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Lee, Keon Soo.,1999. Sicak-ha-ta as an Ergative Verb. Linguistics 7-2, 77-100. The Unaccusative Hypothesis (Perlmutter & Postal (1984)) and the Universal Alignment Hypothesis (Perlmutter & Postal (1984)) together require that the English verb begin and the Korean verb sicak-ha-ta take the same relational valency. Further, the Little Alignment Hypothesis (Rosen (1984)) requires that the alignment remain invariant for all clauses. However, Bak (1984) claims that, unlike begin, sunk-ha-ta is used transitively in complex clauses whereas ergatively in complex clauses. This paper argues that both begin and sicak-ha-ta respect the above three universal hypotheses, by showing that those two verbs maintain ergativity for all clauses. (Kyung Hee University)
This research is interesting in knowing how teachers negotiate social ideologies in inclusive classrooms. It is important to know what kinds of educational environments or materials cause students labeled with autism to be set aside as disabled by medical professionals. The teachers'interpretations that inform this work reject the concept of deficiency in autism. This analysis takes a social constructionist viewpoint, cross-cultural studies, medicalized perspective and deficit model on disability. this study reviewed a cross-cultural study of autism, related to the interpretation of communicative and social behaviors. We could get understanding how teachers conceptualize autism in South Korea and in America, what issues they have in their classrooms, and how they communicate with children with autism. The analogy of cross-cultural miscommunication, like the social and cultural models of disability, provides a means of looking at the behaviors of children labeled with autism in terms of social or cultural differences instead of deficiencies or lack, involving teachers'perceptions within a culture, as well as across cultures. 본 연구는 한국과 미국의 사회문화적 환경에서 자폐유․ㆍ아동을 바라보는 시각의 차를 문헌으로 분석하고자 하였다. 분석방법은 크게 사회적 구조, 비교문화연구, 의학적모델, 경쟁모델, 한, 미문헌조사의 5가지로 나누어 분석하였다. 연구의 결과 한국과 미국의 교사들은 의학적 모델을 일반적 자폐행동 해석의 중요사안으로 생각하였다. 그러나 자폐의 특징 중 하나인 사회적 행동은 보편적으로 사회적 규준이나 문화, 사회적 기대를 바탕으로 해석하였으며 특히 교육에 있어서는 교육의 내용이나 지식과 경험, 사회문화적 배경을 기초로 하였기 때문에 자폐의 행동은 의학적 모델로서 자폐를 보는 시각과는 달리 양국 간에 차이가 있었다. 이에 자폐의 사회적 행동을 바라보는 시각에 대해서는 의학적 모델이 아닌 사회적 맥락에서 자폐를 보아야 할 필요가 있다.
시인으로서 W. B. 예이츠(William Butler Yeats)의 주된 관심사는 현실과 이상, 자아와 반자아, 육체와 영혼 등 서로 대립적인 요소들 사이의 갈등과 그것을 통한 양자의 조화이다. 이러한 조화의 상태는 예이츠의 시적ㆍ정신적 성숙도와 더불어 그의 의식 속에서 치열하게 대립되는 갈등을 극복함으로써 후기시에 이르러 성취된다. 예이츠의 초기시는 주로 현실세계와 이상세계 사이의 갈등을 보여준다. 시인은 슬픔으로 가득 찬 현세적 삶의 유한성을 인식하고 요정의 나라로 대변되는 영원한 이상세계로의 도피를 추구한다. 그러나 이러한 시도는 그가 이상으로 삼은 영원한 요정의 나라가 현실과 조화를 이루지 못함으로써 좌절된다. 그는 무작정 현실을 도피하기 위해 백일몽과 환상의 세계로 날아간 것이 아니라, 그 세계와의 균형을 원했다. 그 세계는 현실적 갈등과 고뇌가 없는 영원한 미와 꿈의 세계일지라도, 현실과는 너무도 유리된 세계이기 때문에 시인은 두 세계 사이에서 갈등만 느낀 채 현실로 돌아온다. 결국 예이츠는 현실을 인간 삶의 조건으로 인식하고 받아들인 것이다. 그러므로 시인의 최종 목적인 조화에 대한 가능성이 감지된다. 본 논문에서는 『어쉰의 방랑』( The Wandering of Oisin (1889))에서부터 『십자로』( Crossways (1889)), 『장미』(The Rose (1893)), 그리고 『갈대 밭 속의 바람』( The Wind Among the Reeds (1899))에 이르기까지 예이츠의 초기시를 중심으로 현실과 이상이라는 대립적인 요소들이 어떤 모습으로 드러나 조화를 향해 나아가는지를 다룬다. Yu, Keon-Sang. 2008. A Study of Yeats's Early Poetry : A Conflict between the Ideal and the Real World. Studies in Humanities. Vol. 20. pp. The main concern of W. B. Yeats as a poet is embodying the harmony of the conflictive opposites: the real and the ideal world, the self and the anti-self, and the body and the soul. This state of harmony is accomplished in his later poems by overcoming the conflicts, which have severely opposed in his mind, with his poetic and spiritual maturity. Yeats's early poetry depicts the conflict between the real and the ideal world. Yeats attempts to transcend the frustration and sorrow of the real world by leaving for the ideal world that is represented by an eternal fairyland beyond time and space. But because of his ideal world, which is dreamy and eternally beautiful as it may be, and is so remote from the real world, he cannot attain the harmony between the real and ideal world. He does not blindly fly to the fantasy world in order to escape reality, but he wants a balance between the two. He ultimately comes back to the real world with the conflict in his mind. As a result, Yeats recognizes the real world as the condition of human life and accepts it. Therefore, we can find a positive note with the vision of hope, the final achievement of unity. The purpose of this study is to show how to describe the two opposite aspects of the ideal and the real world and to make steady progress toward harmony, the "Unity of Being," reflected in his early poems, The Wandering of Oisin, Crossways, The Rose, and The Wind Among the Reeds.
The efficacy of air-polishing on subgingival debridement, as compared to scaling and root planning (SRP), was evaluated clinically and microbiologically. Fifteen patients diagnosed as chronic periodontitis, and having single-root tooth over 5 mm of pocket depth symmetrically in the left and right quadrant, were investigated. Subgingival debridement was performed by SRP and air-polishing. The results were evaluated and compared clinically and microbiologically. Probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), relative attachment level (RAL) and change of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were assessed before treatment, and at 14 and 60 days after treatment. Microbial analysis was done pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at 14 and 60 days after treatment. Results of air polishing showed that post treatment, the PPD and BOP decreased, and attachment gain was observed. There was no clinical difference when compared to SRP. The volume of GCF decreased at 14 days, and increased again at 60 days. Compared to SRP, there was a statistical significance of the volume of GCF at 60 days in air-polishing. In the microbial analysis, high-risk bacteria that cause periodontal disease were remarkably reduced. They decreased immediately after treatment, but increased again with the passage of time. Thus, our results show that subgingival debridement by air-polishing was effective for decrease of pocket depth, attachment gain, decrease of GCF and inhibition of pathogens. Further studies are required to compare air-polishing and SRP, considering factors such as degree of pocket depth and calculus existence.
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This paper argues that Wurmbrand's (1998) analysis of restructuring infinitives is on the right track. Her analysis denies the implicit assumption that all infinitives have the same syntactic structure, CP/TP. The auxiliary verb construction in Korean has an infinitival complement which behaves as if it lacks clausal nodes; they allow NP licensing and honorification both of which cannot hold if there is a clausal boundary in between. Furthermore, this transparency effect is correlated with the absence of tense morphemes and complementizer in the auxiliary verb construction. However, unlike Wurmbrand's assumption that restructuring infinitives are bare-VP, we argue that the infinitive complement of the auxiliary verb construction in Korean is vP on the basis of case alternations and the imperfect control.
The clinical presentation of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is variable and includes diarrhea, colitis without pseudomembrane, pseudomembranous colitis, and fulminant colitis. On rare occasions, diarrhea may be absent in severe CDI. We describe a case diagnosed with fatal CDI associated with fecal impaction without diarrhea. A 71-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency room (ER) with a 3-day history of abdominal pain and distention. Before admission to our ER, intravenous cefepime and levofloxacin were administered during 8 days because of pneumonia in other hospital. The pneumonia resolved, but she complained constipation and abdominal discomfort about 5 days after the beginning of antibiotics. On arrival to our ER, abdomen was soft and distended, with decreased bowel sound and tenderness over whole abdomen. Abdominal X ray showed fecal impaction and ileus (Fig. 1A). Laboratory studies as follows: white blood cell, 56,500/mm3; platelet count, 552,000/mm3; albumin, 2.8 g/dL; blood urea nitrogen, 54 mg/dL; creatinine, 2.4 mg/dL; C-reactive protein, 210 mg/L; and procalcitonin, 17.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography (CT) without enhancement was performed, and the result revealed the diffuse wall thickening of large intestine as well as fecal material throughout colon suggestive of fecal impaction (Fig. 1B).Antibiotics were changed to intravenous vancomycin and meropenem. Levin tube was kept inserted and sigmoidoscopy for endoscopic decompression was conducted. There were no abnormal findings other than fecal material. On hospital day 5, no strain was yielded from initial and follow-up blood, urine and sputum cultures. Sigmoidoscopy was done to decompress abdominal distention again.Variable sized yellowish plaques with erythematous and edematous mucosa were observed accidentally, and pseudomembranous colitis was diagnosed (Fig. 2). We started oral vancomycin, intravenous metronidazole, and intravenous immunoglobulin immediately. On next day, however, the patient eventually expired.We recently encountered a fatal case of CDI presenting with fecal impaction in the absence of diarrhea and report this case herein. The clinicians should be aware that diarrhea may be absent in patients with severe CDI.
The goal of this study was to determine whether gypenosides (GPS) exert protective effects against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in a 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) with or without long-term 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) treatment. Rats were injected with 6- OHDA in the substantia nigra to induce PD-like symptoms; 14 days after injection, groups of 6-OHDA-lesioned animals were treated for 21 days with GPS (25 or 50 mg/kg) and/or L-DOPA (20 mg/kg). Dopaminergic neuronal cell death was assessed by counting tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive cells in the substantia nigra and measuring levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum. Dopaminergic neuronal cell death induced by 6-OHDA lesions was ameliorated by GPS treatment (50 mg/kg). L-DOPA treatment exacerbated 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death; however, these effects were partially reversed by GPS treatment (25 and 50 mg/kg). These results suggest that GPS treatment is protective against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD with long-term L-DOPA treatment. Therefore, GPS may be useful as a phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of PD.