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The study applied Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate total factor productivity growth and to identify the sources of productivity growth in the manufacturing sector of Tamil Nadu. The study considered 12 major sectors and estimated productivity growth and the major sources of productivity growth during the period 1981-82 to 2007-08. The study found that the productivity growth in the industrial sector of Tamil Nadu at the aggregate level during the test period was almost nil. While it is the case at the aggregate level, there are mixed results at the sectoral level. During the pre-reform period, there was significantly higher productivity growth in almost all the sectors contributed mainly by the improvements in efficiency. On other hand, there was productivity deterioration in the post-reform period since almost all the sectors witnessed negative productivity growth despite a technical change in the post-reform period. The study based on the empirical findings suggests that there will be productivity growth only if any improvement in the technology is accompanied by the corresponding improvement in the efficiency with which the technology can be turned into productivity gains. A well developed and skilled labour force along with the improvements in the technological developments will lead to higher productivity growth in the manufacturing sector both at the aggregate and sectoral level.
The routine identification and differentiation of Brucella species is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process, which frequently places personnel at risk of laboratory-acquired infection. Here, we describe the development of a rapid multiplex PCR assay for the confirmation of presumptive Brucella isolates. The assay was able to identify and differentiate major human pathogens, namely B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis, in a single test of less than an hour and a half.
Kumar, Rajeev,Ghosh, Sankar Kumar,Verma, Akalesh Kumar,Talukdar, Anuradha,Deka, Monoj Kumar,Wagh, Mira,Bahar, H.M. Iqbal,Tapkire, Ritesh,Chakraborty, Kali Pankaj,Kannan, R. Ravi Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.16
Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a common cancer in the north east of India. The present study concerned the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the ESCC in north eastern India and its impact on response to chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: p16 expression, a surrogate marker for HPV infection was assessed in 101 pre-treatment biopsies of locally advanced ESCC, reported from a comprehensive cancer centre in north east India, using immunohistochemistry. All patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Response was assessed clinically and histopathologically with attention to p16 expression. Results: p16 was expressed in 22% of ESCC (22 out of 101) and was more prevalent in patients who were more than 45 years of age (P=0.048). p16 positive tumors appeared more commonly in the upper 2/3 of the thoracic esophagus (18 in 22). Nine of the 22 (41%) p16 positive tumors achieved pathologic complete response following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.008). There was a trend towards reduced mortality in this group (P=0.048). Some 9 of the 20 (45%) patients who achieved pathologic complete response were p16 positive. Conclusions: Expression of p16 in ESCC correlates with higher rate of pathologic complete remission in patients undergoing neo adjuvant chemotherapy and could be a predictive marker for response assessment.
Background: Status epilepticus, when continued despite the administration of two antiepileptic drugs, is called refractory status epilepticus (RSE). The seizure-like phenomenon due to propofol is widely reported in the literature. However, RSE caused by propofol is rare and is a diagnostic dilemma. Case: A 44-year-old male patient presented with RSE during the intraoperative period and was under general anesthesia on propofol infusion. The seizure was resistant to benzodiazepines and phenytoin. Thereafter, the seizure subsided after the discontinuation of propofol infusion, and the patient was shifted to fentanyl and dexmedetomidine infusion for the maintenance of anesthesia. The postoperative follow-up was uneventful. Conclusions: This article focuses on the management of intractable intraoperative seizure and highlights the need for the exploration of seizure characteristics caused by propofol.
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The present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of sapota powder (SP) as natural preservatives and its better utilization in food processing with the incorporation of various levels of SP (2, 4, and 6%) by replacing lean meat. Based on the sensory attributes, pork patties with 4% incorporation of SP was found optimum and selected for further storage studies with control under aerobic and modified atmosphere packaging at refrigeration temperature (4±1℃) for 42 days for assessing its antioxidant and antimicrobial efficiency. During entire storage period, indicators of lipid oxidative parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), free fatty acids (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) followed an increasing trend for control as well as treated products; however, treated product showed a significantly (p<0.05) lower value than control. A significantly lower (p<0.05) microbial count in treated patties than control was noted during entire storage. The sensory attributes are better retained in treated product as compared to control and even on 42nd day, overall acceptability of treated patties was found to fall in moderately acceptable category (5.95 in aerobic packets and 5.91 in modified atmosphere packets). Therefore SP has potential to enhance antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of pork patties during storage.
Thin films of La_(0.80)Sr_(0.20)Mn_(1−x)Cu_xO_3 with x = 0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 were deposited on single-crystal LaAlO_3 (100) (LAO) substrates at 250 ± 10 ℃ by using a nebulized spray pyrolysis technique. Structural, surface, and transport characterizations were done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the standard four probe technique, respectively. XRD patterns revealed the formation of single-phase polycrystalline films with a rhombohedral crystal structure. Cu substitution resulted in a uniform decrease in the metal insulator transition (T_(IM)) temperature up to x = 0.10, followed by a drastic decrease in T_(IM) for x = 0.15. Finally, the metal-insulator transition vanished for higher Cu concentrations (x = 0.20) in the observed temperature range. The variation in T_(IM) with the amount of added Cu is explained on the basis of the double exchange mechanism. Cu substitution has been found to perturb the Mn^(3+)-O-Mn^(4+) network and has a strong influence on T_(IM). The variation in resistivity maxima with temperature for different Cu concentrations showed a systematic trend up to x ∼ 0.10. We also explored the electrical conduction at T > T_(IM) in the framework of small polaron hopping in the adiabatic limit. The activation energy showed a strong dependence on the Cu concentration. The maximum magneto-resistance (MR) up to 10%, was observed for x = 0.15 at low temperatures.
Exstrophy of the bladder is a rare congenital anomaly with an incidence of about 1 per 50,000 newborns. The malignant potential of the exstrophied bladder mucosa is well known; 95% are adenocarcinomas, and 3% to 5% are squamous cell carcinomas. Most of the malignant tumors (60%) associated with an exstrophy of the bladder occur during the fourth and fifth decades of life. Of the remaining, about 20% each occur after 60 years and before 40 years. Here we present a case in which squamous cell carcinoma developed in an unrepaired exstrophy of the bladder. We present the management of the case and a brief review of the literature.
Random amplification of polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 30 animals of Rathi cattle and 42 animals of Tharparkar cattle. Genomic DNA was isolated as per standard protocol and evaluated for its quality, purity and concentration. Twenty three random primers were screened out of which 15 primers yielded satisfactory amplifications and were used for further analysis. Average numbers of polymorphic fragments per primer were 7.07 0.86 in Rathi and 6.80 0.61 in Tharparkar cattle. The percentage of polymorphic bands in these two cattle breeds were 86 and 87%, respectively. Within breed genetic similarities for pooled over primers in the animals of Rathi and Tharparkar breeds were 0.577 0.30 and 0.531 0.02, respectively on the basis of band frequency (BF) and 0.645 0.04 and 0.534 0.04, respectively on the basis of band sharing (BS). Averages of between breed genetic similarities for pooled over primers were 0.97 and 0.92 according to BF and BS, respectively, which reflect higher degree of genetic similarity between Rathi and Tharparkar cattle breeds. Index of genetic distance based on BF and BS for pooled over primers was 0.030 0.011 and 0.088 0.031, respectively. Percentage of polymorphic bands and within-breed genetic similarities on the basis of band frequency (BF) and band sharing (BS) for pooled over primers revealed higher genetic similarity in Rathi than Tharparkar cattle population. High estimates of between breed genetic similarities for pooled over primers indicated that either Rathi is having decent from Tharparkar or both the cattle breeds are having common descent. Low value of Index of genetic distances between these two cattle breeds may be due to the fact that Rathi and Tharparkar cattle breeds are the native of Thar Desert in Northwest India. The results of between breed genetic distances also confirm the existence of high degree of genetic similarity between these two breeds of cattle.
The control of ionic transportation inside the multi asymmetric conical nanopores in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane was investigated. The conical nanopores were prepared by chemical etching in irradiated PET foil using etchant (9 M NaOH) and stopping solution (1 M NaCl + 1 M HCOOH). The behavior of ionic current was recorded under stepping voltage - 2 V to +2 V at different molar concentrations of potassium halides (KCl, KBr and KI) under symmetric bathing condition in electrochemical cell. It is found that the presence of multiple ionic species and the occurrence of counterion condensation of charge regulated polyelectrolyte play an effective role in ionic current rectification (ICR). The electrical conductance of conical nanopores may be estimated by measuring the ionic current rectification properties of track-etched nanopores. The charge transport properties vary with molar concentration and pH of electrolyte. Moreover, ICR may be used as a voltage gating phenomena with wide technological applications.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, or ubiquinone) is an electron carrier of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (electron transport chain) with antioxidant properties. In view of the involvement of CoQ10 in oxidative phosphorylation and cellular antioxidant protection a deficiency in this quinone would be expected to contribute to disease pathophysiology by causing a failure in energy metabolism and antioxidant status. Indeed, a deficit in CoQ10 status has been determined in a number of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders. Primary disorders of CoQ10 biosynthesis are potentially treatable conditions and therefore a high degree of clinical awareness about this condition is essential. A secondary loss of CoQ10 status following HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statins) treatment has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the myotoxicity associated with this pharmacotherapy. CoQ10 and its analogue, idebenone, have been widely used in the treatment of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders. These compounds could potentially play a role in the treatment of mitochondrial disorders, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s ataxia, and other conditions which have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. This article reviews the physiological roles of CoQ10, as well as the rationale and the role in clinical practice of CoQ10 supplementation in different neurological diseases, from primary CoQ10 deficiency to neurodegenerative disorders. These will help in future for treatment of patients suffering from neurodegenerative disease.