure time per specimen area (min/cm2). The proficiency in third period (4.3) was significantly shorter than that of the first (16.8) and second period (10.2) (p=0.004). Conclusions: The learning curve of colorectal ESD in our study shows that at least 60 cases of ESD have to be conducted to acquire sufficient skill of degree without perforation. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2014;64:198-205)
Since the changes of Na^+-Li^+ countertransport (SLC) Vmax in essential hypertension have been reported. it has been known that hyperlipidemia could affect SLC independently of blood pressure. To reveal the relation between SLC Vmax and RBC membrane fatty acid conposition in the hypertensive patients, we divided patients into two groups according to their levels of SLC Vmax of erythrocytes(elevated SLC Vmax: n=4, normal SLC Vamx: n=6). The results were as follows: 1) There was no difference in body mate index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, serum cholesterol level between two groups. Triglyceride were higher in elevated group (278.0±180.0 ㎎/㎗) than normal group (124.3±60.7 ㎎/㎗) but there was no statistical significance. HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in elevated group (32.0±3.6 vs. 44.8±8.9 ㎎/㎗) and free fatty acid concentrations, intracellular (RBC) Na^+ concentrations were similar between two groups. 2) The results of oral glucose tolerance test showed no differences in the glucose and insulin area, however the incremental insulin areas of elevated group (108.8±31.3, μU. min/㎖×10²) were significantly higher compared with those of normal group (56.3±20.7 μU. min/㎖×10²). 3) In the elevated group, palmitic acid proportions of erythrocytes (22.1±0.7%) were higher than those of normal group (20.1±0.7%) and SLC Vmax showed significant correlation (r=0.81, p$lt;0.01) with palmitic acid proportion. These results suggest that the abnormal lipid metabolism may change the RBC Na^+ transport system through the alterations of RBC membrane fatty acid composition.
The Korean Association of lnternal Medicine : Poster Session ; PS 1357 : Nephrology ; Age is the Strongest Effector for the Relationship between Estimated Glomerular filtration Rate and Coronary Artery Calcifi cation in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults
( Hyun Beom Chae ),( Eun Jung Rhee ),( Hae Jung Park ),( Min Kyung Lee ),( Won Seon Jeon ),( Se Eun Park ),( Cheol Young Park ),( Won Young Lee ),( Ki Won Oh ),( Sung Woo Park ) 대한내과학회 2014 대한내과학회 추계학술대회 Vol.2014 No.1
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major clinical problem and the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Coronary artery calcifi cation (CAC) is a potential mechanism that explains the association between renal function and cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to evaluate the association between renal function and CAC in apparently healthy Korean subjects. Methods: In 23,617 participants in the health screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital health screening program from January 2010 to December 2011, estimated glomerular fi ltration rate (eGFR) was assessed by Cockcroft-Gault equation. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the CKD Staging system with eGFR grade; stage 1: eGFR = 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, stage 2: eGFR 60-89 mL/ min/1.73 m2, stage 3: eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: Mean age of the participants was 41.4 years, and mean eGFR was 103.6±21.7 mL/min/1.73 m2. Hypertension and diabetes were noted in 43.7% and 5.5% of the participants, respectively. eGFR showed weakly negative but signifi cant association with CACS in bivariate correlation analysis (r=-0.076, p<0.01). Mean CACS signifi cantly increased from CKD stage 1 to 3. The proportion of subjects who had CAC signifi cantly increased from CKD stage 1 to 3. Although odds ratio for CAC signifi cantly increased from stage 1 to 3 after adjustment for confounding factors, this signifi cance was inversed when age was included in the model. Age was the strongest factor that affects CAC. Conclusions: This study performed in young Korean subjects with relatively normal renal function, age was the mostly strongest effector on the association between eGFR and the degree of CAC.
스트레스 반응에 중요한 역할을 하고 있는 CRHR1 유전자 SNP와 알코올 의존과의 연관성에 관한 선행 연구들이 있다. 이에 본 연구는 백인을 대상으로 조사했던 기존연구와는 달리 한국인 남녀를 대상으로 하여 알코올 의존군과 정상 대조군의 CRHR1 유전자형 빈도 및 대립유전자형 빈도를 비교하였다. 본 연구의 연구대상자들은 알코올 의존군 268명(남자 218명, 여자 50명)과 정상 대조군 137명(남자 78명, 여자 59명)이었다. CRHR1 유전자 SNP를 SNP database와 선행연구를 근거로 선정한 후, 연구 대상자들의 이러한 SNP 유전자형을 PCRRFLP방법으로 조사하였다. 그 결과, 한국인의 CRHR1 유전자 SNPs로 7개(rs242938, rs404623, rs28364027, rs16940686, rs937, rs878886, rs878887)가 분석되었다. 이중 rs28364027의 A 대립 유전자의 빈도는 남녀 각각에서 알코올 의존군이 대조군보다 유의하게 높았다. 그리고 rs28364027의 AA 유전자형 및 A 대립 유전자와 rs878886의 CC유전자형 및 C 대립유전자의 빈도는 알코올 의존군내에서 여성이 남성보다 유의하게 높았다. 이러한 결과를 종합해 보면 CRHR1 유전자 SNP가 알코올 의존의 유전적 원인의 중요한 요인일 가능성을 제시하고 있다. 또 이러한 CRHR1 유전자 SNP가 알코올 의존의 유전적 원인에서 남녀간 차이를 설명할 수 있을 가능성도 시사하고 있다. Objectives:There were several preceding studies investigating the association between alcohol dependence and corticotropine releasing hormone receptor1(CRHR1) gene SNPs that play an important role in response to stress. The frequencies of CRHR1 genotypes and alleles were compared between alcohol-dependent patients and normal control subjects. Methods:The subjects were 268 alcohol-dependent patients(218 males, 50 females) and 137 normal controls(78 male, 59 female). CRHR1 gene SNPs were investigated according to the SNP database and the results from previous studies, and their genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP). Results:Seven CRHR1 gene SNPs(rs242938, rs404623, rs28364027, rs16940686, rs937, rs878886, rs878887) were found in Korean subjects. The frequency of rs28364027 A allele was significantly higher in alcohol-dependent patients than normal controls in both genders. In alcohol-dependent patients, the frequencies of AA genotype and A allele of rs28364027, and of CC genotype and C allele of rs878886 were higher in female than male. Conclusion:These results suggest that CRHR1 gene SNP is one of the important genetic factors in the etiology of alcohol dependence. And also it is supposed that the different frequency of SNP genotype could explain stress-related gender difference in the genetic etiology of alcohol dependence.
Background and Objectives: The colorectal cancer rates 4th in the total cancer prevalence in Korea. The clinical patient demographics were considered with the incidence rate of the colon and rectal cancer. The clinicopathological factors were analyzed for the 5 year survival rate. Materials Methods: Of the 282 patients who were operated from Jan. 1, 1992 to Dec. 31, 2001 and diagnosed by pathological biopsy as colo-rectal cancer, 234 patients were followed up. The age, sex, location of the cancer, TNM stage, operation method, histopathological classification, metastatic region, complications after operation and the survival rate were investigated. Results: Of the 234 patients, male and female consisted of 120 cases (51.3%) and 114 cases (46.7%), with an average age of 61.6 years. The average follow up period was 52.3 months and the peri operative mortality was 5.6%. The site of the cancer was most frequent at the rectum with 127 cases (54.3%). The patients were classified according to the TNM stages with 38 cases of stage 1 (16.2%), 98 cases of II (41.9%), 72 cases of III (30.8%) and 26 cases of IV (11.1%). The 5 year survival rate in the age group older than 50 was 63.3 % and 73.5% in the group younger than 50. In regard to the operation type, the 5 year survival rate was 65.4% for elective operation and 65.8% for emergency operation. The 5 year survival rate for well differentiated, moderately differentiated, poorly differentiated cancer, and mucinous adenocarcinoma was 73.7%, 60.2%, 58.3%, and 92.6%, respectively. The 5 year survival rate of each of the TNM stage is 81.1%, 74.8%, 57.0%, and 11.5% for Classes I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical factors were analyzed for the 5 year survival rate with no statistical significance for the age, sex, and location of the cancer. The TNM stage and histopathological differentiation were statistically significant. The colon cancer showed better prognosis compared to the rectal cancer.
Thrombosis is one of the important complications of nephrotic syndrome. Still, the mechanism of thrombosis of nephrotic syndrome is under debate, but the presence of hypercoagulable state in nephrotic syndrome is regarded as the principal contributing factor to that. Venous thrombosis in nephrotic syndrome has been increasingly reported, but arterial thrombosis is relatively rare and has been reported mainly in nephrotic children. Authors experienced a 35-year old male patient with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, who complained sudden onset of claudication, cold sensation, numbness and cyanosis of right lower extremity. A diagnosis of thrombosis in right common iliac artery and thromboses in septal and distal branch of left anterior descending coronary artery was made by arterial angiography. The patient fully recovered after emergent thrombectomy and anticoagulation therapy.
Objective : This study was designed to analyze the of correlation between narrowing disc space of lumbar X-ray and HIVD of L-spine CT in lumbosacral strain patients. Methods : 63 cases of lumbosacral strain patients who visited Bul-kyooh Oriental Hospital from june 13, 2000 to August 9, 2001 were selected. We performed the radiography by lumbar X-ray and L-spine CT for all cases. Results : 28 of 63 cases revealed narrowing disc space in Lumbar X-ray and these 28 cases were diagnosed as HIVD in L-spine CT at all. 35 of 63 cases revealed normal in Lumbar X-ray and 13 of these 35 cases were diagnosed as HIVD in L-spine CT. Conclusions : We found that narrowing disc space in lumbar X-ray has significant relvance to HIVD in L-spine CT(P-value = 0.001). For accurate diagnosis and treatment of lumbosacral strain patients. combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination and radiography of X-ray and HIVD is needed
목적: 서행성 변비는 치료에 있어 주로 자극성 완하제에 의존하게 되어 치료에 어려움이 있다. 골반 부교감신경은대장운동 항진에 중요한 역할을 하는데 최근 척수손상으로 인한 신경인성장 환자에서 대장운동을 항진시키기 위해 골반 부교감신경이 유래되는 천수신경 전기자극이 이용되었다 한편 신경인성 장으로 인한 변비환자를 대상으로 한천수신경 피부분절 전기자극치료 연구에서 비침습적인 표면전극을 통한 전기자극도 천수신경을 자극하여 대장운동이 항진되고 대장통과시간이 단축된다고 보고 되었다. 본연구의 목적은 약물이 지속적으로 필요한 서행성 변비환자에서 천수신경 피부분절에 대한 전기자극의 효과를 알아보고 서행성 변비환자의 새로운 치료방법으로서 유용성을 평가해 보고자 한다. 대상 및 방법: 기능성 변비로 진단 받은 환자들을 대상으로 이들 중 대장통과시간이 36시간 이상 지연된 환자 20명(남:녀 5:15, 연령 25~86)을 선정하였다. HMT사의 Kontinence™ (Seoul, Korea)을 사용하여 천수신경 피부분절에 표면전극을 통해 전기자극치료(pulse width: 500 ms, frequency: 70 Hz, amplitude: 7~57 V,12회 , 매회 당 20분)를 시행하였다. 항문직장 내압검사기기를 사용하여 항문연에서 20 cm 부위에 측정관을 위치하고 대장의압력극파의 변화를 전기자극 시작 전 15분 동안, 전기자극중 15분 동안 관찰하고 휴지기 대장 압력의 변화를 측정함으로써 전기자극의 적절성을 평가하였다. 대장통과시간 측정과 항문직장 내압검사 및 설문지를 통한 배변 횟수 등 주관적인 증상 평가를 전기자극치료 기간 전 후에 시행하여 분석하였다. 결과: 대상환자 20명의 대장 압력극파가 전기자극 중 통계적으로 의미 있게 증가하였다 평균 휴지기대장 압력은 자극 전 13.8±21.8 mmHg에서 자극 중 20.2±20.5 mmllg로 증가하였다(p<0.001). 20명의 환자 중 4명의환자가 전기자극치료 기간 중 탈락되어 전기자극치료를 마친 16명을 대상으로 검사결과를 분석하였다. 전체 대장통과시간은 전기자극치료 전, 후 각각 58.4±15.9 시간에서47.1±20.6 시간으로 통계적으로 유의하게 감소하였다(p<0.01). 특히 직장-S상 결장의 대장통과시간이 의미 있게 감소하였다(11.3±9.1 시간 vs 5.1±5.8시간, p<0.05). 총 16명의 환자 중 4명은 전기자극치료 후 대장통과시간이 정상범위로 되었다. 배변증상은 치료 후에 전반적으로 유의하게 호전되었다. 임상적 반응을 전기자극치료 후 배변횟수가 증가하거나 배변횟수는 변화가 없더라도 전기자극치료전 지속적으로 사용해 오던 배변시 보조 수단의 감소로 정의 할 때 16명의 환자 중 10명의 환자가 임상적 반응을 보였다. 전기자극치료 후 대장통과시간이 20% 이상 감소한경우를 의미 있게 대장통과시간이 호전되었다고 임의로 정의할 때 16명의 환자 중 7명의 환자가 대장통과시간이 의미 있게 호전되었다. 대장통과시간이 의미 있게 호전된 환자들은 모두 임상적 반응을 보여 임상적 반응과 의미 있는 대장통과시간의 호전은 통계적으로 유의한 상관관계를 보였다(p<0.05). 항문직장 내압검사는 전기자극치료 전후 통계적으로 의미 있는 차이를 보이지 않았다. 전기자극치료기간 중 특별한 합병증은 발생하지 않았다. 결론: 본 연구는 천수신경 피부분절 전기자극치료가 서행성 변비환자 중일부에서 대장통과시간을 유의하게 감소시키고 배변횟수의증가 등 배변 증상을 호전시킴을 보여주었다. 이에 비침습적 천수신경 피부분절 전기자극은 서행성 변비 환자의 치료에 있어 새로운 방법으로 개발될 가능성이 있을 것으로 생각된다. Background/Aims: Patients with slow transit constipation are poorly responsive to medical therapy and sometimes require an invasive surgical procedure, such as a total colectomy. Electric stimulation therapy (EST) of the sacral nerve by using an implanted stimulator has been used in patients with spinal cord injuries to stimulate bowel peristalsis. However, implantation of the stimulator is an invasive procedure requiring percutaneous incision. Theoretically, noninvasive EST of the sacral dermatome may enhance colonic motility by pelvic parasympathetic stimulation via the sacral nerve. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sacral dermatome EST for patients with idiopathic slow transit constipation. Methods: Twenty patients of slow transit constipation (M:F=5:15, age 26-86 yrs.) were treated with EST of the S2 (pulse width 500 ms, amplitude: 7-57 V, frequency: 70 Hz, pulse generator; HMT, Seoul, Korea) for 12 sessions (each session lasting 20 min.). Colonic pressure spike waves were monitored by manometly before and during EST. Sixteen subjects completed a bowel symptom questionnaire, an anorectal physiologic and a radio-opaque marker transit study before and after EST. Results: A significant rise in the number of colonic pressure waves was noted after the application of EST. The mean amplitude of colonic pressure increased from 13.8k21.8 mmHg to 20.2k20.5 mmHg after the application of EST (P<0.001). The overall symptoms of the patients, especially bowel frequency and requirement of medication, were significantly improved after EST (P<0.05). Colonic transit time was significantly decreased from 58.4±15.9 hrs to 47.1±20.6 hrs for the total colon, and from 11.3±9.1 hrs to 5.1±5.8 hrs for the recto-sigmoid colon after EST, respectively (P<0.05). Colonic transit time returned to normal in 4 patients among 16 patients. There were no significant differences in anorectal physiologic parameters before and after EST. Conclusions: EST of the sacral dermatome may enhance colon transit and improve subjective symptoms in patients with slow transit constipation. EST of the sacral dermatome may be considered a possible therapeutic modality in a subgroup of slow transit constipation patients. (Kor J Neurogastroenterol Mot 2003;9 134-141)