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<P>A polymelamine (p-Mel) film on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode (p-Mel@ERGO/GC) was designed using a potentiodynamic method for the simultaneous and selective determination of tetracycline (TET) in the presence of a major interference, uric acid (UA). The modified surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The surface coverage of the modified electrode was found to be 3.98 x 10(-11) mol cm(-2). The modified p-Mel@ERGO/GC electrode not only enhanced the oxidation currents of the TET and UA, but also shifted their oxidation potential toward a less positive direction compared to the bare GC, GO/GC, ERGO/GC, and p-Mel/GC electrodes. The modified electrode was used effectively for the selective determination of TET in the presence of a 50-fold excess of UA. Differential pulse voltammetry revealed a detection limit of 5 mu M TET. The present modified electrode can be applied to the simultaneous determination of TET and UA in human urine samples. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the simultaneous determination of TET and UA. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
Among the major bacterial secretions, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are significant and highly functional. The proteins and other biomolecules identified within OMVs provide new insights into the possible functions of OMVs in bacteria. OMVs are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, toxins and virulence factors that play a critical role in bacteria-host interactions. In this review, we discuss some proteins with multifunctional features from bacterial OMVs and their role involving the mechanisms of bacterial survival and defence. Proteins with moonlighting activities in OMVs are discussed based on their functions in bacteria. OMVs harbour many other proteins that are important, such as proteins involved in virulence, defence, and competition. Overall, OMVs are a power-packed aid for bacteria, harbouring many defensive and moonlighting proteins and acting as a survival kit in case of an emergency or as a defence weapon. In summary, OMVs can be defined as bug-out bags for bacterial defence and, therefore, survival.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by spray deposition technique. Fluorine concentration dependent structural, optical and electrical properties of the films are reported. X-ray diffraction study confirms the growth of polycrystalline cubic CdO films. Optical absorption analysis of the films shows increase of optical band gap energy from 2.45 to 2.65 eV for the increase of fluorine concentration. The transparency of the films is found to be ≥ 80% and also it is increased with the fluorine concentration. Hall-Effect measurement of the films shows resistivity change between 2.5 × 10<SUP>−4</SUP> and 4.5 × 10<SUP>−4</SUP> Ω cm and carrier concentration in the range of 4 × 10<SUP>15</SUP> cm<SUP>−3</SUP> to 7 × cm<SUP>−3</SUP> depending on doping concentration. Photoresponse study of the fabricated CdO:F/p-Si heterostructure diode is also studied and reported.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Fluorine doped CdO thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis method. </LI> <LI> Fluorine concentration dependent structural, optical and electrical properties studied. </LI> <LI> First time fabrication of heterojunction n-CdO:F/CdO diode and its photoresponse study reported. </LI> </UL> </P>
Flexible and transparent electrodes based on in situ polymerization of PANi nanowires on nylon nanofiber-reinforced cellulose acetate thin film substrates were prepared in this study. The nylon nanofibers were electrospun followed by infiltration with cellulose acetate to get a highly transparent substrate. Then the PANi nanowires were grown uniformly on the transparent substrate by an in situ polymerization technique. The resulting thin films showed transparency maximum of 82% and sheet resistivity as low as 188 ohm/sq and a specific capacitance of 400 F/g.
Poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) is of particular interest, since it is highly soluble in water, biocompatible, easy to process, and optically transparent. However, in order to use in the area of biomedical application, the stability of PVA should be controlled in aqueous media, such as by crosslinking either chemically or physically. Electrospinning is a versatile technique for production of fibers having diameter ranging from sub-micro-to nano-meter with high surface area. In this study, we attempt to introduce new PVA/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) composite hydrogel nanofibers incorporating polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) prepared by electrospinning followed by simple thermal-treatment.
Holstein is one among the dairy cattle which provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds. Lack of high-accuracy, reliable methods for early detection of cattle pregnancy reduces overall productivity and constitutes a high economic burden to the dairy industry. The circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes could provide information and serve as potential biomarkers for livestock health and disease. However, the complexity of miRNA in response to cattle early pregnancy remains unknown. Hence, we collected blood samples of three healthy dairy cows of normal and 30 days of pregnancy, in order to further characterize the miRNA transcriptome profile. A high-throughput RNA-Seq approach detected 794 known and 2154 novel circulating miRNAs in six libraries. A total of 29 miRNAs in the 30 days of pregnancy group showed significant differences compared to the normal group. Further, bta-miR-450b, bta-miR-146b, bta-miR-26b and bta-miR-27b were upregulated which shown to be involved in preeclampsia, immune response and mammary gland development. GO enrichment analysis showed these target genes were involved in the metabolic process, signal transducer activity, and membrane etc., while KEGG analysis showed that these genes were enriched in membrane trafficking, chromosome and associated proteins, exosome and G protein-coupled receptors pathways. These results provide an experimental basis to reveal the potential role of miRNAs as biomarkers in early diagnosis of pregnancy and other molecular functions.
and distribution of seed storage proteins are responsible for the quality of soybean and seed development. Among storage proteins, lipoxygenase isoforms (Mw. ~97 kDa) play a major role in the distinct bean flavor during storage. In this study, we compared three soybean elite cultivars viz., JIMPUM, JINPUM2 and TANMI2 (lipoxygenase null mutants, originated from Japan) along with WILLIAMS 82 (control plant, USA) to determine the seed storage proteins by proteomic approach. Phenotype of the mature seeds showed the variation in seed coat, color and appearance. Total seed proteins of the above cultivars were subjected to two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The resulted protein profiling showed the intensity of the different quantitative spots varied among the four cultivars. We are now investigating by using other proteomic tool and the resulted difference in proteins may helpful in quality improvement or the functional roles in the seed development.
<P>Crop production and productivity must be increased to provide a balanced diet for the global population. The entire genome sequences of crop species allow the elucidation of genes that regulate important traits related to the final crop seed yield, which frequently depends mainly on seed size. Seed size is a major factor that controls seed quantity and it is strongly affected by various biotic, abiotic and genetic factors. Epigenetic marks in the genome and phytohormones are also important factors affecting seed growth and development. Several genes are known to be involved in the control of seed size, but their interaction and functional characterization have yet to be resolved. In this review, we discuss the different factors that govern seed size in cereal crops and <I>Arabidopsis</I>.</P>