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The thermal denaturation and subsequent structural variation of lysozyme in various bioprotectant candidate solutions such as trehalose and choline acetate have been investigated by using small angle neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. The gyration radius shows little change with the addition of additives in a native state at room temperature. On heating the lysozyme solution, a remarkable increase in the gyration radius is observed at temperatures above the denaturation temperature without any bioprotectants. Such an increase is suppressed by the additives owing to the intermolecular interactions between the lysozyme molecules and the bioprotectants of trehalose and choline acetate. The fractal dimension of lysozyme varies slightly with the addition of the bioprotectant solutions, and shows a remarkable drop in the vicinity of the denaturation temperature for all the solutions.
Masao Koda,Chikato Mannoji,Masazumi Murakami,Tomoaki Kinoshita,Jiro Hirayama,Tomohiro Miyashita,Yawara Eguchi,Masashi Yamazaki,Takane Suzuki,Masaaki Aramomi,Mitsutoshi Ota,Satoshi Maki,Kazuhisa Takaha 대한척추외과학회 2016 Asian Spine Journal Vol.10 No.6
Study Design: Retrospective case-control study. Purpose: To determine whether kissing spine is a risk factor for recurrence of sciatica after lumbar posterior decompression using a spinous process floating approach. Overview of Literature: Kissing spine is defined by apposition and sclerotic change of the facing spinous processes as shown in X-ray images, and is often accompanied by marked disc degeneration and decrement of disc height. If kissing spine significantly contributes to weight bearing and the stability of the lumbar spine, trauma to the spinous process might induce a breakdown of lumbar spine stability after posterior decompression surgery in cases of kissing spine. Methods: The present study included 161 patients who had undergone posterior decompression surgery for lumbar canal stenosis using a spinous process floating approaches. We defined recurrence of sciatica as that resolved after initial surgery and then recurred. Kissing spine was defined as sclerotic change and the apposition of the spinous process in a plain radiogram. Preoperative foraminal stenosis was determined by the decrease of perineural fat intensity detected by parasagittal T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Preoperative percentage slip, segmental range of motion, and segmental scoliosis were analyzed in preoperative radiographs. Univariate analysis followed by stepwise logistic regression analysis determined factors independently associated with recurrence of sciatica. Results: Stepwise logistic regression revealed kissing spine (p =0.024; odds ratio, 3.80) and foraminal stenosis (p <0.01; odds ratio, 17.89) as independent risk factors for the recurrence of sciatica after posterior lumbar spinal decompression with spinous process floating procedures for lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Conclusions: When a patient shows kissing spine and concomitant subclinical foraminal stenosis at the affected level, we should sufficiently discuss the selection of an appropriate surgical procedure.
This paper proposes a simple and low power highly sensitive frequency demodulator. In the previous work, we proposed a multiplex communication system that transmits additional data by using a frequency modulation technique and the proposed circuit provided highly sensitive characteristics on frequency demodulation. However, with this configuration, there is the problem that the power consumption and the number of control points increase. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a simple and lower power circuit configuration. We investigated the characteristics of these frequency demodulators using a prototype demodulation system consisting of an FPGA and discrete devices. Compared with the delay detection circuit, the proposed simple and lower power demodulation system, which showed the same output characteristics as the conventional sensitive demodulator, successfully detected about twice the detection data than the delay detection circuit did.
Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy is an endoscopic technique that enables in vivo histological evaluation using fluorescentpigment. The ability to diagnostically differentiate between benign and malignant biliary disease using the “CholangioFlexTM”, adedicated biliary device, has been reported. However, the Miami and Paris classifications, used as diagnostic criteria, mainly evaluatefindings in the submucosa, and visualizing the epithelium as the main site of lesions remains difficult. To address this problem, weverified the imaging findings and diagnostic ability of three types of probes: CholangioFlexTM, GastroFlexTM, and AlveoFlexTM. WithGastroFlexTM, the clear mucosal epithelium was observed, and differential diagnoses as benign/malignant could be made based onepithelial findings. GastroFlexTM may be a good first-choice probe for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of biliary diseases,and a new diagnostic classification based on bile duct epithelial findings may provide useful criteria independent of the Miami orParis classifications.
The acoustic and thermal properties of the liquideglass transitions of propylene glycol and its oligomers, poly (propylene glycol)s, were studied by temperature modulated DSC and Brillouin scattering. The fragility indices were determined from Angell plots using the observed modulation frequency dependence of the complex heat capacity. The variation in the glass transition temperatures is discussed on the basis of the free volume theory. The relaxation time of the structural relaxation obeys the VogeleFulcher law, and its high frequency end is in good agreement with the result of the dielectric measurement in the literature. The correlation between the observed thermal expansion coefficients and the glass transition temperature is discussed based on the free volume theory. The sound velocity and attenuation were accurately determined as a function of the temperature by Brillouin scattering by combination with the refractive index measurement. The relaxation dynamics were discussed by considering the relaxation from segmental motions. All of these physical properties were discussed based on the third-order anharmonicity and the Grüneisen parameter.
Pet animals and guide dogs contribute greatly to the welfare of humans. However, there are many cases whereby these animals are refused admission to public facilities in Japan. Visually impaired people have been permitted to use public facilities along with their guide dogs. On the other hand, there has been no official regulation regarding various programs using pets, such as during animal assisted therapy/activity. This study involved a questionnaire survey ofthe attitudes toward the acceptance of animals in general and guide dogs in a hospital of literature students, zoology students, nursing students, and nurses. The admittance rate of animals in general was lower in all participant groups compared to guide dog admittance. In terms of the admittance of animals in general, more zoology students and less nurses would admit them. There was a similar tendency whereby medical-related participants would hesitate to allow animals into a hospital. In the participants who would allow the admittance of animals in general, significantly more participants had kept dogs. On the other hand, there was no significant relation between the admittance of guide dogs and dog-owning experiences. Concerns about negative attitudes from other hospital users and hygiene were the second most frequent reasons for the refusal ofboth animals in general and guide dogs. In the case of animals in general, more medical-related participants tended to be concerned about negative attitudes from other hospital users, and participants as hospital users were less concerned. The differences among the participant groups were clearer compared with those in the case of guide dogs.