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Cicinela chinensis (Coleoptera : Cicindelidae) is usually distributed from Asian countries; Korea, Vietnam, China and Japan. In larval stage, they make hole on ground and eat small insects that pass over the hole, adult also predator on other small insects and they can move fast. They have regional morphological variation, usually variations were showed in elytral pattern and body colors. There are four subspecies, Cicindela chinensis chinensis, Cicindela chinensis flammifera, Cicindela chinensis japonica and Cicindela chinensis okinawana in Cicindela chinensis all of the world. Because of a lot of variation in elytra pattern and body color, identification of Cicindela chinensis is difficult. Therefore to know the distinct differences, comparison analysis by DNA sequence in COI gene was examined. In this paper COI comparison analysis of Cicindela chienesis from different location was examined. Also COI comparison analysis of species with different elytra pattern and body color collected in same location was done. Although they have different color pattern is same region, the result of COI sequence was same. Otherwise, although they have same color pattern in other regions, the result of COI sequence was different.
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A Study on the Relationship between Dae-Jang-Jung-Gyeok(大腸正格) and Leaky Gut Syndrome Lee Jin-Cheoul1·Park Sang-Kyun2·Bang Jung-kyun3 *1Dept. of Medical History, College of Korean Medicine, Kyunghee University 2Dept. of Meridian, College of Korean Medicine, Sangji University 3Dept. of Korean Medical Classics and History, College of Korean Medicine, Sangji University Objective: If the penetration ratio of the intestinal mucosa is increased, the toxic or unhealthy materials - which should not be absorbed into our bodies - will be come into our bodies. They cause a sort of anti-toxic response or confusion of the immune system, and ultimately bring various types of diseases. This syndrome is related "Poison in Excrement" or "Internal Damage(內傷發□)" and Leaky Gut Syndrome, so I will study on the relationship between them. Method: Study on the relationship between Dae-Jang-Jung-gyeok and Leaky Gut Syndrome. Result: Korean doctors in ancient times called this syndrome "Poison in Excrement" or "Internal Damage(內傷發□)" and treated it with "Dae-Jang-Jung-Gyeok(大腸正格)". Leaky Gut Syndrome is a sort of clinical lesion, which allows foreign and harmful toxins in and results in a disorder of the immune system due to the leaking intestinal mucosa. Conclusion: Based upon the analyses, Dae-Jang-Jung-Gyeok and Leaky Gut Syndrome are closely related. Therefore diseases caused by the Leaky Gut Syndrome might be expected to be cured by Dae-Jang-Jung-Gyeok. Particularly the use of treatments for self-immune diseases and allergic diseases such as atopyic dermatitis and articular rheumatism should be expected to reveal a new path of treatment for other disorders such as Leaky Gut Syndrome. Key Words: Poison in Excrement, Internal Damage(內傷發□), Dae-Jang-Jung-Gyeok(大腸正格), Leaky Gut Syndrome
Background: Recently, single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been proposed as an alternative to the conventional three-port VATS for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). The aim of this study is to evaluate the early outcomes of the single-port VATS for PSP. Methods: VATS was performed for PSP in 52 patients from March 2012 to March 2013. We reviewed the medical records of these 52 patients, retrospectively. Nineteen patients underwent the conventional three-port VATS (three-port group) and 33 patients underwent the single-port VATS (single-port group). Both groups were compared according to the operation time, number of wedge resections, amount of chest tube drainage during the first 24 hours after surgery, length of chest tube drainage, length of hospital stay, postoperative pain score, and postoperative paresthesia. Results: There was no difference in patient haracteristics between the two groups. There was no difference in the number of wedge resections, operation time, or amount of drainage between the two groups. The mean lengths of chest tube drainage and hospital stay were shorter in the single-port group than in the three-port group. Further, there was less postoperative pain and paresthesia in the single-port group than in the three-port group. These differences were statistically significant. The mean size of the surgical wound was 2.10 cm (range, 1.6 to 3.0 cm) in the single-port group. Conclusion: Single-port VATS for PSP had many advantages in terms of the lengths of chest tube drainage and hospital stay, postoperative pain, and paresthesia. Single-port VATS is a feasible technique for PSP as an alternative to the conventional three-port VATS in well-selected patients.
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It is time the civil defense system should be reborn as a powerful organization to respond to unexpected disasters and security threats from North Korea, and changed resolutely into a system getting along with the citizens in life to meet the needs of the time. In this context, this study presents a direction of development for the Korean civil defense system as follows: Firstly, the current legal fabric for civil defense and disaster management in South Korea is scattered among separate laws, and the disaster management affairs are overlapped or scattered among many agencies. Thus, for efficient disaster management, the overlapped and scattered disaster management works should be readjusted. Secondly, the Korean government set up "National Emergency Management Agency" as well as "the Disaster and Safety Management Office" in the Ministry of Public Administration and Security, but still these do not equal the dedicated organizations with the comprehensive security concept, which covers all natural disasters, manmade disasters, civil defense, critical infrastructure protection, cyber terrors and biological disasters aimed by advanced countries in the field of disaster prevention. Therefore, it is required to set up a dedicated organization for civil defense, and specialize its personnel. Thirdly, the civil defense system should be reset to infuse a sense of national security into the people about unexpected provocations from North Korea, and to protect the people from globalized terrors and various disasters. Lastly, the civil defense education and training system should clearly regulate its field and mission, and it should be established as the demand-focused education and training in life. The education and training should be developed and operated in accordance with the real situation in the future.
The Yeongnam Daedong Law was implemented in the 4th year of the reign of King Sukjong(1678), which was 27 years after the implementation of the Hoseo Daedong Law. Yeongnam Daedong Samok, which provides the enforcement rules of the Yeongnam Daedong Law, was drafted based on the Jeonnamdo Daedong Samok. Although there is a slight difference between the two due to geographical and economical differences, the basic operative framework was the same. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the Daedong laws and provincial finances through the analysis of the Yeongnam Daedong Samok, which provided the enforcement rules for the Yeongnam Daedong Law, and the Chubyeong Tongjeolmok and Bondojeolmok, which were created to modify and supplement the Yeongnam Daedong Samok. The application of the Daedong Laws expanded to Gyeongsangdo while imposing the "for the people" philosophy which was a financial management principle. As the government directly managed the right to administer the provincial finances, it reduced the taxes imposed on the people as well as increased the level of transparency in the nation"s financial operations. Also, it increased the amount of taxes collected and the efficiency of its operations by combining various taxes existing within Gyeongsangdo into a Daedong tax called Jeochimi. It also later served as an important momentum in organizing the logistics system. However, various issues that were exposed during the expansion of the Daedong Law such as the failure to preserve provincial finances, inadequate response measures with respect to sundry services and approval of the exclusivity in exchanging grains germinated later difficulties in the provincial finances.
Myanmar is located in the Southeastern region of Asia. It lies between latitudes 9° and 29°N, and longitudes 92° and 102°E. The bordering countries are China on the northern side, Thailand and Laos on the eastern region, Bangladesh on the western side and India on the northwestern region. Myanmar has a total area of 678,500 square kilometers (262,000 sq mi). The rainy season exists primarily during the months between June and September. Whiledry season stays during the months between December and April. Northern regions of the country are the coolest, with average temperatures of 21 ℃ (70 ℉). Coastal and delta regions have an average temperature of 32 ℃ (86.9 ℉). This expedition was conducted four times for three years. Among them we explored three area including Popa Mountain, Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park and Nat Ma Taung National Park[Popa Mountain(8.7~8.17, 2011; 7.24~8.3 2012; 2.18~2.28 2013), Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park(2.2~2.9, 2012) and Nat Ma Taung National Park(2.18~2.28 2013)]. Collecting methods was sweeping net, lignt trap, burket trap, pitfall trap with other method, and collected especially mainly Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. As the result, totally about 30 families in Coleoptera and 7 families in Lepidoptera were collected, among them Carabidae and Nymphalidae was revealed most diversity species. Main collect specimens, expedition activities and collections data etc. were provided herein.
To investigate the hepatic metabolism of myristicin isolated rat livers were perfused under single-pass conditions with perfusate containing myristicin. In outflow perfusate and bile, 5-allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-dihydroxybenzene (M1), M1-sulfate, and M1-glucuron