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Purpose: Proliferation marker Ki-67 is widely used in cancer prognosis prediction. We tried to investigate the role of Ki-67 as a prognostic factor in stomach cancer after surgery in this study. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 251 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer from 2010 to 2015. In pathologic examination, Ki-67 labeling index was defined as the percentage of Ki-67 antigen positive cells. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 for gastric cancer was evaluated. Disease-free survival (DFS) was assessed as a primary end-point. Results: The median follow-up period was 28.0 months. Thirty-one patients (12.4%) showed Ki-67 labeling index (LI) lower than 25%. Sixty-eight patients (26.6%) showed recurrence during follow-up period. Recurrence was associated with Ki- 67 LI level (≤25%, P = 0.016), and lymph node metastasis status (P = 0.002). High Ki-67 LI level (>25%) was also related to p53 positivity (P < 0.001) and poorly cohesive type (P = 0.002). The 3-year DFS was 69.4%. Low Ki-67 LI level (≤25%) was related with low DFS (47.6% vs. 72.6%, P = 0.016). T stage (P < 0.001), N stage (P = 0.006), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.010), and neuronal invasion (P = 0.001) also affected the DFS. In addition, T stage (P = 0.03) and Ki-67 LI (P = 0.035) were independent prognostic factors for DFS. In patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 239, 93.4%), low Ki-67 (≤25%) was a poor prognostic factor for DFS (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Low Ki-67 LI predicts high rate of progression and low DFS of stomach cancer. Ki-67 LI can be a predictive marker in resected stomach cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
Background : In recent years, gonorrhea has been panedemic and remains one of the most commom STDs in the world, especially in developing countries. Objective & Methods: For the detection of a more effective therapeutic regimen and assessing the prevalence of PPNG, we have been trying to study the patients who have visited the VD Clinic of Choong-Ku Public Health Center in Seoul since 1980 by means of the chromogenic cephalosporin method. Results: In 1996, 139 strains of N. gonorrhoeae were isolated, among which 53(39.0%) were PPNG. Conclusion: Our results suggests that after a peak of 74.3% in 1993, the prevalence of PPNG in Seoul is gradually declining.
Background/Aims: Hepatolithiasis or primary intrahepatic stones may be accompanied later by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. This cancerous lesion is frequently associated with atypical hyperplastic epithelium that was suspected of being precancerous. To investigate the Ki-ras or p53 mutation may play a role in carcinogenesis, and to determine whether atypical hyperplastic epithelium may be precancerous, this study was performed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas associated with hepatolithiasis. Methods: We examined 12 patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas associated with hepatolithiasis. Ki-ras point mutations were assessed by direct DNA sequencing. Expressions of p53 protein were immunohistochemically assessed. The overexpression of p53 and point mutation of Ki-ras were examined in normal, hyperplastic, atypical hyperplastic, and can- cerous tissues separately. Results: The expressions of p53 protein were detected in 4 (33%) of 12 cholangiocarcinomas and Ki-ras point mutations at codon 12 were found in 2 (17%) of 12 cholangiocarcinomas. In those two carcinoma cases which contained the mutant sequence of Ki-ras, the same point mutation from wild type GGT (glycine) to GAT (aspartic acid) was. found in the associated atypical hyperplastic epithelium. However, none of the normal and hyperplastic epithelium harbored Ki-ras or p53 mutations. Conclusions: The overexpression of p53 may play a part in the carcinogenesis of some intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas associated with hepatolithiasis, whereas the role of Ki-ras mutations in those cases is dubious. However, Ki-ras point mutation at codon 12 may be responsible for either cancer or atypical hyperplastic epithelium associated with hepatolithiasis in certain cases, suggesting atypical hyperplastic epithelium may give rise to carcinoma.
<P> e15686 </P><P> Background: Herein, we investigated the impact of pathologic differentiation (well or poorly differentiated) in metastatic grade 3 GEP-NEC patients receiving etoposide and platinum-based therapy. Simultaneously, we evaluated a more exact Ki67 index cut-off point to select patients with grade 3 GEP-NEC who might benefit from etoposide plus platinum (EP)-based therapy. Methods: Among patients pathologically diagnosed with metastatic grade 3 GEP-NECs at Samsung Medical Center between June 2013 and March 2016, 31 GEP-NEC patients receiving etoposide and platinum-based therapy were included in this study. Results: Primary sites included 13 foregut-derived GEP-NECs [stomach (n = 4), duodenum (n = 4), and pancreas (n = 5)] and 2 hindgut-derived GEP-NECs of the rectum. Sixteen unclassified GEP-NECs originated from 7 gall-bladder (GB), 6 liver and 3 unknown primary sites. According to pathologic differentiation, 14 patients had well differentiated and 17 had poorly differentiated grade 3 GEP-NECs. Between well differentiated and poorly differentiated grade 3 GEP-NECs, there was a significant difference in the distribution of Ki67 index. There was no significant difference of treatment efficacy between well and poorly differentiated grade 3 GEP-NECs (RR; 35.7% vs. 41.2%, p = 0.525). Tumor response to EP occurred in 5 of 7 patients with Ki67 > 60% and 7 of 24 with Ki67≤60%, which was significantly different (RR; 71.4% vs. 29.2%, P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in PFS according to pathologic differentiation (well differentiated vs. poorly differentiated) and Ki67 index ( > 60% vs ≤60%). Conclusions: Grade 3 GEP-NECs could be morphologically classified into well and poorly differentiated NETs. Additionally, among grade 3 GEP-NECs, there was a significant difference in ranges of Ki67 index between well and poorly differentiated NECs. Higher levels ( > 60%) of Ki67 index might be a predictive marker for efficacy of EP as a standard regimen in grade 3 GEP-NECs. </P>
<P><I>Conclusion:</I> Gankyrin seems to be a better biomarker for cholesteatoma compared with Ki-67. <I>Objective:</I> Gankyrin is an oncoprotein, and occurs in cancers but not in benign diseases. The goal of this study was to compare expression of gankyrin, p53, and a proliferation marker (Ki-67) in cholesteatoma and retroauricular skin (RAS), and to evaluate their significance as clinical parameters. <I>Methods:</I> The levels of expression of gankyrin, Ki-67, and p53 in 10 cholesteatoma and 10 paired samples of normal RAS were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. The results were compared with clinical profiles to investigate a correlation. <I>Results:</I> The expression of gankyrin, Ki-67, and p53 proteins was observed in both basal and suprabasal layers of cholesteatoma. The intensity of gankyrin expression was ‘positive’ in two cases (20%) and ‘strongly positive’ in eight cases (80%); p53 expression in the suprabasal layer was ‘positive’ in 70% of cases; and the Ki-67 staining was ‘focal’ in 80% of cases. In RAS, these proteins were expressed dominantly in the basal layer. Western blot analysis showed that the gankyrin band was more intense in cholesteatoma than in RAS for three of four cases (<I>p</I> < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the expression of gankyrin, Ki-67, and p53 according to clinical variables.</P>
본 연구에서는 이론화학 또는 분자모델링이라 불리는 계산화학을 기존에 연구된 촉매반응 실험결과를 해석하는 데 접목시켜 보았다. 온실효과의 주범인 이산화탄소를 에폭사이드와 반응을 통해 고정화하고 카보네이트를 생성하는 반응을 선택하였는데 이 반응은 활성화 에너지(55~59 kcal/mol)가 높아 촉매의 사용이 불가피하다. 많은 기존 연구들 중에 ZIF-90/ionic liquid immobilized ZIF-90 (IL-ZIF-90), polystyrene-supported quaternized ammonium salt, KI/KI-glycine, dimethylethanolamine (DMEA)를 촉매로 사용한 경우에 대해 반응의 각 단계를 계산하여 반응의 경로를 예측하고 단계별로 구한 에너지를 바탕으로 에너지도를 구성함으로써 실험결과를 열역학적으로 해석하였다. ZIF-90/IL-ZIF-90과 KI/KI-glycine의 경우는 실험적으로 후자들이 상대적으로 높은 수율을 얻었는데 계산 결과 활성화에너지가 낮아진 이유가 아니라 전자들의 경우 반응 중간체가 높은 에너지를 가져 반응물로 되돌아가는 역반응에 의해 정반응의 진행이 방해를 받은 것으로 밝혀졌다. DMEA를 촉매로 사용하였을 경우는 활성화 에너지를 ~42 kcal/mol로 낮춰줌으로써 금속이나 할로겐염 없이도 촉매의 활성이 잘 일어남을 증명하였다. 폴리스티렌(polystyrene)으로 지지된 quaternized 암모늄염 촉매의 경우 클러스터 가정을 사용하여 계산을 진행하였으며 암모늄염의 -NH기와 에폭사이드의 O 원자 사이의 상호작용의 가능성을 확인할 수 있는 반응경로를 제시하였다. In this study, a computational chemistry methodology called as molecular modeling was been applied to explain several experiment results mechanistically. The reaction chosen for this study was to remove carbon dioxide, known as a primary greenhouse gas, by an epoxide via the carbon dioxide fixation to produce carbonates. This reaction inherently needs the use of catalysts because it has a significantly high activation barrier (55~59 kcal/mol). Among various types of catalysts, we studied in zeolitic imidazolate framework 90 (ZIF-90)/ionic liquid immobilized ZIF-90 (IL-ZIF-90), polystyrene-supported quaternized ammonium salt, KI/KI-glycine, and dimethylethanolamine (DMEA). First, probable reaction pathways were proposed based on calculated energetics by computational chemistry. The energetics was then used for the thermodynamic interpretation on the activity of catalysts. In the case of ZIF-90/IL-ZIF-90 and KI/KI-glycine, IL-ZIF-90 and KI-glycine showed better yields compared to their counterparts. The calculation proposed interesting results that it is not from the lowering of activation energy but from the unstable intermediates of ZIF-90 and KI-glycine. For DMEA, the calculated activation energy was ~42 kcal/mol, much lower than that of the non-catalytic reaction. A possible reaction pathway was located to confirm the interaction between -NH group from ammonium and oxygen from epoxide for polystyrene-supported quaternized ammonium salt.
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연구목적 : 본 시험의 목적은 임상시험 시작전에 연구자들을 대상으로 PANSS Workshop을 통하여 PANSS, ESRS에 대한 국내에서의 표준화 작업을 구축하고 새로운 정신병 치료제인 리스페리돈의 효과와 안정성을 재확인하여 리스페리돈 사용에 대한 적정화를 이루는데 있다. 연구방법 : 1996년 4월부터 1996년 9월까지 국내 39개 대학병원 정신과에 입원중인 혹은 증상이 악화되어 입원하는 정신분열병 환자 377명을 대상으로 다시설 개방 연구를 시행하였다. 1주일간의 약물 배설기간을 가진후, 리스페리돈을 8주간 투여하였고, 기준점, 1주, 2주, 4주, 그리고 8주후에 평가되었다. 용량은 제1일에는 리스페리돈 1mg씩 1일 2회, 제2일에는 2mg씩 1일 2회, 제3∼7일에는 3mg씩 1일 2회 투여하였다. 이후 환자의 임상상태에 따라 임의로 증량할 수 있으며, 최대 일일 16mg을 초과하지 않도록 하였다. 추체외로 증상을 조절하기 위한 투약을 허용하였다. 임상증상 및 부작용의 평가는 PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), CGI(Clinical Global Impression) 그리고 ESRS(Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale)을 사용하였다. 연구결과 : 377명중 343명(91%)이 8주간의 연구를 완결하였다. 치료 종결시점인 8주후 PANSS 총점수가 20% 이상 호전된 경우를 약물 반응군으로 정의할때, 약물반응군은 81.3%였다. 리스페리돈에 반응하는 예측인자로는 발병연령, 이전의 입원 횟수, 유병기간이 관련 있었다. 리스페리돈은 1주후부터 PANSS양성, 음성, 및 일반정신병리 점수상에 유의한 호전을 보여 효과가 빨랐다. CGI의 경우도 기준점에 비해 1주후부터 유의한 감소를 나타내었다. ESRS의 경우, 파킨슨 평가점수는 기준점과 비교해 투여 1주, 2주, 4주후 유의하게 증가되었다가 8주후 기준점과 차이가 없었다. Dystonia 평가점수는 1주후만 유의한 증가를 보였으며, dyskinesia 평가점수는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 혈압, 맥박수의 생명징후 및 일반 혈액학 검사, 생화학적 검사, 심전도 검사에서 유의한 변화는 없었다. 결 론 : 이상의 다시설 개방 임상 연구를 통해 리스페리돈은 정신분열병 환자에서 양성증상뿐만 아니라 음성증상 및 전반적인 증상에도 효과적인 것으로 사료된다. 보다 명확한 평가를 위해서는 다른 항정신병약물과의 이중맹검 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각되며, 또한 장기적 치료에 대한 평가도 함께 이루어져야 하겠다. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of Korean schizophrenic patients. Method : This multicenter open study included 377 schizophrenic patients drawn from 39 university hospitals. After a wash-out period of 1 week, the schizophrenic patients were treated with risperidone for 8 weeks and evaluated at 5 points ; at baseline, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The dose was increased from 2mg/day(1mg twice daily) to 6mg/day(3mg twice daily) during the first week and adjusted to a maximum of 16mg/day over the next 7 weeks according to the patient's clinical response. Medication to control extrapyramidal symptoms was permitted. The psychiatric and neurological status of the patients was assessed by PANSS, CGI, and ESRS scales. Results : 343(91%) of 377 patients completed the 8-week trial period. Clinical improvement, as defined by a 20% or more reduction in total PANSS score at end point, was shown by 81.3% of patients. The predictors of response to risperidone were associated older age, shorter duration of illness, fewer previous hospitalization. Risperidone had rapid onset of action ; a significant decrease of the total PANSS and three PANSS factor(positive, negative, general), and CGI was already noticed at the end of first week. For the ESRS, parkinsonism rating scores were significantly increased until week 4 comparing with baseline. Dystonia rating scores were significantly increased until week 1, and dyskinesia rating scores were not significantly changed during the study. Laboratory parameters including vital sign, EKG, hematological, and biochemical values showed no significant changes during the trial. Conclusions : This study suggests that risperidone is generally safe and effective against both the positive and negative symptoms in our group of patients.
Yan, Bing Chun,Park, Joon Ha,Kim, Sung Koo,Choi, Jung Hoon,Lee, Choong Hyun,Yoo, Ki-Yeon,Kwon, Young-Geun,Kim, Young-Myeong,Kim, Jong-Dai,Won, Moo-Ho Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2012 Cellular and molecular neurobiology Vol.32 No.8
<P>In the present study, we investigated neuronal death/damage in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) and compared changes in some trophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in the CA1 between the adult and young gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Most of pyramidal neurons (89%) were damaged 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) in the adult; however, in the young, about 59% of pyramidal neurons were damaged 7 days after I-R. The immunoreactivity and levels of BDNF and VEGF, not GDNF, in the CA1 of the normal young were lower than those in the normal adult. Four days after I-R in the adult group, the immunoreactivity and levels of BDNF and VEGF were distinctively decreased, and the immunoreactivity and level of GDNF were increased. However, in the young group, all of their immunoreactivities and levels were much higher than those in the normal young group. From 7 days after I-R, all the immunoreactivities and levels were apparently decreased compared to those of the normal adult and young. In brief, we confirmed our recent finding: more delayed and less neuronal death occurred in the young following I-R, and we newly found that the immunoreactivities of trophic factors, such as BDNF, GDNF, and VEGF, in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 in the young gerbil were much higher than those in the adult gerbil 4 days after transient cerebral ischemia.</P>
This programme consisted of 8 menus, which are basic information, job worksheet, technique information, management analysis, file management, window management, help and conclusion. The major functions of this programme by menus classified as follows : 1. The basic information menu, which consisted of a lots of basic farm management information, can be easily accessible to get general farm status of S/W users and inputted data used as basic data for farm management analysis. 2. In worksheet menu, users can easily access to record and search of farm work planning, contents of work, agricultural materials and selling status. 3. In management achievement menu, lots of indexes which represent one years' management achievements are produced and can be compare this years' achievements with last years' ones. This programme Delphi5 and Object pascal programme were used for tools and languages. Also Paradox4 and BDE were used for DB and DB engine respectively.
The prevalence of PPNG among pretreated gonorrhea cases isolated at the STD clinic of Choong-Ku Public Health Center in Seoul has been studied and reported annually since 1981. In 1991, 123 strains of N.gonorrhoeae were isolated, among which 58(47.1%) were PPNG. In 1992, 98 starains of N.gonorrhoeae were isolated, among which 51(52.0%) were PPNG. In all, 109(49.3%) strains were found to be PPNG among 221 strains isolated between 1991-1992. The prevalence of PPNG in Seoul showed increased tendency till 1989, thereafter, it has been stationary or slightly decreasing.