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자주달개비 BNL 4430 클론은 꽃색에 있어서의 유전적 이형성을 갖고 있는 종간잡종으로 이온화방사선에 민감하게 반응한다. 이같은 사실이 널리 알려지면서 원자력발전소 인근 주민과 환경단체가 방사선 영향의 식물학적 확인자인 자주달개비에 많은 관심을 가지게 되었다. 자주달개비를 이용하여 원자력발전소 주변 환경방사선의 생물학적 안전성을 확인하는 한편 기존의 방사선 감시망에 대한 생물학적 보조수단을 제공하기 위한 목적으로 본 연구를 수행하게 되었다. 영광원자력발전소 전시관, 영광읍사무소 및 한국원자력연구소에 조성된 자주달개비 화단에서 개화된 꽃을 정기적으로 채취하여 수술털 세포의 분홍돌연변이율을 분석하고 3개 지역의 분석결과를 비교 평가하였다. 원예화단 3곳에서의 분흥돌연변이율은 0.82∼1.14의 범위를 나타내어 자연조건하에서의 분홍돌연변이율 연평균 값인 1.16에 비해 다소 낮은 값을 나타내었다. 또한 각 원예화단간의 분홍돌연변이율이 통계학적으로 유의성있는 차이점을 나타내지 않는 것으로 분석되었다(p>0.05). 본 연구를 통하여 영광원자력발전소 주변의 환경방사선 준위가 생물학적으로 안전함이 확인되었다. Tradescantia in BNL 4430 is a hybrid clone heterozygous for its flower color and extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Such a fact made people around nuclear power plants be interested in Tradescantia, a botanical tester of radiation effects. The pur pose of this study is to provide the botanical supplement to physical radiation monitor systems and also to ascertain biological safety regarding environmental radiation around nuclear power plants. Flowers collected periodically from three Tradescantia gardens (in Youngkwang NPP Jeonsigwan. City office and KAERI. respectively) were scored for pink mutation frequencies in stamen hair cells. Pink mutation frequencies in the study area were in the range of 0.82∼1.14. which were slightly lower than the annual mean background mutation frequency of 1.16. Statistical analysis of scoring data showed that there was no significant difference between three Tradescantia gardens (p>0.05). From the result, the environmental radiation level around Youngkwang nuclear power plant can be said biologically safe. Further study for verifying safety will make a role for improving public acceptance related to the peaceful use of nuclear power.
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of percutaneously place self-expanding metallic stent for the relief of biliary obstruction in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: From November 2001 to December 2004, 48 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma were prospectively studied. After percutaneous placement of bilateral self-expanding, uncovered metallic stents, follow-up evaluation was carried out until July 2005. Results: There were 4 cased of Bismuth type Ⅱ,21 cases of Bismuth typeⅢa 8 cases of Bismuth type Ⅲb and 15 cases of Bismuth type Ⅳ. Stent placement was technically successful in all patients All patients had satisfactory biliary drainage, resulting in one week drainage rate of 72.8% and final drainage of 91.9% There were 12 cases (21.3%) of abdominal pain requiring analgesics and 1 case (7.1%) of cholangitis; both were successfully managed with conservative treatments. Late complications occurred in four patient (8.3%), including two patients with cholangitis, one patient with liver abscess, and one patient with biloma; all were appropriately managed by percutaneous drainage. The average length and median durations of stent patency and median survival time were 303 days (range, 60~815) and 338 days (range, 60 ~1175), respectively. Conclusion: Placement of a percutaneous metallic stent is an effective and safe method of palliation of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
In this paper, we will introduce the general concepts of generalized multiobjective game, generalized weight Nash equilibria and generalized Pareto equilibria. Next using the fixed point theorems due to Idzik  and Kim-Tan  , we shall prove the existence theorems of generalized weight Nash equilibria under general hypotheses. And as applications of generalized weight Nash equilibria, we shall prove the existence of generalized Pareto equilibria in non-compact generalized multiobjective game.
Background and objectives : The long-term survival in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) after conventional dose chemotherapy is about 35% and the rest of the patients tend to have relapse. So, in relapsed or refractory NHL, we compared the outcome of patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(APBSCT) with only salvage chemotherapy of cisplatin, dexamethasone, mitoxantrone, and etoposide(CDME). Materials and methods : From June 1993 to December 1999, 25 patients with relapsed or resistant NHL were treated with CDME regimen as salvage chemotherapy. Twelve patients were received four cycles of CDME chemotherapy, and 13 patients were received high-dose chemotherapy with APBSCT following two cycles of CDME chemotherapy. Results : The median follow-up duration was 12.8 months(range:4-68). The overall response rate was 41.7% (complete response rate 25%, partial response rate 16.7%) in 12 patients with CDME only. Thirteen patients who were treated with high-dose chemotherapy with APBSCT achieved 61.5% complete response rate and 15.4% partial response rate, with an overall response rate of 76.9%. The estimated 3-year progression-free survival rate was significantly higher among patients who received high-dose therapy than patients who received CDME only(41.5% vs 20.0%, p<0.05). And, 3-year overall survival rate was significantly higher among patients who received high-dose therapy(51.3% vs 25.0%, p <0.05). Conclusions : In relapsed or refractory NHL, CDME chemotherapy is an effective salvage chemotherapy and allow peripheral blood stem cell collection. Also, high-dose chemotherapy with APBSCT following CDME is superior to CDME salvage chemotherapy only.
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In this paper, we will prove an equilibrium existence theorem of a non-compact acyclic strategic game with a±ne con-straint correspondences which is comparable with equilibrium exis- tence theorems due to Debreu, Nash, Kim-Kum, and Lu in several aspects.
Won, A Jin,Kim, Siwon,Kim, Yoon Gyoon,Kim, Kyu-Bong,Choi, Wahn Soo,Kacew, Sam,Kim, Kyeong Seok,Jung, Jee H.,Lee, Byung Mu,Kim, Suhkmann,Kim, Hyung Sik The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016 Molecular bioSystems Vol.12 No.1
<P>The discovery of new biomarkers for early detection of drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is clinically important. In this study, sensitive metabolomic biomarkers identified in the urine of rats were used to detect cisplatin-induced AKI. Cisplatin (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats, which were subsequently euthanized after 1, 3 or 5 days. In cisplatin-treated rats, mild histopathological alterations were noted at day 1, and these changes were severe at days 3 and 5. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels were significantly increased at days 3 and 5. The levels of new urinary protein-based biomarkers, including kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), glutathione S-transferase-alpha (GST-alpha), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), calbindin, clusterin, neutrophil, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and osteopontin, were significantly elevated at days 3 and 5. Among urinary metabolites, trigonelline and 3-indoxylsulfate (3-IS) levels were significantly decreased in urine collected from cisplatin-treated rats prior to histological kidney damage. However, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a hepatotoxicant, did not affect these urinary biomarkers. Trigonelline is closely associated with GSH depletion and results in insufficient antioxidant capacity against cisplatin-induced AKI. The predominant cisplatin-induced AKI marker appeared to be reduced in urinary 3-IS levels. Because 3-IS is predominantly excreted via active secretion in proximal tubules, a decrease is indicative of tubular damage. Further, urinary excretion of 3-IS levels was markedly reduced in patients with AKI compared to normal subjects. The area under the curve receiver operating characteristics (AUC-ROC) for 3-IS was higher than for SCr, BUN, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, and glucose. Therefore, low urinary or high serum 3-IS levels may be more useful for early detection of AKI than conventional biomarkers.</P>
Six new uridine-conjugates of penicillin G and peptides have been prepared and evaluated against mouse lymphoblastoma L5178Y cells, Staphylococcus aureus(IAM 3610) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536). These include 5'-amino-5'-deoxyuridine-penicillin G(14), 5'-amino-5'-deoxyuridine-cyclo(Phe-Asp)(15-I), 5'-amino-5'-deoxyuridine-cyclo (Phe-Glu)(15-II), 5-iodo-5'-amino-2',3'-0-isopropylidene uridine-penicillin G(16), 5-iodo-5'-amino-5'-deoxyuridine-penicillin G(17), and 5'-deoxyuridine-penicillin G(19). IC_(50) values were 18.0 ㎍/㎖, 6.5 ㎍/㎖, 6.5 ㎍/㎖, 13.5 ㎍/㎖, 6.5 ㎍/㎖ and 9.0 ㎍/㎖, respectively. MIC values of (15-I) and (17) were 6.25 ㎍/㎖. These preliminary results support the thesis that the uridine conjugates of this type may require a naturally occuring moiety for improved efficacy.
소수력발전은 하수처리장 에너지 자립을 위한 효과적인 대안이다. 본 연구는 유량변동이 크고 유효낙차가 낮은 중소형하수처리장(기흥레스피아) 적용을 위해 피치조절형 세미카플란(semi-kaplan) 마이크로수력발전의 적용 타당성을 평가하였다. 가변피치 semi-kaplan 수차는 유량조절을 위한 가이드베인은 생략하고 피치조절형 런너를 장착하여 기계적 결함은 줄이면서 유량변동이 큰 처리장에 특화된 기술이다. 마이크로수력발전 시스템은 설계조건(유량 0.35 m3/s, 유효낙차 4.7 m)에서 90.2%의 수차효율 달성이 가능하였고 발전용량은 13.4 kW로 산정되었다. 설비가동률 74%로 가동 시 연간 약 86.8 MWh 에너지 생산을 통해 2.1%의 에너지 자립이 가능하고 이는 연간 49톤의 CO₂ 감축효과와 맞먹는다. 경제성 평가결과 초기 건설공사비가 200,000,000원 이하인 경우에는 내부수익률은 6.1%, 순현가는 15,539,000원, 편익-비용률은 1.08, 투자회수년은 15.5년으로 경제성이 충분한 것으로 나타났다. Small scale hydropower is one of most attractive and cost-effective energy technologies for installation within sewage treatment plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of a semi-kaplan micro-hydropower (MHP) system for application to sewage treatment plants with high flow fluctuations and a low head. The semi-kaplan MHP is equipped with an adjustable runner blade, and is without a guide vane, so as to reduce the incidence of mechanical problems. A MHP rating 13.4 kWp with a semi-kaplan turbine has been considered for Kiheung Respia sewage treatment plant, and this installation is estimated to generate 86.8 MWh of electricity annually, which is enough to supply electricity to over 25 households, and equivalent to an annual reduction of 49 ton CO₂. The semi-kaplan turbine showed a 90.2% energy conversion efficiency at the design flow rate of 0.35 m3/s and net head of 4.7 m, and was adaptable to a wide range of flow fluctuations. Through the MHP operation, approximately 2.1% of total electricity demand of Kiheung Respia sewage treatment plant will be achievable. Based on financial analysis, an exploiting MHP is considered economically acceptable with an internal rate of return of 6.1%, net present value of 15,539,000 Korean Won, benefit- cost ratio of 1.08, and payback year of 15.5, respectively, if initial investment cost is 200,000,000 Korean Won.
Neuronal apoptotic events, consequently resulting in neuronal cell death, are occurred in hypoxic/ischemic condition. This cell death has been shown to be accompanied with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can attack cellular components such as nucleic acids, proteins and phospholipid. However, the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis induced in hypoxic/ischemic condition and its treatment methods are unsettled. Cobalt chloride (CoCl_(2)) has been known to mimic hypoxic condition including the production of ROS. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). a green tea polyphenol, has diverse pharmacologial activities in cell growth and death. This study was aimed to investigate the apoptotic mechanism by CoCl_(2) and effects of EGCG on CoCl_(2)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Administration of CoCl_(2) decreased cell survival in dose- and time-dependent manners and induced genomic DNA fragmentation. Treatment with 100 µM EGCG for 30 min before PC12 cells were exposed to 150 µM CoCl_(2), being resulted in the cell viability and DNA fragmentation being rescued. CoCl_(2) caused morphologic changes such as cell swelling and condensed nuclei, whereas EGCG attenuated morphologic changes by CoCl_(2). EGCG suppressed the apoptotic peak and a loss of Δψ_(m) induced by CoCl_(2). CoCl_(2) decreased Bcl-2 expression but Bax expression was not changed in CoCl_(2)-treated cells. EGCG attenuated the Bcl-2 underexpression by CoCl_(2). CoCl_(2) augumented the cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytoplasm and increased caspase-8, -9 and caspase-3 activity, a marker of the apoptotic executing stage. EGCG ameliorated the incruement in caspase-8, -9 and -3 activity, and cytochrome c release by CoCl_(2). NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a scavenger of ROS, attenuated CoCl_(2)-induced apoptosis in consistent with those of EGCG. These results suggest, that CoCl_(2) induces apoptotic cell death through both mitochondria- and death receptor-dependent pathway and EGCG has neuroprotective effects against CoCl_(2)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. 신경세포자멸사는 저산소 및 허혈환경에서 일어나며 이러한 세포죽은 reactive oxidant species (ROS) 생성을 동반함이 알려져있다. 그러나, 저산소 및 허혈환경에서 일어나는 세포자멸사의 기전 및 그 치료방법은 아직 정립되어 있지 않다. CoCl_(2)는 ROS를 생성하는 등 저산소환경과 유사한 조건을 초래하는 것으로 알려져 있다. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)는 녹차의 polyphenol 성분으로서 세포성장과 죽음에 다양한 약리학적 효과를 나타냄이 알려져 있다. 본 연구는 PC12 세포에서 CoCl_(2)에 의한 세포자멸사기전을 밝히고 이에 미치는 EGCG의 효과를 조사하는데 목적이 있다. Cell viability는 MTT 측정으로 조사되었고, DNA fragmentation은 DNA laddering으로 조사되었다. Bcl-2와 Bax발현 정도는 RT-PCR로, caspase-3와 -9의 활성은 spectrophotometer, caspase-8의 활성은 flow cytometry에 의해 측정되었다. 미토콘드리아에서 세포질로 분비된 cytochrome c는 western blot으로, 분해된 DNA 양과 미토콘드리아 세포막전위 (Δψ_(m))는 FACScan으로 조사되었다. CoCl_(2)투여로 PC12 세포수는 용량 및 시간 의존형태로 감소하였고, genomic DNA fragmentation이 발생하였다. CoCl_(2)투여로 야기된 cell viability의 감소와 DNA fragmentation은 EGCG 전처치에 의해 억제되었다. CoCl_(2)은 세포용적팽창과 condensed nuclei 같은 형태적 변화를 일으켰으며, apoptotic peak, Δψ_(m)감소 및 cytochrome c 유리를 야기하였다. EGCG는 CoCl_(2)에 의한 세포형태변화, apoptotic peak, Δψ_(m)소실 및 cytochrome c 유리를 억제시켰다. CoCl_(2)는 Bcl-2 발현을 감소시켰지만, Bax 발현에는 영향을 미치지 않았다. EGCG는 CoCl_(2)에 의해 야기된 Bcl-2 발현 감소를 억제시켰다. CoCl_(2)는 caspase-3, -8, 그리고 -9의 활성을 증가시켰으며, EGCG는 CoCl_(2)에 의한 세포자멸사를 억제시켰다. 본 실험결과는 PC12 세포에서 CoCl_(2)가 미토콘드리아 의존 및 death receptor의존 기전으로 세포자멸사를 일으키며, EGCG는 세포자멸사기전을 억세지킴으로 신경보호기능을 가짐을 시사하였다.