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Background : When local anesthetics for regional anesthesia is used, usually small amounts of bicar-bonate are added for rapid onset. This addition gives the mixed solution a more alkaline pH. The following result is an increased unionized form of the local anesthetic and rapid penetration of the drug into tiissue. Unfortunately, no data about adequate mixing volumes of domestic lidocaine and bicarbonate is available. Methods : We examined six mixing pairs of two kinds of 2% lidocaines and three kinds of 8.4% bicarbonates for minimum volumes of bicarbonate to cause a precipitation of 2% 20 ml lidocaine. Results : The mean volumes of bicarbonate to cause precipitation were 1.54 ml for Kwang-Myung lidocaine with Kwang-Myung bicarbonate, 2.90 ml for Kwang-Myung lidocaine with Dae-Won bicarbonate, 2.73 ml for Kwang-Myung lidocaine with Je-Il bicarbonate, 0.97 ml for Je-Il lidocaine with Kwang-Myung bicarbonate, 1.26ml for Je-Il lidocaine with Dae-Won bicarbonate and 1.39 ml for Je-Il lidocaine with Je-Il bicarbonate. Conclusions : We conclude that the Kwang-Myung lidocaine and the Je-Il lidocaine could cause precipitation when mixing with a smaller bicarbonate volume than foreign textbook recommended. (Korean J Anesthesiol 2000; 39: 726-729)
In this study, we evaluated the change of electronic structure during redox process in cerium-doped ZrO₂ grown by sol gel method. By sol-gel method, we could obtain cerium-doped ZrO₂ in high oxygen partial pressure and low temperature. After post annealing process in nitrogen ambient, the film is deoxidized. We used spectroscopic and theoretical methods to analysis change of electronic structure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for O K1-edge and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation using VASP code were performed to verify the electronic structure of the film. Also, high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) for Ce 3d was carried out to confirm chemical bond of cerium doped ZrO₂. Through the investigation of the electronic structure, we verified as followings. (1) During reduction process, binding energy of oxygen is increase. Simultaneously, oxidation state of cerium was change to 4+ to 3+. (2) Cerium 4+ and cerium 3+ states were generated at different energy level. (3) Absorption states in O K edge were mainly originated by Ce 4+ f0 and Ce 3+, while occupied states in valance band were mainly originated from Ce 4+ f₂.
As pine mushroom market size is about 800 billion won in the world, global trade is being increased. And in Korea, the import volume of Chinese pine mushroom is coming to maximum 10 billion won. Caused by this situation, quarantine on insect pests of pine mushroom was being important. For this problem, we tried to analyze DNA barcodes on Diptera inhabiting in pine mushroom. In this study, 253 fly individuals from Korean mushroom and 13 from Chinese one were used. Diversity on species level was analyzed based on 2.0% threshold approach. In a results, total of 23 species of six families were detected. Among them, 19 species of six families were found from Korean mushroom and four species were from Chinese one. Korean and Chinese faunistic compositions by DNA barcoding were quitely different from each other. Therefore, we consider that quarantine inspection on Diptera of pine mushroom is more reinforced, and monitoring on the diptera species from imported Chinese pine mushroom is needed.
Kwang-Sun,Ryu,Kyoung-Wook,Min,Jin-Geun,Rhee,Seung-Han,Oh,Jong-Ho,Shin,Wonyoung,Han,Kwang-Il,Seon,Uk-Won,Nam,Jang-Hyun,Park,In-Soo,Yuk,Ho,Jin,Dae-Hee,Lee,Kyung-Nam,Kong,Young,Sik,Park,Jerry,Edelstein,E 한국우주과학회 2004 한국우주과학회보 Vol.13 No.1
A taxonomic review of Korean Stenus indubius group is presented. Five new species are described: Stenus curvus n. sp., Stenus. obesus n. sp., Stenus sulcifer n. sp., Stenus tenuiculus n. sp. and Stenus unciformis n. sp. Habitus photographs, illustrations of diagnostic characters and a key to the species of this group in Korea are provided.