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이 연구는 김교신의 무교회운동을 재평가하는 데 목적이 있다. 김교신에게 성서연구는 어떤 의미가 있었는가? 그는 그 연구결과를 자신의 삶에서 어떻게 실천했는가? 이 연구는 이런 질문들에 대한 답을 추구하는 과정에서 김교신의 무교회운동이 지향한 목표와 그 한계점을 살펴보았다.김교신의 무교회운동은 두 가지 목표를 가지고 있었다. 하나는 이 땅에 참된 성서적 기독교를 세우는 일이고, 다른 하나는 신앙적 인간을 양성하여 민족의 운명을 개척하는 것이었다. 김교신이 추구했던 “참된 기독교”는 다른말로 “전적 기독교” 혹은 “조선산(朝鮮産) 기독교”를 구현하는 일이었다. 일반적으로 이 운동의 특징은 세 가지로 평가되어왔다. 첫째, 그것은 반교권운동이었다. 그는 제도화된 교회들의 전통주의와 신조주의를 거부했다. 둘째, 이 운동은 조선산 기독교를 추구했던 반선교사운동이었다. 셋째, 이 운동은 서당식 성서연구와 [성서조선]의 발간을 통한 민중운동이었다. 김교신은 자신의 민족을 사랑했으며, 참된 기독교를 구현하려고 노력했던 헌신적인 그리스도인이었다. 조선산 기독교라 불렸던 그의 신앙운동은 한국교회의 대안운동으로 평가될 수 있을 것이다. 하지만 실천적인 측면에서 볼때, 몇 가지 문제들도 있다: 첫째, 무교회운동은 성서를 선택적으로 받아들였다. 둘째, 무교회운동의 방법은 김교신 자신의 개인적 경험과 성서해석에 크게 의존되어 있었다. 셋째, 김교신의 성서연구는 민중보다 지성인들에게 적합한 것이었다. 넷째, 운동의 지성적 측면을 너무 강조했기 때문에, 김교신은 일제시대에 민중의 실제적인 문제들에 참여하는 일에 소극적인 경향이 있었다. The purpose of this study is to reappraise the non-church[無敎會] movement of Kim Kyo-Shin. What did it mean to study the Bible for Kim? And how did he practice the result of the study in his life? In pursuit of the answers of these questions, the goals of the non-church movement and its limitations will be investigated. Kim’s non-church movement had two goals. The first one was to establish the true biblical Christianity in Chosun, and the other was to pioneer the national destiny by educating the faithful Christian believers. The true Christianity for Kim Kyo-Shin was to realize “total[全的] Christianity” or “Chosunsan(朝鮮産) Christianity” and he pursued these goals by criticizing formalistic and authoritarian Chosun Christianity of his days. In general, the characteristics of this movement have been evaluated from three aspects. First, it was against the existing church’s authoritarianism. He rejected traditionism and creedalism in the institutionalized churches. Second, it was an anti-missionary movement, which sought to establish the Chosunsan Christianity. Third, it was the people’s movement through his “Seodang(書堂) Bible Study” and publication of [Sungseo Chosun] (聖書朝鮮) Kim Kyo-Shin was a devout Christian who deeply loved his country, and tried to establish Chosunsan Christianity. One can easily credit his faith-movement called Chosunsan Christianity as the alternative Christianity in Korea. However, there are some problems in practice: First, the movement was to read the bible in a selective way. Second, the method of the faith-movement depended largely on Kim’s personal experience and biblical interpretation. Third, his Bible study was not oriented for common people but for the intellectual. Fourth, he focused too much on the intellectual aspect of the movement, and thereupon tended to be passive in participating in physical matters of the people during the Japanese regime.
본 연구에서는 초음파에 의해 액체 내에서 공기방울을 포획하는 연구를 수행하였다. 초음파 진동자를 최소의 전력으로 구동하여 안정된 공기방울을 포획하기 위해서는 임피던스 매칭이 필요했다. 초음파진동자의 임피던스는 매우 크므로 임피던스 매칭을 위해 고주파 변압기와 인덕터를 제작하였다. 안정된 공기방울은 증류수를 100℃에서 10분간 끓여서 하루동안 서서히 냉각시켜 물속의 산소용존량이 0.3∼0.5㎎/ℓ일 때 포획되었다. 본 장치의 초음파 공진 주파수는 약 26㎑이었다. In this study the bubble captures phenomena by using supersonic transducers were investigated. The operating minimum power for supersonic transducers requires impedance matching for optimal capture of a stabilized bubble. Because the impedance supersonic transducers of was high, we made high frequency transformers and inductor for impedance matching. The stabilized bubble was captured in the distilled water which boiled at 100℃ for 10 minute and then cooled down for a day until the dissolution of oxygen reached at 0.3∼0.5㎎/ℓ In this experiment the frequency of the acoustic resonance appeared at about 26 ㎑.
Biodegradable retinal fixation devices obtain mechnical fixation of the retina with desirable chorioretinal scarring and with the potential for local, sustained release of antimetabolites and steroids to inhibit proliferative vitreoretinopathy. We manufactured a biodegradable retinal tack with barb that was designed in order to prevent intrusion from implantation of retinal tacks. This study was carried to evaluate the efficacy for retinal fixation and the capability for sustained release of drugs with a newly designed biodegradable retinal tack Biodegradable retinal tacks were made of polymers of glycolic acids and were designed with barbs in a shape to prevent the disinsertion. Biodegradale retinal tacks are divided into 3 parts, a conical portion that is inserted into the sclera, a cylinder portion that remains in the vitreous, and a neck portion between the pin and the cylinder. The tapered conical end was manufactured to allow easy insertion through the retina and choroid into the sclera. A cylinder portion was manufactured with a tapered angle that fixes firmly into the orifice of 19 gauge spinal needle. A neck portion, 0.4 mm in diameter, was designed to prevent disinsertion from following implantation of retinal tack. The applicator was a 19 gauge spinal needle and its orifice was prepared to 15°angle to accept the tapered cylinder portion of the retinal tack. The retinal tacks, secured in the needles, were passed through the formed vitreous and inserted into the retina, choroid, and sclera and were released by pushing the internal needle, usually within 2-3mm of the medullary ray of the posterior rabbit retina A retinal tack was placed in each of 8 pigmented rabbit eyes. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography were performed periodically from 1 day to 8 weeks after surgery. Eight eyes were enucleated and studied by light microscopy at 8 weeks. Biomicroscopic evaluation of the animals revealed edemas adjacent to the retinal surfaces immediately after insertion of the biodegradable retinal tacks in all the animals. These edemas disappeared after 1 week. The first noticeable change in the size of retinal tacks was shown after 2weeks. The size of the retinal tacks gradually got smaller, decreasing to about one-half at 4 weeks and about one-third at 8 weeks. All retinal tacks remained in inserted places without any movement for an 8 week period. On light microscopy, epiretinal proliferations were seen to extend into the vitreous cavity. Cellular capsules that lined the inner aspect of the scleral defect caused by tack insertion were found. However the adjacent retina had a normal cytologic appearance and architecture in all specimens. We manufactured a biodegradable retinal tack that is designed to prevent intrusion from implantation of retinal tacks. All biodegradable retinal tacks reduce in size with time, but no retinal tacks extruded from the inserted place. The newly designed biodegradable retinal tack can be used for retinal fixation and may be used as a vehicle for the introduction of pharmacologic agents to prevent the cellular events that promote proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
A new device, muscle clamping system was developed to facilitate exact quatifying technique A strabismus surgery, and reduce the risk of complications. The device is composed of a lower fixing body with three jaws and an upper supporting body. They are used to clip an extraocular muscle and fix it to the sclera with a single bite. Superior rectus recession on 16 rabbit eyes were performed with this new device. Conjunctival injection, muscle adhesion strength, and light microscopic findings were examined at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively. The Conjunctival injection were minimal, adhesion power ranged from 420 to 600 gram gravity, which is sufficient in withstand the normal pull of human extraocular muscle. In microscopic exam, some Inflammatory cells and fibrosis were found. The new device was technically easy, fast, and accurate, so it may be useful in stabismus surgery.
In the past few years, oxide dispersion strengthened(ODS) alloys produced by mechanical alloying(MA) techniques have become increasingly interesting for structure applications in nuclear fission and fusion power plant. The mechanical properties of ferritic 17% Cr ODS alloys with and without the addition of Ti and Mp and 17% Cr ODS were investigated and comparison with those MA-956 alloys in the temperature range of 973K to 1573K. Nano-sized oxide dispersoids in the 17Cr-3Mo-1Ti-0.25Y_(2)O_3) alloys suppressed the grain growth during annealing at high temperature and resulted in a remarkable improvement of the high temperature strength. The oxides containing Ti was the finest and showed the most uniform dispersion.
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process has been widely used to planarize dielectric layers, which can be applied to the integrated circuits for deep sub-micron technology. The rise throughput and the stability in the device fabrication can be obtained by applying CMP process to shallow trench isolation (STI) structure in 0.18㎛ semiconductor device. The reverse moat process has been added to employ in STI-CMP. Thus the process became complex and the defects were seriously increased. Removal rates of each thin films in STI-CMP was not equal, hence the devices must to be effected, that is, the damage was occurred in the device area for the case of excessive CMP process and the nitride film was remained on the device area for the case of insufficient CMP process than these defects affect the device characteristics. In this work, the high selectivity slurry(HSS) was developed to perform the direct global planarization without reverse moat etch step, and the planarization characteristics of STI-CMP process with and without reverse moat etch step were studied.
화학양론과 비화학양론적인 음이온화된 CO₂집단이온들은 중성집단과 전자선 이온원과의 교차로써 생성되었다. 이들 집단 이온들의 수량과 안정성은 이중촛점부채꼴 모양 질량분석기에 의하여 연구되었다. 관측된 많은 예외적인 것들(기묘수)이 크고 작은 준안정소부분(CO₂의 손실부분)에 의존해 상관되었다. 본 연구는 추가하여 처음으로 ?? 집단을 관측하였고(즉, 12eV 공명에너지와 함께 8eV 이상 전자에너지) 가능한 두 연구 방법을 논의 하였다. 상대적 전자부착 단면적은 ?? 에너지 영역에서 연구되었다. ?? 단면적은 집단크기에 의하여 강하게 영향을 받는다. Stoichiometric and non-Stoichiometric negatively charged CO₂ cluster ions have been produced in a crossed neutral cluster/ electron beam ion source. The abundance and stability of these ions have been studied with a double focusing sector field mass spectrometer. The observed abundance anomalies("magic number") correlate with corresponding small and large metastable fractions (for loss of CO₂). In addition we have observed for the first time??-cluster(i.e. at electron energies above 8eV with an energy resonance at 12eV) and we discuss two possible production mechanism. Relative electron attachment cross sections have been investgated in the energy region ?? for ?? and ?? for ions with n∈[l... 20]. The cross section of ?? are strongly influenced by the cluster size.
The effects of the material properties of thermal curtains upon reduction of the greenhouse heat loss were studied. A theoretical analysis procedure with equations and computer programs was developed to estimate them by using energy balance principles. Curtain effectiveness for every three kinds pf value level of the material properties were studied and compared. The results of this study would be useful for the developent and management of greenhouse thermal curtains.
In this transcultural comparison, we examined areas of stress, coping strategies and psychosomatic symptoms resulting form such strategies in Chinese, Korean-Chinese and Korean high school students. A total of 1,042 second-year high school students participated in this study : 213 Chinese from Yanbien, China ; 368 Korean-Chinese from Yanbien, China ; and 466 Koreans from Seoul, Korea. We administered the Stress Questionnaire Form for High school Students(Won & Lee 1995), the Ways of Coping-Revised(Lazarus & Folkman 1984) and the Physical Symptom Scale of Stress(Allen & Hyde 1980) to investigate areas of stress, coping stategies and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. The findings were understood and interpreted from focus group discussions. Although there were no differences in total stress scores among the three groups, there were significant differences in areas of stress. Chinese students manifested the highest stress scores in peer relation, family problem, heterosexual problem, the future-employment, and religious problem. Koreans scored the highest in academic performance, school life, extracurricular activity, psychological-personality problem, value system, and the future-employment. The Korean-Chinese students scored the highest in extracurricular activity, family-economic problem. In terms of collectivism versus individualism, Chinese students' stress was related more toward the collective situation, whereas the Korean students faced increased stress regarding the individual situation. In coping strategies, the Chinese were characterized by active coping, Koreans by passive coping and Korean-Chinese by a mixture of the two. Koreans had the highest scores in psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting unfavorable coping strategies. The Korean-Chinese students seemed to lie intermediate between Koreans and Chinese in all three study areas, implying their chltural pluralism.