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Background/Aims: Hepatolithiasis or primary intrahepatic stones may be accompanied later by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. This cancerous lesion is frequently associated with atypical hyperplastic epithelium that was suspected of being precancerous. To investigate the Ki-ras or p53 mutation may play a role in carcinogenesis, and to determine whether atypical hyperplastic epithelium may be precancerous, this study was performed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas associated with hepatolithiasis. Methods: We examined 12 patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas associated with hepatolithiasis. Ki-ras point mutations were assessed by direct DNA sequencing. Expressions of p53 protein were immunohistochemically assessed. The overexpression of p53 and point mutation of Ki-ras were examined in normal, hyperplastic, atypical hyperplastic, and can- cerous tissues separately. Results: The expressions of p53 protein were detected in 4 (33%) of 12 cholangiocarcinomas and Ki-ras point mutations at codon 12 were found in 2 (17%) of 12 cholangiocarcinomas. In those two carcinoma cases which contained the mutant sequence of Ki-ras, the same point mutation from wild type GGT (glycine) to GAT (aspartic acid) was. found in the associated atypical hyperplastic epithelium. However, none of the normal and hyperplastic epithelium harbored Ki-ras or p53 mutations. Conclusions: The overexpression of p53 may play a part in the carcinogenesis of some intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas associated with hepatolithiasis, whereas the role of Ki-ras mutations in those cases is dubious. However, Ki-ras point mutation at codon 12 may be responsible for either cancer or atypical hyperplastic epithelium associated with hepatolithiasis in certain cases, suggesting atypical hyperplastic epithelium may give rise to carcinoma.
Crude synaptic membrane fractions from the frontal cortex, striatum, brain stem and whole brain of rat were prepared to assay the effects of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on [³H]DAGO bindings of the opioid μ-receptors. Scatchard plots analysis binding data demonstrated that GTS (0.1 mg/ml) decreased the affinity of specific [³H]DAGO bindings without changes in Bmax in the frontal cortex and striatum. On the other hand, GTS did not affect the [³H]DAGO bindings in the brain stem and whole brain. These results suggest that the regulation of [³H]DAGO bindings by GTS may play roles in the change of the pharmacological responses of μ-opioids.
It is known that organic sludge is generated in large quantities due to the need for proper treatment of waste, and that it is very difficult to treat and recycle. In this research, vermi-cast and liquid fertilizer, which are soil conditioners, were produced using organic waste as raw materials in order to utilize organic waste. Two kinds of the soil conditioners produced were treated with cucumber, tomato on vermi-cast and liquid fertilizer, and the growth experiment and soil microbe density survey were conducted. In the case of liquid fertilizer, a dilution concentration of 500 to 1000 times was appropriate for cucumber crops. Leaf length and leaf width improved by about 16 %. The growth of tomato crops was not much different. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria showed a high density distribution about 500 to 1,000 times in the soil of the liquid fertilizer treatment area , and about twice as high in the area of dilution that. As a result of the density survey of pathogenic microorganisms, it was found that pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella do not affect the soil. Also, there was almost no difference in growth between untreated control port and treatment port in cucumber crops. During vermi-cast treatment, the density change of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in the soil showed a high density distribution of about 2 to 5 times or more from 600 ∼ 1,000 kg/1000 ㎡ treated soils. Also, pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella were found not to affect the soil. The organic waste fertilizer treatment of vermi-cast and liquid fertilizer is judged to have sufficient value as an advanced fertilizer by increasing the density of microorganisms in the soil more than twice.