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본 연구에서는 1:25,000 정밀토양도 등 가용한 공간자료를 이용하여 작성된 토양유실도를 이용하여 한강 상류지역 10개 중권역 108 소유역에 대하여 토양유실량 평가하고 토지이용별 토양유실 위험지역을 분석하였다. 대상유역 총 토양유실량은 895만 Mg yr<SUP>-1</SUP>으로 예측되었으며, 면적당 평균 토양유실량은 6.1 Mg ha<SUP>-1</SUP>yr<SUP>-1</SUP>이었다. 중소유역 단위로 살펴보면 남한강지역이 북한강지역의 유실량 뿐만 아니라 면적당 유실량이 더 많았다. 이는 북한강 권역의 경우 화강암 및 화강편마암이 주요 모재인 반면에 남한강 권역의 경우 토양모재가 퇴적암지대를 많이 포함있어 토양침식성 인자 (K factor)와 경사 인자 (LS factor)가 상대적으로 높고, 남한강 지역의 경우 농경지 토양이 상대적으로 많이 분포하고 있기 때문으로 판단된다. 대상유역의 토지이용별 연평균 토양유실량을 분석한 결과 산림/초지 > 밭 >> 도심/대지 >> 논 > 과수의 순로 분석 대상유역 중 10.7%를 차지하고 있는 농경지에서 유실되는 토양의 추정량은 41.3%이였으며, 이중 6.2%면적을 차지하는 밭이 40.6%으로 44.2%의 산림/초지와 비슷한 수준이었다. 한강상류지역 토양유실 위험성 평가시 분포형 토양침식지도와 항공사진을 비교한 결과 토양유실에 대한 공간인 정보를 확실하게 보여주고 있으며, 토양침식위험성은 남한강권역의 남한강 상류 (1001), 평창강 (1002), 충주댐 (1003) 권역에서 각각 토양침식위험성이 “보통”이상으로 높은 지역이 각각 8.7%, 7.9%, 7.8%로 평균인 5.9%보다 높았으며, 이에 대한 보전방안이 강구될 필요가 있고 판단된다. This study was conducted to evaluate soil erosion risk with a standard unit watershed in the upper Han river basin using the spatial soil erosion map according to the change of landuse. The study area is 14,577 ㎢, which consists of 10 subbasins, 107 standard unit watersheds. Total annual soil loss and soil loss per area estimated were 895 × 10<SUP>4</SUP> Mg yr<SUP>-1</SUP> and 6.1 Mg ha<SUP>-1</SUP> yr<SUP>-1</SUP>, respectively. A result of analysis with a subbasin as a unit showed that annual soil losses and soil loss per area in Namhan river basins was more than in Bukhan river ones. Predicted annual soil loss according to the landuse ranked as Forest & Grassland > Upland >> Urban & Fallow area > Paddy field > Orchard. Upland area covered 6.2% of the study area, but the contribution of total annul soil loss was 40.6% and that of Forest & Grassland was 44.2%. As a evaluation of soil erosion risk using the spatial soil erosion map, we could precisely conformed the potential hazardous region of soil erosion in each unit watersheds. The ratio of regions, graded as higher “Moderate” for annual soil loss, were respectively 8.7%, 7.9% and 7.8% in 1001, 1002 and 1003 subbasins in Namhan river basin. Most landuse of these area was upland, and these area is necessary to establish soil conservation practices to reduce soil erosion based on the field observation.
갯쥐꼬리풀(Spartina alterniflora)은 북미 대서양 연안 뉴펀들랜드, 캐나다 남쪽에서 아르헨티나 북부의 갯벌이 원산이며, 생장이 강한 특성으로 세계의 기수지역과 해안에서 생태공학적 용도로 도입된 바 있다. 그러나 매우 빠르게 갯벌을 피복하여 자생종의 생장을 방해하고, 염습지 종다양성을 감소 시켰고, 결과적으로 과다생육으로 갯벌 무척추동물의 서식지를 잠식해 사라지게 하여 무척추동물을 먹이로 하는 조류 또한 생태계 내에서 감소키는 등 많은 환경문제를 야기 시켰다. 우리나라에서는 2008년 전후에 다도해해상국립공원에 유입된 것으로 판단된다. 현재 다도해해상국립공원 남동리 해안에서 분포하고 있는 갯쥐꼬리풀(Spartina alterniflora)군락은 습지내 총 6개의 염생식물 군락면적(8,487.7㎡) 중 75.34%의 비율(6,394.86㎡)로 분포하고 있다. 또한 2008년에 11.54㎡ 이던 분포 면적이 2015년 현재 약 550배가 늘어난 6,394.22㎡로 조사되었고 생육지 고도 범위인 0.69m~1.1m를 요인 값으로 두고 GIS 분석한 하였다. 그 결과 앞으로 확산 될 예상 면적은 12,584㎡이며 현재보다 약 6,189.14㎡가 늘어날 것으로 예측되며 우리나라에서도 역시 확산이 빠르고 넓게 늘어날 것으로 판단된다. 향후 계속 분포역이 확대 될 것으로 예상하고 관리방안을 위하여 시범 연구를 실시하였다. 갯쥐꼬리풀군락 중 일부를 첫 번째는 뿌리째 뽑아내기와 두 번째 지상부 제거 후 포장덮기 방법 등 국외사례의 문헌을 바탕으로 방재를 실시하였으나 전체 면적을 방재하기에는 많은 인력과 시간 그리고 예산이 소요되므로 다각적인 방안을 강구하여야 한다. Spartina alterniflora is native to the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland, the south of Canada and northern Argentina. There it forms a dominant part of brackish coastal saltmarshes. Due to its strong growth, the Spartina alternifolra was introduced to the rider area and coast as a use for ecological engineering. The Spartina alterniflora community can crowd out native species, reduce the biodiversity of saltmarsh and alter the environment. As a result, the invertebrates living in mud flats disappeared due to the encroaching of Spartina alterniflora, and the birds which eat off invertebrates went along as well. The Spartina alterniflora was first introduced in South Korea in 2008 and is known to have flowed in the Dadohaehaesang National Park. Compared to 2008, in 2015 the distribution area of the Spartina alterniflora has increased 550 times. (11.54㎡ in 2008 to 6,394.22㎡ in 2015). The large increase of Spartina alterniflora calls for urgent management and additionary study on the subject. Thus, this study analyzed the geo-spatial information on the Spartina alterniflora such as its distribution area, the height of habitats and expected expansion area, and can act as the preliminary data for management.
Objective: An outbreak of skin rash illness was reported from people who had been to a water park located in Yeongcheon-si. Epidemiologic investigation was performed to elucidate the cause of this outbreak and to prevent a recurrence. Methods: Medical records of clinics and hospitals in Yeongcheon-si were reviewed to find cases of skin rash illness. The manager of the water park was interviewed, and the collected water samples were analyzed and tested for bacterial culture. Results: Seventy-one cases, consisted of 42 men (59.2%) and 29 women (40.8%), were experienced skin rash illness. Most of the cases (98.6%) were children under 20 years and all cases went to the water park. A swimming pool for adults used underground and lake water, and residual chlorine was not detected. The water samples were positive for various bacteria, including Aeromonas sobria and Pseudomonas putida. Conclusion: This outbreak was linked to the contaminated water of swimming pools. The water park was reopened after appropriate chlorine disinfection, and another outbreak was not reported until late 2014. Chlorine disinfection of water in swimming pools should be conducted, and enhanced chlorine monitoring is needed.
Effects of ambient nitrite, N0₂^(-), at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/l, on the changes of plasma nitrite/nitrate and on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activity were examined in the juvenile Israeli carp, Cyprinus carpio. When the fish were exposed to 1 and 3 mg/l N0₂^(-), there was an exposure duration-dependent increase in plasma N0₂- over the 96-hr period reaching 6~7 fold excess the ambient concentration, In the fish exposed to 10 mg/l, a plateau concentration of less than 2-fold of the environment was attained in 12 hr. With 30 mg/l, however, the maximal plasma NOf was 41.25 mg/1 at 12 hr followed by a gradual decline. There was a concentration increase in methemoglobin (metHb) level in all N02^(-)-exposed groups and a significant decrease in hematocrit value in 30 mg/l group after 96-hr exposure. Apart from the blunted increase in plasma N0₂^(-) with higher N0₂^(-)(10 and 30 mg/1) exposure, the ratio of plasma N0₃^(-) to N0₂^(-) was significantly higher in these groups compared to 1 and 3 mg/l. The imbalance in the plasma N0₃^(-)/N0₂^(-) at higher N0₂^(-) exposure suggests a possible accelerated conversion of N0₂^(-) to N0₃^(-). Nitrite exposure did not affect the hepatic drug-metabolic activities in juvenile Israeli carp. All these data indicate that disposition of N0₂- differ depending upon exposed concentration and that metHb production may not be the exclusive toxic mechanism in carp
Spontaneous esophageal rupture (Boerhaave's syndrome) is a rare case that require early diagnosis and treatment because of its high mortality. The oral administration of osmotically balanced polyethylene-glycol-based electrolyte preparation is a commonly prescribed preparation for cleansing in patients undergoing colonoscopy. Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain are frequently seen, but serious adverse reactions are rare. Esophageal rupture secondary to severe vomiting, which occurred during colonoscopy preparation using polyethylene gIycoI(PEG) electrolyte solution is extremely rare and only few cases have been published in the literature. We report a case of spontaneous esophageal rupture after routine administration of the PEG before colonoscopy. 대장 정결을목적으로 PEG 사용 후 아주 드물게 발생하는 Boerhaave 증후군 1예를 경험하였기에 보고하는 바이다.
Milled Korean pine (Pinus densiflora) wood was used to evaluate its adsorption capacity of Cu(Ⅱ) ions from aqueous solution by running a series of batch experiments. Prior to the tests, the milled woods were pretreated with 1N NaOH, 1N HNO_(3), and distilled water, respectively, to examine the effect of pretreatment. Within the tested pH range between 3 and 6, copper adsorption efficiency of NaOH-treated wood(96~99%) was superior to the HNO_(3)-treated wood(19~31%) and distilled water-treated wood(18~35%). The efficiency of copper removal by wood enhanced with increasing solution pH and reached a maximum copper ion uptake at pH 5~6. Adsorption behavior of copper onto both raw and HNO_(3)-treated woods was mainly attributed to interaction with carboxylic acid group. For NaOH-treated wood, carboxylate ion produced by hydrolysis or saponification was a major functional group responsible for Cu sorption. NaOH treatment of wood changed the ester and carboxylic acid groups into carboxylate group, whereas HNO_(3) treatment did not affect the production of functional groups which could bind copper. A pseudo second-order kinetic model fitted well for the sorption of copper ion onto NaOH-treated wood. A batch isotherm test using NaOH-treated wood showed that equilibrium sorption data were better represented by the Langmuir model than the Freundlich model.
Although there have been several pharmacologically distinct categories of anti-allergic agents, almost all of them are known to be limited in their clinical utility due primarily to side effects and weak efficacy. This fact is encouraging many investigators to screen novel anti-allergic agents structurally different from existing compounds. In a project to search anti-allergics from natural projects, we examined a wide range of higher plants to discover that acetone-water crude extract of Geranium thunbergii is effective in suppressing the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis ( PCA) responses of rats, a standard in vivo model for anti-allergy testing, The fraction underwent four steps further in an activity-guided manner finally to separate an active principle, GT2-3. With the aid of NMR spectroscopy, COSY, HMQC and DEPT techniques, the chemical structure of GT2-3 was determined to be quercetin, a known compound. The result indicates that quercetin is not potent enough for immediate clinical application, however, quercetin can be a promising lead compound for chemical modification for anti-allergic agent.
Marine organisms such as fish (Sebastes schlegeli) and mussels were cultured in sea water tanks placed at Dukpo area which was contaminated by the two oil spill accidents. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in fish tissue were higher than in fish liver. This was explained by the cytochrome P450 IA induction in fish liver after PAHs exposure. Other studies showed that higher PAHs levels were detected in mussels cultures in oil contaminated area than in control site. From these results, we concluded that Dukpo area is still polluted by oil including PAHs and it takes a long time to recover of oil contamination after the oil spill accidents.
The present study was undertaken to compare the pharmacological activity of crude Cnidii Rhizoma reported with the clinical uses in the oriental medicine. Crude Cnidii Rhizoma used for the treatment of anemia, body chill, menstural irregularity and menstural pain as hematic tonic effector, sedative, adodyne and clear extravasated blood. Therefore we tested the effects of Cnidii Rhizoma water extract on the liverprotective activities in the rats. The results obtained form liver microsomal enzyme assay, measurement of serum and liver alanine, aspartate aminotransferase and lipid accumulation indicated that Cnidii Rhizoma extract showed significant liver-protective activities against benzo(a)pyrene poisoning.
민간에서 주로 사용되는 약용식물들 중 간독성 의 발현 저해 및 간기능 보호 효과가 우수한약물을 찾아 임상적인 약효를 밝혀보고자 하는 실험과정으로 탄소화합물의 불완전 연소및 열분해에 의해 생성되는 간장해 물질인 benzo(a)pyrene으로 유도한 rats의 간독성발현에 미치는 천궁 수침액의 예방 및 치료 효과를 실험하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 천궁 수침액의 투여는 B(a)P 투여로 현저하게 증가된 혈청 및 간장의 AST, ALT,LDH, ALP 활성을 유의성 있게 감소시켰다. 2. B(a)P 투여로 증가한 혈청 total cholesterol 및 phospholipid 함량은 천궁 수침액의투여로 감소시킬 수 있었으나 그 효과는 현저하지 않았다. 3. 천궁의 투여는 B(a)P에 의한 간독성 발현을 유의성 있게 감소시켰으며 그 효과는전처리가 후처리에 비해 우수하였다. The present study was undertaken to compare the pharmacologicalactivity of crude Cnidii Rhizoma reported with the clinical uses in the orientalmedicine. Crude Cnidii Rhizoma used for the treatment of anemia, body chill,menstural irregularity and menstural pain as hematic, tonic effector, sedative,adodyne and clear extravasated blood. Therefore we tested the effects of Cnidii Rhizoma water extract on the liver-protective activities in the rats. The results obtained from liver microsomal enz-yme assay, measurement of serum and liver alanine, aspartate aminotransferaseand lipid accumulation indicated that Cnidii Rhizoma extract showed significantliver-protective activies against benzo(a)pyrene poisoning.