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      • KCI등재

        日本語学習者の作文推敲過程における他者コメントの受容の様相

        Komatsu Nana 한국일본학회 2019 日本學報 Vol.0 No.118

        This research revealed how highly evaluated essay writers incorporate others’ comments in their essays to improve them during cooperative revision. I analyzed 41 essays written by Japanese learners to make a comparison of the following two points between the higher score essays and lower score essays. I showed that the reflection rates of others’ comments of the “writing structure”, “consideration to readers”, and “appropriateness of the Japanese language” in the higher score essays are higher than those in the lower score essays. The comments were not reflected to maintain the essay purpose in some higher score essays, while the reflection was avoided because of the wide revision range in some lower score essays. In addition, the higher score essays included more voluntarily revised points after cooperative revision than the lower score essays, which indicates that the comments from cooperative revision inspire the writers of the higher score essays to actively revise their essays. My results suggest that the highly evaluated essay writers proactively incorporate cooperative revision in writing essays. In the process of a writer attempting to have the viewpoint of the reader, the highly evaluated essay writers presumably allow cooperative revision to function as a means assisting self-revision. 본고는 좋은 평가를 받은 작문의 작성자가 작문을 쓰기에 있어서 협동퇴고 활동 시에 타자(他者)가 준 지적을 어떻게 받아들이고 자신의 작문에 반영하였는지를 밝힌 것이다. 분석은 일본어학습자가 작성한 41 편의 작문을 대상으로 1.협동퇴고 활동 시에 받은 코멘트를 자신의 작문에 반영한 반영률 및 2.협동퇴고 후에 실시한 자발적인 수정 수(数), 이 두 가지 점에 대해 작문 득점 상위군과 하위군을 비교했다. 그 결과, 작문 득점 상위군에서는 “구성” “독자에게의 배려” “일본어의 적절성” 항목을 중심으로 타자 코멘트를 자신의 작문에 반영한 반영률이 하위군보다 높은 것을 알게 되었다. 또한 코멘트를 반영하지 않을 때, 상위군에서는 작문의 목적을 유지하기 위해 반영하지 않은 양상을 보여준 반면, 하위군에서는 수정 범위가 넓기 때문에 코멘트 반영을 피하고 있는 양상을 보였다. 그리고 상위군에서는 협동퇴고 후에 자발적인 수정 수가 하위군보다 높아 협동퇴고 시에 받은 코멘트를 계기로 스스로 수정을 활발하게 하고 있는 모습이 관찰되었다. 이상의 결과를 보면 평가가 높은 일본어 작문의 작성자는 협동퇴고를 적극적으로 받아들이면서 자신의 작문 작성 과정에 도입하고 있는 것이 추찰된다. 학습자가 독자의 시점에서 자신의 작문을 바라보도록 하는 것이 작문 지도자의 교육목표이며, 평가가 높은 작문 작성자는 이에 부합한 형태로 협동퇴고를 자기퇴고의 보조 수단으로 이용하고 있음을 알 수 있다.

      • KCI등재

        深まりのある意見交換は接触場面において どのように達成されるか -対話/共話との関連から-

        Komatsu Nana 한국일본언어문화학회 2017 일본언어문화 Vol.41 No.-

        The purpose of this study was to obtain suggestions for teaching in a classroom in order to achieve a sufficient conversation by discussion and we explored what kind of characteristics we could observe in conversation that we could observe a deep discussion in terms of contents. For the analysis, we focused on the differences in speaking through dialogue and co-operative conversation. As a result, we could observe a common point that pairs with a deep discussion have a higher frequency of co-operative conversation and based on the conversation example, we could observe a scene in which they enhanced recognition that they had same opinions each other by speaking through co-operative conversation while discussion. Furthermore, for a pair who had a different opinion at the beginning of discussion, it was shown that they acknowledged ideas from the partner by speaking through co-operative conversation, clarified their ideas by speaking through dialogue, and compromised with the conversation partner. As a result of this study, we can assume that participants in conversation can have a sense of security against the other speaker and speak with open mind by enhancing consensus or accepting different opinions from the partner by speaking through co-operative conversation as well as clarifying mutual opinions by speaking through dialogue, which contributes to a deep discussion in terms of contents. .

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Evaluation of the Microvascular Research Center Training Program for Assessing Microsurgical Skills in Trainee Surgeons

        Komatsu, Seiji,Yamada, Kiyoshi,Yamashita, Shuji,Sugiyama, Narushi,Tokuyama, Eijiro,Matsumoto, Kumiko,Takara, Ayumi,Kimata, Yoshihiro Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surge 2013 Archives of Plastic Surgery Vol.40 No.3

        Background We established the Microvascular Research Center Training Program (MRCP) to help trainee surgeons acquire and develop microsurgical skills. Medical students were recruited to undergo the MRCP to assess the effectiveness of the MRCP for trainee surgeons. Methods Twenty-two medical students with no prior microsurgical experience, who completed the course from 2005 to 2012, were included. The MRCP comprises 5 stages of training, each with specific passing requirements. Stages 1 and 2 involve anastomosing silicone tubes and blood vessels of chicken carcasses, respectively, within 20 minutes. Stage 3 involves anastomosing the femoral artery and vein of live rats with a 1-day patency rate of >80%. Stage 4 requires replantation of free superficial inferior epigastric artery flaps in rats with a 7-day success rate of >80%. Stage 5 involves successful completion of one case of rat replantation/transplantation. We calculated the passing rate for each stage and recorded the number of anastomoses required to pass stages 3 and 4. Results The passing rates were 100% (22/22) for stages 1 and 2, 86.4% (19/22) for stage 3, 59.1% (13/22) for stage 4, and 55.0% (11/20) for stage 5. The number of anastomoses performed was $17.2{\pm}12.2$ in stage 3 and $11.3{\pm}8.1$ in stage 4. Conclusions Majority of the medical students who undertook the MRCP acquired basic microsurgical skills. Thus, we conclude that the MRCP is an effective microsurgery training program for trainee surgeons.

      • KCI등재

        接觸場面意見交換會話における日本語中級話者の 會話參加 -雜談會話との比較から-

        ( Komatsu Nana ) 한국일어교육학회 2015 일본어교육연구 Vol.0 No.31

        本硏究では、中級學習者にとっての意見交換會話の難しさは何かを明らかにすることを目的として、雜談會話、意見交換會話それぞれにおいて中級話者の使用した會話機能を超上級話者との比較から分析した。雜談會話においては、中級話者には、はっきり理解できなかった言葉を確認するためや、わからない單語を明らかにするためのやりとりが多いという特微があり、それ以外の部分では超上級話者と中級話者の傾向は類似していることがわかった。會話例からは、情報のやりとりを中心にテンポよく話している樣子が觀察された。意見交換會話においては、超上級話者は情報についての意見を述べたり相手發話へ感想を述べたりすることに比重を置いていることが明らかになった。特に、自分で意見を述べるだけでなく、相手へ情報や意見を求め、相手の發言について共感を示すという、聞き手としても積極的に參加していることが推察された。會話例からは、會話相手と共に論点を考えることで、新たな意見が生まれる樣子が觀察された。一方中級話者は、雜談會話と同樣に情報を共有すること、特に情報を提供することを中心に會話に參加している傾向が見られた。意見陳述をしている場面を取り上げた會話例からは、會話相手の發話を踏まえずに情報提供や意見を一方的に述べている樣子が觀察された。以上の分析に基づき、今後の中級學習者の會話指導への提案を行った。 In this paper, the speech functions of small talk and discussions by Japanese non-native speakers at the advanced level and intermediate level were analyzed for the purpose of clarifying areas of difficulty in discussions for intermediate-level speakers. The results showed that during small talk, we noted that intermediate level speakers frequently checked words that they couldn’t clearly understand and clarified the meanings of words they didn’t know. Otherwise, it was found that the tendencies of speech by advanced-level and intermediate-level speakers were similar. From a conversation example, a situation was observed in which they exchanged and shared information frequently. In discussions, the results showed that advanced-level speakers placed stress on speech to express opinions and to make remarks about their partner’s opinions. Specifically, it was inferred that they participated in discussions with listeners, for example, by asking their partners for information or opinions and showing empathy. From the conversation example, a situation was observed in which they would explore a point to be discussed with their partners and uncover new opinions. On the other hand, the results showed that there was a tendency for intermediate-level speakers to share information with their partners. In particular, they gave their partners information as was found when they were using small talk. From the conversation example, a situation was observed in which they gave information and opinions unilaterally without considering their partner’s opinions. From these results, the establishment of a conversation class for learners at the intermediate level is proposed.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        日本語作文の協同推敲過程におけるコメントの役割

        Komatsu Nana 한국일본학회 2020 日本學報 Vol.0 No.125

        The aim of the present study is to elucidate what type of review comments, as peer responses, ,on essays can be effective for the writers. To this end, the comments were analyzed with a focus on the readers’ vocabulary and the revised essays were examined. The following features of the comments on the highly-evaluated essays were identified. First, the expressions which are associated with compositions and contents tended to be frequently used as such in the comments. The highly-evaluated essays were characterized using such expressions. Next, the words which are associated with “compositions” and “contents” were more frequently used than those associated with “consideration for readers” and “Japanese” in individual comments. The characteristic features of the comments were inferred from the co-occurrence words. One comment did not contain multiple elements and was focused on a single element. Moreover, several positive changes were identified in the finished essays which reflected those comments. After the changes, some were logically consistent and some were more conscious of readers. These results suggest that the comments in peer response can produce an organic effect. The comments which are understandable for writers are reflected in the revised version of their essays, resulting in highly-evaluated compositions. 본 연구에서는 협동 퇴고 활동 시에 어떠한 코멘트가 작문의 필자에게 효과적으로 작용하는지를 밝히는 것을 목적으로 하여, 사용 어휘에 주목한 코멘트 분석 및 작문 수정 예를 관찰하였다. 그 결과, 평가 상위군의 작문에 달린 코멘트의 특징으로서 아래와 같이 알게 되었다. 첫째, 코멘트에서 사용된 단어의 총 출현수로는 작문의 구성이나 내용에 관련된 단어의 빈도가 높은 것을 알게 되었다. 둘째, 코멘트 단위의 특징으로는 “독자에 대한 배려” 또한 “일본어”보다 “구성” 및 “내용”에 관련된 단어를 사용한 코멘트가 많다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 공기(共起)어로 추측할 수 있는 코멘트의 방향성으로는, 하나의 코멘트 안에 여러 요소를 넣지 않고, 하나의 요소에 집중하여 코멘트를 하고 있는 것이 확인되었다. 특히 구성에 관한 코멘트와 내용에 관한 코멘트가 구분되어 있음을 알 수 있었다. 셋째, 이러한 코멘트를 반영한 완성 작문에서는, 정합성 있는 내용이 되거나 독자를 의식한 문장이 되는 등, 긍정적인 변화가 관찰되었다. 이상의 결과로부터, 협동 퇴고 활동 시에 작문 필자에게 있어서 이해하기 쉬운 코멘트가 전달되면, 그것이 수정에 활용되어 작문의 높은 평가로 이어진다는 유기적인 작용이 생기는 것으로 추측된다. 본고에서는 이러한 고찰을 바탕으로 협동 퇴고에서의 코멘트 부여 방법에 대한 지도 방향을 제안한다.

      • KCI등재

        日本語学習者の作文作成過程における 表現と内容の変化 -協同推敲活動前後の作文の比較から

        Komatsu Nana 한국일본어학회 2019 日本語學硏究 Vol.0 No.62

        In this study, I aim to examine the changes of expression and content in the essay writing process of Japanese language learners before and after peer response. To do this, I made a comparison of the frequently appearing words before and after peer response and analyzed the changes of the use of those words quantitatively and qualitatively. Firstly, regarding the essays on the subject of “Korea and Japan”, there were some differences in the use of several words related to “country”, “difference”, “common point” and “comparison” before and after peer response. There were similar numbers of essays containing the words related to “country”, “difference” and “common point” before and after peer response. However, the number of the essays containing the words related to “comparison” increased after peer response. These results showed that the Japanese language learners frequently used comparative expressions to explain their thoughts in orderly sequence and summarize them in the revised essays. Next, regarding the essays on the subject of “Myself and Japanese”, changes in the number of the use of the words related to “negative evaluation” and “future and career” were observed. Among the essays containing the words related to “positive evaluation”, “negative evaluation” and “future and career”, the number of the essays containing the words related to “negative evaluation” decreased after peer response, but the number of essays containing the words related to “future and career” increased. These results showed that the Japanese language learners placed an emphasis on their vision after overcoming difficulties rather than on the difficulty in Japanese language after peer response. My results suggest that the reason for such changes in the essays is that the Japanese language learners have come to objectively review their essays from their readers’ viewpoint through peer response. 본고에서는 협동 퇴고 전후의 작문에 나타난 표현 및 내용의 변화를 탐구하는 것을 목적으로 하여 작문 전체를 대상으로 빈출 단어 및 특정 단어 사용률의 추이를 양적 및 질적으로 검토하였다. 제1작문군과 완성작문군 간의 차이를 알아본 결과, 우선 “한국과 일본”을 주제로 한 작문에서는 “국가” “차이점” “공통점” “비교”와 관련한 여 러 단어들의 출현 빈도의 차이가 보였다. 키워드를 사용한 작문 수가 “국가” “차이점” “공통점” 관련어에서는 제1작문군과 완성작문군에 큰 차 이가 보이지 않았다. 반면, “비교” 관련어를 사용한 작문 수는 제1작문군에서 완성작문군으로 25% 증가함이 확인되었다. 작문 예를 관찰한 결 과, 학습자가 작문을 수정할 때 문장 순서를 정하거나 문장을 정리하거나 하기 위해 비교 표현을 사용하고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 다음으로 “나와 일본어”를 주제로 한 작문에서는 부정적인 평가와 장래나 경력에 관련한 여러 단어들의 출현 빈도의 차이가 보였다. “긍정적 인 평가” “부정적인 평가” “장래/경력”에 관련된 단어를 사용한 작문 수가 “부정적인 평가”관련어에서는 제1작문군에서 완성작문군으로 약33% 감소했고, “장래/경력”에 관한 단어를 사용한 작문 수는 약33% 증가함이 확인되었다. 작문 예에서는 완성작문군에서 일본어의 어려움보다 고 난을 극복한 뒤의 개인적인 전망에 중점을 둔 내용이 기술되어 있는 것이 관찰되었다. 이상의 변화는 협동 퇴고 활동을 통해 자신의 작문을 독자 입장에서 객관적으로 보는 시점(視点)이 생겨났기 때문에 일어난 것으로 추측된다.

      • KCI등재

        評価の高い日本語作文における推敲過程 -読み手としてのコメントと書き手としての修正に 着目して-

        Komatsu Nana 한국일본언어문화학회 2018 일본언어문화 Vol.44 No.-

        In this study, I aim to clarify how the Japanese language learners who are highly evaluated in writing revise their essays. To do this, I conducted a quantitative and qualitative analysis on the comments at the time of mutual revision between the learners and the comments at the time of self-revision after the mutual revision. Results showed that there was no difference in the type and frequency of the comments between the groups of learners with high evaluation in writing and low evaluation and that the learners mutually give many comments on the contents and structures of essay. On the other hand, results also showed that the group of learners with high evaluation in writing actively modify both the contents and language when compared with the group of learners with low evaluation in writing. In addition, the learners reflected the experience of giving comments as a reader in the process of self-revision of their essays as shown by the examples of the essay. The above results revealed that the Japanese language learners aggressively revise their essays by using the experience of mutual revision. This study suggests that this way of revision is one of the factors that increase the perfection level of essay.

      • KCI등재

        評価の高い作文はどのように修正されたか : 「韓国と日本」をテーマとする作文の分析から 

        Komatsu Nana 한국일어교육학회 2020 일본어교육연구 Vol.0 No.51

        In this study, I analyzed the essays on the subject of “Korea and Japan” after peer response to reveal the revision process from the first versions to complete versions. The analysis was conducted by a quantitative text analytical method. I revealed that the essays which received high ratings have the following characteristics regarding the quantity and quality of words. Firstly, there was no marked increase in the total number of words and kinds of words used in those essays after the revision process. This indicates that the essay writers have no tendency to make their essays longer and use more kinds of words in the complete versions than the first versions through the revision process. Secondly, I found several terms such as “both countries”, “comparison” and “make a comparison” characteristically appeared in the essays. I observed characteristics of the essays as follows: The essay writers clearly wrote a main idea, making a comparison between the two countries, and then they focused not on the similarities but on the differences between the two countries. Thirdly, it has been revealed that the essay writers tend to use easier nouns and verbs in the complete versions. This suggests that they reconsider the use of the difficult words and Korean-like expressions and change those words and expressions to more appropriate expressions through the revision process. These characteristics may indicate that the learners who are self-directed toward essay writing intend to make the essay outline clear and choose more comprehensible expressions. Based on these results, I propose the teacher feedback methods when teaching the self-directed essay writing skills including peer response. 本研究では、「韓国と日本」をテーマとし、協働推敲活動を経て作成された作文を対象に、初稿からど のような修正過程を経て完成稿に至るのかを計量テキスト分析の手法を用いて分析した。高い評価を 受けた作文群には、単語の量および質の点で以下のような特徴があることが明らかになった。 第一に、文章に用いられる実質語の数は、延べ語数、異なり語数ともに著しい増加は見られず、作文 の長さが長くなったり使用される単語の種類が増えたりする傾向はないということがわかった。第二 に、特徴的に現れる語として「両国」「比較」「比べる」などの単語が抽出され、二つの国を比較するとい う作文の主旨が明文化されることがわかった。また、比較の際は共通点より相違点について重点的に 言及しているという特徴が見られた。第三に、初稿から完成稿への修正過程で名詞、動詞ともに難易 度が下がる傾向があることが明らかになった。作文例からは、一般レベルの単語を用いながら作文の 枠組みを示したり、内容を明確化したりする修正過程が観察された。さらに、難易度の高い単語や韓 国語的な表現は見直され、より適切な表現に推敲、修正されている様子も見られた。 これらの特徴は、協働推敲活動を肯定的に活用できている学習者が、作文の修正過程において文章の 輪郭をより明確にし、よりわかりやすい表現を選択しようとしていることの現れであると考えられ る。この結果に基づいて、自律的な作文作成者を養成していく際の教師フィードバックの方法につい て提案を行った。

      • KCI등재

        日本語会話授業における協働学習導入の可能性 ― 質問・回答タスクの分析から ―

        Komatsu Nana 한국일어교육학회 2021 일본어교육연구 Vol.- No.56

        This study explored the tendency in the question and answer, in which learners solve their questions about Japanese conversation with their peers, to clarify learning areas with feasibility of peer learning in Japanese conversation classes. The most common questions were about grammar and vocabulary, followed by questions about conversation including speech level and pronunciation. In addition to questions within language knowledge, there were many questions about difficulties in actual use of Japanese. About half of these questions were answered. In particular, learners aggressively answered questions about vocabulary knowledge, with accurate explanations for a wide range of content including the semantic differences of synonyms and word origins. They also gave empirical answers including communication with their close acquaintances and conversation learning methods. The most common non-answered questions were about grammatical knowledge, with a tendency to avoid answering questions about items difficult to translate directly from Korean, including subjunctive expressions and aspects. In addition, notable questions were about items experienced little by learners in the JFL environment, including compellations for unfamiliar people and level shift from formal lines to informal. Taken together, this study extracted (1) vocabulary, (2) learners’ empirical knowledge, and (3) learning strategies as items promoted for peer learning, and (1) grammatical knowledge, (2) items experienced little by learners in the JFL environment, and (3) learning tools as items requiring attention when introducing peer learning, to propose teaching methods. 本稿では、日本語会話授業においてどのような学習領域で学習者の協働学習を導入することができ るかを探ることを目的として、日本語会話に関する学習者の疑問を仲間同士で解決し合う「質問-回答 タスク」から質問および回答・非回答の傾向を探った。 質問項目は、文法と語彙に関するものが最も多く、次にスピーチレベルや発音など会話そのものに関 する質問が多いことがわかった。言語知識の範囲内の質問と同時に、実際の日本語運用時に遭遇する 困難点に関する質問も多く見られた。 これらの質問に対する回答数は約半数であった。特に語彙知識に関する学習者の積極的な回答が見 られ、類義語間の語義の違いや語の由来など幅広い内容に対して的確な説明がなされている様子が観 察された。また、親しい相手への接し方や会話の学習法など、自身の経験に基づいた回答もされている ことがわかった。そして、回答がなされなかった質問で最も多いものは文法知識の領域であり、特に仮 定表現やアスペクトなど、韓国語からの直訳が難しいものについて回答が避けられる傾向が見られ た。また、親しくない相手への呼称や丁寧語から友達言葉へのレベルシフトの方法など、JFL環境の学 習者が経験することの少ないと思われる項目に関する質問が目立った。 以上の結果を踏まえ、本稿では協働学習を進めるべき項目として①語彙、②学習者の経験に基づく知 識、③学習ストラテジーを、協働学習導入に注意が必要である項目として①文法知識、②JFL環境で接 触する機会が少ないもの、③学習ツールを抽出し、指導方法の提案を行った。

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