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This study is based on 1,282 medical record of CPSC by using NEISS during Dec. 1-31, 2003. There are more injuries in spring and summer than in winter, and most of injuries take place to children in thier teens(54%) or younger children. Moreover, the ratio of male and female injuries is 1.4 to 1. Most injured parts of body are wrist(26.1%), elbow(6.6%), knee(6.3%), head(5.7%), thigh(5.5%), face(4.8%), ankle(4.7%), shoulder(4.0%), and fingers(3.8%). In case of brain injury, possibility of serious brain damage is 68%. Place whre injuries take place are house area, roads, and parks, and places have no relations with parts of body which are injured. Only 3% of injured persons are hospitalized. 90% of all inline skating injuries are related to sprains and injuries caused by a cut. Injuries of wist, elbow, and knee compose 34.5% of all, cases, and which can be prevented by using three-pack protective gear. Therefore, protective gear and long sleeved shirts can protenct the limbs, and equipping with these things are very significant. According to the results of this study, the equipment of protective gear during skating or education must be strongly recommended. According to this study, the percentage of brain damage which can be happen during inline skating is very low, 5.7% but the results of brain damage can be lethal and serious. Therefore, equipping with protective head gear is very important. In short, helmet and three pack head gear are vital when inline skating Equipment of these will have a great effect on the prevention of injuries.
In modern society, the social functions controlled by contract are very numerous. When England was visited by the capitalistic golden age, the motto, "from status to contract", declared by Maine in his renowned book, Ancient Law, was a concise manifestation which grasped the process in which the field of contract had been enlarged by the advancement of human civilization. A contract, as long as the important part of our social life is maintained by transactions through our free will, has an essential relation inseparable with our social life. Hence, daring the progress of the contract system, there was a reflection of the troubles of the age, the efforts to overcome them, and the principles guiding such efforts. A contract depends on free will and mutual respect of it. Where there is no free will or mutual respect, there is only command, and submission. The authority of a contract, therefore, was most emphatically recognized when individuality was acknowledged, and individual emancipation from the idea of the traditional social class came into vogue. And respect for a contract promoted the establishment of the principle of freedom of contract. This principle of freedom of contract, accompanied by progress in economic life which took shape from the growth of mechanical civilization, accelerated the promotion of the economic system based on individualistic capitalism, the extreme development of which finally led to many economic gaps in society. In olden times social status was something determined centuries before. In our times social status is more determined by material and even by Iuck. Society, however, gradually evolved as a systematic and organic mass, its authority as a ruling body being strongly recognized, and the essential relation between individual and society was vigorously felt. Wilh this, a contract among individuals was again criticized from the social standpoint...or the free will of the individual was snatched from formality to actuality and the gaps mentioned above were mitigated, the efforts on rationalization of these being attempted. That is, one of the themes of today in contract theory is the point of trying, on one hand, to liberate the free will in contract from being formal to being substantial, and on the other hand, to criticize contracts among individuals from the standpoint of society in general, in order to understand the rights and duties of individuals emerging from contracts as those of society, and to adjust the exteme opposition in the interests of the contacting parties occuring from the arbitrary and conventional principle of freedom of contract from the standpoint of the society in general. Efforts of this kind enable the traditional contract theory to undergo a change and evolotion. At the same time, in encouraging this change and evolution in the interpretation of the substantive law, it is desirable that the idea of faith and sincerety, the highest guiding idea of the law of obligatioon, should be active with the constantly new and comprehensive contents. However, while the legal relation has a claim to be, on one hand, harmonized with the moral norm such as faith, it requires, on the other hand, its formal stability, Correcting legal relations by moral norms will give the judge a relatively extensive margin of free discretion, which it is feared may be against the demand for legal stability. This double-faced demand is called by the scholars "rechtsicherheit", and "konkrete billigheit". This request for stability in legal relation founded on law and contract and concrete understanding in every individual trial based on faith and sincerety, is destined, in the end, to some modification accoring to the age and the circumstances in legal relations, Accordingly, at the time when stability of legal form was more respected, correction of legal relation based on faith was carried on very cautiously. When the social demand to get a concrete appropriateness in trials is strong, this principle will be available. From the last half of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century, French civil law and legislation influenced by it considered individual freedom and respect for personal right as the ideal of society and the supreme end of law. So, the strict exercise and performance of rights and duties set up by contract founded on individual free will, was in conformity with the purpose of the law; and the application of the faith principle was welcomed from the viewpoint of social life and law. But, since the middle of the 19th century, with the change of idea from "individual and right" basis to "social and group" basis, the faith principle has under-gone a notable variation, and has entered all fields of law relations as the highest principle and has replaced the principle of freedom of contract in the law of obligation. of course, the couses of this may vary, but undoubtedly, the most important one is that the social view based on "individual freedom and intention" gradualy lost its influence, and the social view based on "society and group" appeared. Roseoe Pound said that from the end of the last century to the beginning of the present century people had come to think more of human wants or desires than of human wills. That explains nothing but the above statement. The main points I have discused in this thesis are: 1. a review of the process in which the individual was liberated from personal bondage of feudal society and gained the right of freedom of contract based on the, principle of liberty and equality. 2. The merits of freedom of contract which overthrowing the stagnant social conditions of feudal society, formed on active society bull of individual initiative, and spurred on the progress of capitalistic civilization. 3. But, under recent economic circumstances along with the overmaturity of capitalistic civilization, the unilateral possession and centralization of property, freedom of contract has become an arbitrary freedom for superiors, and an arbitrary submisson for inferiors. It has already become impossible for freedom of contract to achieve its ariginal purpose. Thus, an inevitable movement for the recent principle of freedom of contract is limitation from all sides. 4. To grent a theoretical basis to-the baith principle esteemed as the highest norm in exercising and performing one's rights and duties and interpreting law and contract, I have tried to make a clear explanation on the new contract theory based ona group basis, compared with that based on the conventional individual basis. 5. It is demonstrated that the legal principle of faithis of such a nature that it surpasses the category of individualistic thought; and can be extracted and explained at first, only in the keynote of the theught of the group principle. 6. Finally an explanation has been given on how harmony can be made between the faith principle and legal stability.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation fermented with Appergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger on body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, nutrient digestiblities and carcass traits of growing- finishing pigs. Sixty crossbred pigs 〔LD(♀) x Y(♂)〕 weighing approximately 20kg, were randomly allotted to 4 treatment and each treatment consisted of 3 replicates and 5 pigs per replicate, after of 120 days feeding trial, pigs were slaughted for carcass quality. The results obtained were as follows: 1.The body weight increased by 4.7kg in the treatment with 20% fermentation feeds added than the control treatment. 2.The feed efficiency was improved by 8% in the treatment with 20% fermentation feeds added than the control treatment. 3.The digestibilities of lipid and total carbohydrate were improved by 4.6%, 3.6% in the treatment with 20% fermentation feeds added than the control treatment, respectively. 4.The lean meat percentage was increased by 2% in the treatment with 20% fermentation feeds added than the control treatment and the backfat thickness was thinned by 0.6cm in the treatment with 20% fermented feeds added than the control treatment.
12 strains of Streptococcus were isolated from the patient and selected 4 strains which were not produced gas when added H2O2 solution. 1.4 strains were identified as Streptococcus pyogenes A-3. 2.4 Strains were possessed antitumour activity. 3.Their extracellular metabol may be enhanced antitumour activity.
The main purpose of this research is to empirically examine the effects of foreign intellectual property rights(IPRs) protection on the FDI volume of Korea. In the empirical analysis, I have applied the gravity model to the FDI data of Korea from 2001 to 2003, divided by host countries and industries. As the results, I have found that foreign IPRs protection has negative effects on Korea FDI volume, which means that the high level of foreign IPRs protection should not result in increasing Korea FDI volume on average. The effects of IPRs, however, differ with trading partners and industries. Specially, there are the negative effects of IPRs in the FDI of manufacturing industries to developing countries. From these results, I have concluded that the effects of foreign IPRs protection differ with the characteristics of host countries and industries and these differences must be considered in policy related with foreign IPRs.
Development and progress in real estate appraising depends heavily on the knowledge of economics which accumulates throughout history Value theory and practice as taught by leading appraisal societies today are largely a synthesis of the important ideas and economic concepts developed by leader of the Classical, Austrian, Historical, Neoclassical and Modern schools of Value Theory. Market value may rightfully be designated as the heart of all real Estate Value. Market Value is the price which a property will bring in a competitive market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, which would result from negotiations between a buyer and a seller, each acting prudently, with knowledge and without undue stimulus. But, some appraisers, real estate experts, and economists maintain that technically it is impossible to estimate the market value of real estate according to the assumptions contained in the standard definitions as given above. This view is advanced by Dr. Richard U. Ratcliff, who objects to the legal definition of market value since it refers to hypothetical buyers and sellers who bargain under hypothetical market conditions. This interpretation views the value estimate not as an interpretation of what would happen under ideal condition, but what will happen under actual circumstances. Fundamental to the concept of market value is the Principle of Highest and Best Use. Highest and Best Use is logically defined as "that possible and legal use or employment which will preserve the utility of the land and yield a net income flow that forms, when capitalized at the proper market rate of interests, the highest present value of the land." But, The Principle of Highest and Best Use Contains similar problems in its unrealistic assumptions. The following are the principal objections raised to The Highest and Best Use concepts by those who advocate a Most Probable Use. - There can be more than one highest and best use for a property. - The highest income does not necessarily represent the highest and best development of the property, for two reasons ① The use may involve depletion of the property ② The income may entail a high risk factor, resulting in lower value. In the context of most probable sales price another appropriate term to reflect highest and best use would be most probable use. In the context of investment value an alternative term would be most profitable use.
The goal of this research was to analyze the effects of the intellectual property rights(IPRs) protection level in APEC region on the intra-regional trade volume. As the main result, I found that the higher level of IPRs protection of APEC members, the bigger internal and external trade volume. This result means that strengthening of IPRs protection in APEC region will have positive effects on the trade between APEC members. If APEC members want to maximize the positive effects of IPRs protection, they must start discussion on the internal IPRs protection. And, this result has a policy significance to Korea, because APEC members are important export markets of Korea and the IPRs application of Korea grows rapidly.
This study was conducted to detect the allelopathic effect of water and ethanol extracts from 4 plant species (Lactuca sativa L., Ambrosia elatior L., Oenothenra odorata Jasp., Ginkgo biloba L.) on germination and growth of lettuce seeds. A little bit higher inhibitory effect was obtained in ethanol extracts rather than water extracts. Allelopathic effects varied in the source of extracts and concentrations of 4 plant species and the highest allelopathic effect appeared in 10% solution, regardless of plant species.