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      • KCI등재

        Considering Kim’s Dual Identity in the Post-colonial Discourse

        Kim Hoyeol 한국외국어대학교 영미연구소 2015 영미연구 Vol.34 No.-

        It is becoming significant for individuals to find their own individual identities, as the today’s ongoing globalization has become much more complicated. A similar situation occurred when the British Empire influenced the world politically, economically, and culturally in the nineteenth century. In order to grasp human intrinsic identities, my thesis aims to use postcolonial theories to examine characters’ identities in a nineteenth-century British novel, Kipling’s Kim (1901). In Kipling’s Kim, I examine Kim, an Irish boy who experiences racial identity confusion by living in British India. Kim’s identity is ambiguous as his background is complicated: his parents are Irish, Kim was born in India, he was educated in a British school, and he participated in the Great Game. It would prove inadequate to try to see Kim’s identity based on binary oppositions, as Kim’s identity is neither British nor native Indian. Aside from simply being a person named Kim, Kim’s identity consists of being someone who has cultural hybridity. Through the main character of Kim, Kipling suggests that a Brit who understands the local Indian culture and society, as Kim does, would govern India with ease. Overall, Kipling’s Kim elaborates on why or how India should be governed by Britain and also seems to justify the British rule of India. In Kim, Kipling creates the main character of Kim, who has cultural hybridity and whose process of personal growth throughout the novel depicts Kipling’s ideas on how to govern India easily. In order to justify British rule in India, Kipling also depicts how British-Indian society was developed by Britain, also through the character of Kim. Looking into characters’ identities throughout nineteenth-century British novels helps modern readers who live in this complicated world to grasp human intrinsic identities.

      • KCI등재

        김억의 번역론 연구 : 근대문학의 장(場)과 번역자의 과제

        김진희(Kim Jin-hee) 한국시학회 2010 한국시학연구 Vol.- No.28

        In the beginning of the Korean modern literature since 1910's, Kim Eok played a crucial role as a translator for foreign literature and theory. During the acceptance of foreign literature, Kim realized the importance of translation and he is considered an intellectual who, as opposed to other contemporary translators, performed a bulk of translations from various countries. He was in the lead of balancing content and form, reforming he literary circles of translation in which there was abundance of arbitrary interpretations and content-concentrated translations. However, Kim Eok's translated works have been devalued by reason of erroneous and liberal translation of original works and inapt understanding. Researchers generally examine original and translated texts in tandem, after which they point out problems of the translations and attribute them to the translators' lack of capacity. The study of this paper presupposes that in-depth understanding of translated texts can be carried out only when the theory and practice of translation go in parallel. It argues that the negative evaluation for Kim's translations can be reconsidered through the study of theory. Kim argued for 'creative liberal translation,' and this paper investigates the formation and characteristics of this standpoint. This paper particularly looks into how symbolism, which Kim embraced, influenced Kim's view on translation. The acceptance of symbolism and the theory of translation are discussed in regard to the theory of translation maintained by Bejamin, a German literary critic who lived around the same time, in his book The Task of the Translator. The paper also examines Kim Eok's theory of translation in the sense that the act of translating foreign languages expands and deepens a mother tongue, which provides an opportunity to form and develop the self-identity. Kim's viewpoint on translation, which searches for the nature of poems, found modern poetic language for the Korean poetry, which was possible due to his exploration into language that represents this nature. Translating the western poems in the initial stage of modern literature implies admission and conveyance of heterogeneous culture, beyond simple written text, and creation of new culture. Kim Eok's translated works shows the creativity of cultural translation that is generated at the intersection of internal and external cultures. The literary world after 1920's, via translations, could realize the identity of modern literature by means of dialogue with others, i.e. dialogue between tradition and the West. Furthermore, it could have a foundation in creation of new culture. Along these lines of modern literature, Kim Eok's theory of translation presented ‘creative liberal translation’ and ‘creative translation’ as the task and direction for those who do the translation, including himself. It was an aspect of cultural action that Kim's theory evidently showed through translation.

      • KCI등재후보

        김균진의 신학과 신학적 공헌

        김명용 연세대학교 신과대학 2009 신학논단 Vol.56 No.-

        Kyun Jin Kim is one of very important modem theologians in Korea. He was president of Korean society of systematic theology and is now president of Korean society for Karl Barth's theology. He has served more than 30 years as professor of systematic theology at Yonsei university. He has made a big impact on Korean theology. I. Kyun Jin Kim' theological characteristics 1. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a theology of the kingdom of God. Although soul salvation plays a big role in Kim' theology, the kingdom of God is the core of his theology. He has written his doctrine of systematic theology in the light of the kingdom of God. It is the purpose of his theology to establish the kingdom of God on the earth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim' theology is a messianic theology. According to Kim, it is important to know that Christ was the messiah. Kim denies that the concept messiah is interpreted only spiritually. He can be a political messiah, although he doesn't want to rule the world with coercive power. He is the messiah who saves not only our souls, but also the world and the earth. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a holistic theology. He is not interested in a biased theology. He loves holistic theological view. According to Kim, Korean Min Jung theology lacks this holistic view, although it shows us very important field to establish the kingdom of God. Ⅱ. Kyun Jin Kim's theological contributions 1. Kyun Jin Kim's first theological contribution to Korean theology is his five books of systematic theology. He accomplished his doctrine of systematic theology. His five books of systematic theology can be valued in Korean like Church Dogmatics of Karl Barth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is very academic. His theology is a very high level theology which can compete with european theologies. It is important to know that european theologians should learn from his theology. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's third theological contribution is his translation of many books of J. Moltmann. He translated into Korean the crucified God, Trinity and Kingdom of God, the Way of Jesus Christ, Sprit of life, the coming God etc. 4. Kyun Jin Kim's forth theological contribution is his contribution to the theology of life. He develops a very high level theology of life in Korea.

      • 간단한 인증키 동의 프로토콜인 Kim-Kim-Hwang 방법의 안전성 고찰

        김윤정;김영신;황준 서울여자대학교 컴퓨터과학연구소 2004 정보기술논문지 Vol.2 No.-

        The Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange scheme can produce a common session key between the two communicators, but its problem is that it makes a man-in-the middle attack possible. To solve problems like these, several protocols have been put forward, and the Simple Authenticated Key Agreement (SAKA) Protocol is among them. Seo-Sweeney suggested a SAKA protocol initially and the protocol has weakness that a malicious 3rd party can masquerade a valid user. Tseng suggested another protocol that advances this problem but this protocol can still be attacked when the messages in key verification phase are identical. Ku-Wang suggested a new protocol that advances this problem. Kim-Kim-Hwang also suggested a new SAKA protocol and confirmed that their protocol has same safeness and better performance compared to the other SAKA protocols. In this paper, we reanalyze the safeness of SAKA protocols and find out that Kim-Kim-Hwang protocol has not only better performance but also better safeness. Diffie-Hellman의 키 인증 기법에 대한 제 3자 공격 (man-in-the middle attack)에 강한 간단한 인증키 동의 프로토콜인 SAKA (Simple Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol)가 제안된 바 있다. SAKA는 초기에 Seo-Sweeney에 의해 제안되었으며 이 방법은 침입자가 중간에 메시지를 가로채서 정당한 사용자임을 가장할 수 있는 단점이 있다. Tseng은 이 단점을 개선한 방안을 제안하였는데 이것도 키 확인 메시지 두 개의 값이 같을 경우 공격을 받을 수 있음이 밝혀졌다. Ku-Wang은 Tseng 방법의 문제점을 개선한 알고리즘을 제안하였다 그리고 Kim-Kim-Hwang은 새로운 SAKA 알고리즘을 제안하고 이것이 기존 SAKA 프로토콜들과 안전성은 동일하면서도 성능이 개선된 것임을 밝힌바 있다. 본 논문에서는 안전성 분석의 재고찰을 통하여, Kim-Kim-Hwang의 방법이 기존 SAKA 프로토콜들보다 성능면에서뿐만 아니라, 안전성 면에서도 우수함을 밝힌다.

      • KCI등재

        김은국 소설에 나타난 자서전적 요소

        김욱동 새한영어영문학회 2007 새한영어영문학 Vol.49 No.1

        This article attempts to explore some autobiographical elements in the three novels written by Richard E. Kim: The Martyred (1964), The Innocent (1968), and Lost Names (1970). A diaspora writer, Kim finds his subject matter in the major historical events of Korea. In his first internationally acclaimed novel, Kim draws much on some incidents in his own personal and family history; its protagonist the Reverend Shin, for example, is modelled on his maternal grandfather, the Reverend Hak Bong Lee, who were not only persecuted but also executed by the North Korean Communists. Kim's active involvement with the Korean Army as a liaison officer during the Korean War, as well as the military coup detat led by General Park in 1961, provide material for his second novel. In the third novel, Kim borrows the characters, incidents and settings not only from his family history but Korean history as well. His own childhood experiences under the Japanese colonial occupation and the strong nationalist sentiments of his father, play a pivotal role in the third and last novel. At his best, however, Kim explores universal themes that are far beyond geographical as well as temporal limitations.

      • KCI등재

        1886년 일본망명자 김옥균 유폐의 전말과 그 원인

        김성혜(Kim, Sung-hyae) 고려대학교 아세아문제연구소 2015 亞細亞硏究 Vol.58 No.3

        갑신정변에 실패한 김옥균 등이 일본으로 망명한 이후, 조선정부는 이들을 역적으로 간주하고 김옥균의 본국 송환을 위해 노력해 나갔다. 이러한 조선정부와 달리, 일본정부는 국사범을 보호해 일본의 인도적 행동을 드러내고 조선과의 협상카드로 김옥균을 이용하고자 했다. 따라서 번번이 일본국내법과 만국공법, 그리고 조일간 범죄인인도조약의 부재를 이유로 조선정부의 김옥균 송환 요구를 거절했다. 그렇지만 일본정부의 김옥균 비호 방침은 오사카사건 관련자들의 김옥균에 대한 회유 모색이 발각되고 조선정부가 장은규와 지운영을 파견해 김옥균을 암살하려 하면서 변화되었다. 이로 인해 김옥균의 일본체류가 일본국내 치안을 불안하게 만들고 외교 분쟁의 빌미를 제공한다는 사실이 표면화 되었기 때문이었다. 그러자 일본정부는 김옥균문제를 해결할 방안을 강구했는데, 공교롭게도 이때 스스로를 지키고자 한 김옥균의 행동이 일본정부를 더욱 자극했다. 일본정부는 1885년까지 망명 국사범의 보호라는 명분과 대조선 정책에서의 활용이라는 실리를 모두 얻고자 김옥균의 일본체류를 묵인했다. 그렇지만 점차 조?청 양국의 반복적인 송환 요구와 일본내 반정부세력과의 연계, 암살자들의 도일 등으로 김옥균을 내치외교의 걸림돌로 판단하게 되었다. 결국 일본정부는 김옥균의 공식적인 신변보호 요청을 계기로 추방을 결정해 오가사라와에 유폐시켰다고 하겠다. The Korean government had constantly promoted the repatriation of political asylum in Japan like Kim Ok-kyun(金玉均) who led a failed coup and fled to Japan. At that time, the Korean government recognized Kim was a threat to the regime and made the feelings of the people disturb. However, the Japanese government opposed the Korean government for they permitted Kim’s residence in Japan. By the way, the Japanese government’s policy had changed because of the discovery of the Osaka plot(大阪事件) with Kim Ok-kyun and an assassin dispatched by the Korean government. The Japanese government had to prevent a coup by the opposition with Kim Ok-kyun or the assassins would kill Kim in Japan. Therefore, the Japanese government had decided on Kim’s deportation from Japan because of the obstacles in diplomacy and sedition. Then Kim had consulted his personal problems with an Englishman belonging to the judiciary of Japan and moved to a hostel of France concession in Yokohama, leaving Tokyo. Kim then sued Ji un-yeong(池運永) in court. In addition, Kim asked for personal protection and asylum in Russia from the Speyer of Russian consul in Japan. However, Kim Ok-kyun’s formal request for personal protection antagonized the Japanese government and made his expulsion one of force. As a result, Kim Ok-kyun was confined to Ogasawara(小笠原) Island.

      • 1930년대 김광주의 상해 체험과 아나키즘 인식

        김명섭 ( Myung Seob Kim ) 단국사학회 2016 史學志 Vol.52 No.-

        본 논문은 소설가 김광주의 회고를 통해 1930년대의 상해 한인사회에 대해 살펴보았다. 김광주는 1929년 상해로 이주한 이래 중일전쟁이 일어난 1937년 피신까지 약 10년 동안 상해 한인사회의 다양한 인물들을 만나고 항일운동과 함께 문화 활동을 펼쳤다. 이를 통해 1930년대 상해에서의 김광주는 영화계의 젊은 신진 감독을 비롯해 연극계의 다양한 문화예술가들과 교유하였음을 알 수 있다. ``일제의 지배가 싫은 젊은 세대``인 자유로운 문화예술가들과의 교류와 ``보헤미안극사`` 활동을 통해 그는 시, 꽁트, 연극, 영화 등에서 다양한 체험을 하게 되었다. 물론 그 바탕에는 1930년대 상해 한인 민족운동을 이끌고 있던 김구·안창호·김두봉 등 지도자들 후원이 컸다. 더욱이 남화연맹에서 활동한 아나키스트들과의 교류는 그의 항일 민족정서와 함께 자유정신을 키우는데 큰 영향을 끼쳤다. 특히 해방이후 상해체험을 회상하는 그의 작품의 대부분이 나라를 위해 싸우다 죽거나 방랑생활을 하다 귀국하지 못한 동지들에 대한 그리움이 한 축을 이루고 있다는 점에서, 상해체험이 그의 작품 활동에 미친 영향은 매우 컸다. This paper discussed the Korean community in China Shanghai in the 1930s by the novelist Kim Gwang-ju`s recalls. Kim Gwang-ju is a refuge for about 10 years until the 1937 war took place while since moved to Shanghai in 1929 to meet the various figures of the Korean community in Shanghai unfolded cultural activities with the anti-Japanese movement. Even though his shanghai settlement and time of refuge records are seem to inaccurate, but it is a relatively considered as a objective and analytic memoir of his experience. Through this we can know that Kim Gwang-ju associated with the young director of movies, including the various cultural artists of theatrical world in 1930s Shanghai. Through the interchange with "the young generation of unconstrained cultural artists who do not want the Japanese domination" and the activity of "Bohemian Theater Company", he had various experience in poem, conte, play and movie. Of course, theses are based on the great support of leaders such as Kim-Gu, Ahn-Changho and Kim Du-bong who led the Korean Independent Movement in Shanghai. Furthermore, the interchange with anarchists who were active in the ``Namhwa-Federation`` has had a big impact to raise his nationalistic emotion and the spirit of freedom. From the perspective of the Korean modern national movement, the research of Kim Gwang-ju`s life first, additional research materials for his family, especially elder brother Kim Dong-joo is very necessary. Kim Dong-joo is a secret help sponsor of activities of the Anti-Japanese independence fighters in Manchuria, as well as a important person who connected with an agents of a Provisional Government. His life was believed to be the future of course, also we need to study in depth the role and position of the personal hospital. Secondly, it is necessary to examine the local shelter, etc. Activity of Kim Gwang-ju activities in Shanghai. In other words, while Kim Gwang-ju live a long time is needed for local excavations and historical research, such as the Activity where many literary works written by the school and toughness. This is expected to find signs of shanghai, including Kim Gwang-ju Korean culture, artists in the 1930s who exchanges with him.

      • KCI등재

        견고한 고독의 세계 : Eine vergleichende Studie u¨ber Rilke und Hyon-seung Kim 릴케와 김현승

        김재혁 한국독어독문학회 2002 獨逸文學 Vol.84 No.1

        Der koreanische Dichter Hyon-seung Kim bekennt sich zu einem erheblichen Einfluß Rilkes auf seine Weltanschauung, insbesondere wegen Rilkes ernsthafter Haltung gegenu¨ber Leben und Kunst. In diesem Zusammenhang steht Kim unter dem starken Einfluß von Rilkes fru¨hen Werken wie Das Stunden-Buch und Das Buch der Bilder. Diese Werke behandeln wichtige Themen, die auch bei Kim ihren Niederschlag finden, das heißt Gott, Einsamkeit und Dichtung. Die Haltung des lyrischen Ichs bei Kim ist der Geba¨rde des lyrischen Ichs in Das Stunden-Buch sehr a¨hnlich. Der russische Mo¨nch in Rilkes Werk spricht aufs Knie fallend vor Gott Gebete, malt Ikonen und schreibt daru¨ber hinaus Verse. Diese fromme Haltung pra¨gt auch die des lyrischen Ich bei Kim. Ferner besteht große A¨hnlichkeit zwischen beiden Dichtern darin, dass die beiden in ihrer fru¨hen Zeit durch Gebet, also aus der Sehnsucht nach Gott, Verse schaffen. Man kann niemals bei Kim von der Einsamkeit im Herbst als literarischer Kulisse sprechen, ohne sich as Rilkes 「Herbsttag」zu erinnem. Trotzdem konnte Kim abda¨mmend gegen Rilkes Einfluß seine eigene Welt dadurch bewahren, dass er an der ihm eigentu¨mlichen Einsamkeit festha¨lt. Sein literarischer Verdienst findet sich dort, wo er mit Hilfe der Dinge und Ausdru¨cke solider Art seine existentielle Einsamkeit zu einem reinen poetischen Thema hat reifen lassen. Kims fester Glaube an die reine Einsamkeit entsprang seit Mitte der 1960er Jahre aus dem Mißtrauen gegen die christliche Gottheit und die fro¨mmelnden Christen. Unter diesen Umsta¨nden hatte er keinen anderen Weg, als nur auf das selbsta¨ndige Ich angewiesen zu sein. Zugleich hat er, wie seine Gedichte 「Absolute Einsamkeit」 und 「Solide Einsamkeit」zeigen, seine Einsamkeit positiv verarbeitet und ihr so einen Sin gegebenletzten Endes zu einer Ewigkeit, anders als Rilke, der auf jeden Fall seine Einsamkeit nur als Vorraussetzung fu¨r das Dichten betrachtet hat. Gerade hier hebt sich die originelle Seite der Einsamkeit von Kim gegen Rilke ab. In Hinsicht der sprachlichen Behandlung grenzen Kims Gedichte der absoluten Einsamkeit an Rilkes Dinggedichte in Neue Gedichte . Dieses Resultat ergibt sich daher, dass Kim seine dichterische Sprache wie ein Steinmetz meißelt, so dass er seine bloße Idee mit den soliden Ausdru¨cken bekleidet. Und dass Kim auf der Suche nach poetisch solider Gestaltung immer wieder auf sprachliche Pra¨chtigkeit und gefu¨hlvolles Pathos verzichtet hat, also dass er nach der "Poetischen Nu¨chternheit" gestrebt hat, bringt ihn noch mehr in die Na¨ch von Rilkes Dinggedichten. Aber Kim kehrte endgu¨ltig zu dem christlichen zuru¨ck, nachdem er Bluthochdruck erlitten hatte. Nach diesem Zwischenfall bereute er, dass er bisher - Gott aus dem Blick verlierend - zu dichterisch geneigt war. Natu¨rlich kann man auch in der literarischen Phase, wo er nur die absolute Einsamkeit verfolgt hatte, eine grundlegende Haltung mit Pra¨gung durch das christliche Ethos finden, Dies bedeutet, dass zu ihm die Einsamkeit eine Art Religion war. Also war seine Einsamkeit ein Prozess des christlichen Selbsterwachens. Wenn man die Tatsache in Betracht zieht, dass fu¨r ihn der Prozess der Einsamkeit eine Forsetzung des Dichtens war, so scheint seine Einamkeit ihr eigenes literarisches Dasein gefu¨hrt, moderne menschliche Bedingungen untersucht, und dadurch fu¨hlten sie sich menschlich gesteigert.

      • KCI등재

        무용 상해 및 재발 예방을 위한 Kim's Body conditioning Program

        김양근(Yang Keun Kim) 한국무용과학회 2009 한국무용과학회지 Vol.18 No.-

        본 연구의 목적은 상해 경험이 있는 무용수가 Kim's body conditioning program 후 무용동작 수행 시 무용수의 신체 움직임 느낌을 통해 프로그램의 효과를 규명하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 목적에 따라 연구대상자들은 2007년 ADF(America Dance Festival)에 참석한 무용수들 중 Kim's body conditioning program 수업에 참석한 60명 중 6주간 수업에 결석하지 않은 31명을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하였다. 연구 대상자들의 평균 연령은 22.06(±1.590)이며, 무용경력은 3년 미만이 54.8%로, 3년 이상이 38.7%이다. 조사 설문 내용은 무용전문가 3명과 의학전문가 1명, 설문조사 전문가 1명 등 5명으로 구성되어 설문조사 문항을 위해 협의, 의논하여 문항들을 선택하였으며, 자료 분석 방법으로는 기술통계의 빈도분석과 X2 분석 방법이 사용되었으며, 분석결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 전체적인 움직임에 대해 Kim's body conditioning program 수행 후 무용동작 수행 시 보다 편안함을 느낄 수 있으며, 원활하게 움직일 수 있다는 것으로 응답하였다. 둘째, 무용의 기본 동작에 대해 기본 브러쉬(brush) 동작, 그랑 바뜨망(grands battements) 동작, 데벨로뻬 (develope) 동작, 쁠리에 (plie) 동작, 아라베스크(arabesque) 동작에서 움직임 수행 시 편안함을 느꼈으며, 관련된 근육들에 움직임에서 원활하게 움직일 수 있었다고 응답하였다. 셋째, 무용수들의 Kim's body conditioning program 평가에서 이 프로그램은 전체적인 근력 및 하지의 유연성을 강화할 수 있다고 응답하였으며, 무용 동작 수행 시 움직임에 도움을 줄 수 있는 것으로 무용수들에게 도움이 된다고 응답하였다. 또한 이 프로그램이 무용수들뿐만 아니라 비전공자들에게도 필요한 프로그램이 될 수 있다고 응답하였다. 그러나 무용 표현 기술적인 측면에서는 높은 동의를 얻지 못했다. 이와 같은 결론을 통해 Kim's body conditioning program이 상해를 가진 무용수들에게 재활의 프로그램 중 하나로 제시될 수 있다. The purpose of this study was investigating about previously injured dancers' execution of movements and comfortableness after Kim's body conditioning program. 31 participants joined the six weeks of ADF of the year 2007 after undergoing Kim's body conditioning program. Contents of research were examined by three dance expertise, one medical doctor, and one research expertise. Frequency of descriptive statistics and X2 were used to analyze the collected data. The results were as follows. First, the 31 participants answered they were comfortable executing their movements and greater control over their muscle movements after Kim" body conditioning program. Second, they responded that they could comfortably execute their basic movements then previous to participating in Kim's body conditioning program and move their muscles more readily. Third, after undergoing Kim's body conditioning program, the participants answered Kim's body conditioning program can improve muscular power, become more flexibleness and help execution of movements. In addition, Kim's body conditioning program can help people who are not dance major. Kim's body conditioning program, however, cannot improve executing difficult dance movements. In conclusion, Kim's body conditioning program could be a rehabilitation program for previously injured dancers.

      • KCI등재

        김기림 시론에서의 모더니티와 역사성의 문제

        김예리(Kim Ye-rhee) 한국현대문학회 2010 한국현대문학연구 Vol.0 No.31

        이 글은 김기림 시학에서 ‘시의 회화성’이라는 말로 표현되는 이미지의 강조가 정태적인 이미지가 아닌 시대의 현실을 포착하고 이를 통해 문명 비판의 계기를 마련하는 단초였다는 점을 밝히고자 했다. 개별적인 정서로서의 리듬이 아니라 상징적 주체의 눈을 통해 그려지는 대상-세계의 이미지로의 전환은 상상적인 시에서 구상적인 시로의 전환이라고 할 수 있다. 김기림은 보편적 언어로 구성되는 시만이 비판되고 감상될 수 있다고 여겼으며, 이러한 예술의 보편성 속에서 비로소 현실 비판의 가능성이 열리게 된다. 따라서 김기림이 현대시의 특질로 들고 있는 ‘시의 회화성’으로 구현되는 이미지가 문자 그대로 단순히 그림 같은 아름다운 이미지로 간주하거나, 활자의 배열이나 글자의 크기와 같은 인쇄 미학적인 시각으로만 ‘시의 회화성’의 문제에 접근해서는 안 되며, 시인주체의 현실의 인식문제와 함께 고려되어야 하는 것이다. 김기림에게 이미지란 시간성이 내포된 동력적이고 움직이는 이미지라고 할 수 있다. 미래파적 감수성으로 설명되곤 했던 이러한 이미지는 오히려 에즈라파운드 등의 ‘소용돌이파’의 이미지와 유사하다. 에즈라 파운드는 미래파처럼 직선으로 뻗어나가는 시간 이미지 대신 복합적이고 다층적인 이미지를 중첩함으로써 동적인 에너지가 풍부한 이미지를 생산하고자 했다. 김기림 역시 이미지의 역동성을 시어의 배열이나 결합이라는 언어구조 속에서 포착하려고 한다. 이러한 병치의 기법은 수사학에서 알레고리 기법과 유사하다. 이러한 병치로서의 알레고리 이미지는 ‘시공간의 동존성’이라는 말로 설명되는 초현실주의 기법이 생산하는 이미지와도 연관성을 갖는다. 시공간의 동존성이나 비약과 같은 방식으로 현실 시간의 문법적 질서를 비웃는 초현실주의적 방법론은 현실이지만 근대적 이성의 문법에 익숙한 이들에게는 보이지 않는 현실의 무의식을 이미지화할 수 있다고 김기림은 생각했다. 이렇게 평범한 눈으로는 볼 수 없는 세계를 이미지로 드러내는 것이 새로운 가치 창조자로서의 시인의 임무로 여겼다. 즉, 의식과 무의식, 주관과 객관, 과거와 현재와 미래, 현실과 꿈의 모든 경계를 와해하는 초현실주의적 이미지는 김기림에게 세계의 고정된 질서를 파괴하고 억압된 의식의 빈곤한 상상력을 자극시켜 세계의 역사적 흐름의 방향을 뒤흔들어 놓는 혁명적인 이미지로 간주되었던 것이다. 그런데 이런 역사적 혁명성을 상실할 때, 초현실주의는 센티멘탈리즘과 구분되지 않는다. 즉, 김기림의 센티멘탈리즘의 비판은 단순히 애상적인 정조에 있지 않았다. 그의 센티멘탈리즘 비판의 핵심은 현재를 보지 못하는 과거 회귀적인 태도에 있었다. 현재 시간의 상실감을 퇴행적 시간으로 채우려는 소극적이고 부정적인 노스탤지어야말로 김기림이 비판하는 핵심이었다. 현재의 상실의 체험을 서늘하게 인지하고 있는 멜랑콜리적 태도와는 구별해야할 필요성이 있다. 김기림에게 미래라는 시간은 언제나 현재를 ‘통해서만’ 인식될 수 있는 것이며, 현재를 무시한 미래 진보적 태도는 아니었다는 점을 놓쳐서는 안 된다. 김기림에게 미래로 진보한다는 것은 현재의 시대를 예각적인 각도를 통해서 객관적이고 과학적인 태도에 의한 정확한 판단을 통해서만 가능한 것이었기 때문이다. When Kim Kirim emphasizes the workings of image or painterliness of poem in his poetics, his focus is not on the statics of images. This paper argues that Kim's concept of image provides him with the base for his own apprehension of the reality and critiques of civilization. His concept of image epitomizes the transition from the rhythm as the expression of individual emotions to the image of objective world which is essentially visualized through the symbolic subject. This transition can be interpreted as the transition from imaginary poem to figurative poem Kim thinks that the only poem that we can appreciate is the poem that is written in the universal language and the universality realized in this kind of poem opens the possibility to critique the reality. The image realized through the painterliness of poem, which Kim defines as characteristic of modem poem, cannot be regarded as the pictorial beautiful image. It also cannot be limited to typographic techniques, such as unusual arrays of types or irregular size of letters. It has to be considered with the issue of poet-subject's perception of reality. For Kim, image is the dynamic and moving image which implies temporality. This image, that has been explained in tandem with the futuristic sensitivity, is rather related to the concept of image in vorticism, whose primary figure was Ezra Pound. Instead of futurists' linear temporal images, Pound attempted to produce the image charged with the dynamic energy through reiteration of complex and multi-layered images. Kim also tries to grasp the dynamics of images in structure of language, which is expressed through arrangement and combination of poetic words. This technique of arrangement is similar to allegory in rhetoric. This allegoric image as arrangement is related to surrealistic image characterized as the simultaneity of time-space. From Kim's point of view, the surrealist methods of the simultaneity of time-space or jump of logic, with which one can ridicule the grammar of temporality in the reality, are strategies to imagine the unconscious of the reality that is blocked from the eyes of modem form of reason. It is poet's calling to reveal the world that is blocked from these ordinary eyes. The surrealist image, that blurs the borderlines between the conscious and the unconscious, subject and object, past, present, and future, reality and dream, is the image of revolution. This revolution implies the turnabout of the world history through destructing the fixed order of the given world and giving an impetus to poor imagination of the repressed consciousness. If surrealism loses this revolutionary character, it will not be distinguished from sentimentalism When Kim critiques sentimentalism, his focus was on rather regressive attitude than elegiac tone of poem. In other words, Kim criticizes the attitude to fill in the sense of loss in the present with the regressive time. He defines this attitude as the passive and negative nostalgia. This needs to be discerned from the melancholic attitude with which one can face the reality of loss. To appreciate the significance of Kim's poetics, it is necessary to conceive the time of future can be perceived only through the present. His futuristic attitude always accompanies with the precise conception of the present. For Kim, the task to progress to the future can be achieved only through the precise judgement of the present world with objective and scientific attitude.

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