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We report a case of bile fistula after cholecystectomy in a patient with severe right liver atrophy, which was managed by endoscopic nasobiliary drainage and conservative treatment. The patient was a 76-year-old man with a sudden onset in the right flank and abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed calculous cholecystitis and severely atrophied right lobe of the liver. Gallbladder was located in the superior-posterior portion of the liver as opposed to the normal position. The patient underwent cholecystectomy and showed massive bleeding and bile leakage at the gallbladder bed during operation. A bile fistula was detected three days after surgery, which was managed by interventional bile drainage. Right liver agenesis or severe atrophy is rare. Additionally, the report of combined bile duct injury after cholecystectomy in these settings is extremely rare.
Modified shallow foundation is commonly used for structures on soft soil deposit rather than end bearing piles to control differential settlement. However, it is still expensive for a light weight structures and low story buildings. This paper suggested a wing-wall foundation and will further investigate it using bench scale test on clay and sand. Numerical analysis and approach method are used to verify a load settlement curve of wing-wall foundation on experimentally study. Furthermore, predictions of settlement on wing-wall foundation were made in terms of C<sub>u</sub> and dimensions of wing-walls. In the result, settlement were strongly influenced by the length of wing wall (I) rather than the number of walls (n) and equation for calculating average settlement were derived in terms of soil strength C<sub>u</sub>.
Preliminary investigation and analysis of the effectiveness of controlling the number of ecosystem disturbance fishes residing in Togyo reservoir using the native carnivorous fish species were performed. The data were collected from August 2011 to November 2016. The release of native carnivorous fish species was carried out from the end of May, 2012 to the end of July, 2016, considering fishing ban period of Siniperca scherzeri. The comparative abundance of Lepomis macrochirus was found to be 12.8% in the first year and increased a little bit after releasing the native carnivorous fish. However, it decreased to 3.9% in the last year showing a value of less than 5%. On the other hand, the Micropterus salmoides populations tended to increase after the release of native carnivorous fish species. This seems to be the result of the segregation of habitat by interspecific competition with S. scherzeri. The M. salmoides moved from inside of the lake to edges, and to influent tributaries. Stable isotope analysis showed that Channa argus had the highest levels of nutrition, S. scherzeri and M. salmoides were in competition, and L. macrochirus was used as a feed source for released species. Changes of the fish community in the Togyo reservoir was represented by the rank abundance curves based on the results of the fish fauna. As a result, the fish group in incoming tributaries are somewhat disturbed after the release of the native carnivorous species. Similarly, the fish group in the reservoir were disturbed as well but it's gradually stabilizing afterwards. Therefore, the control of the ecosystem disturbance species using the native carnivorous fish of Korea is effective and helps to stabilize the fish community in the lake.