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Analysis of Cytokine-inducing Activity of Pneumolysin Produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae: an Essential Region of Pneumolysin for the Cytokine-inducing Activity is Different from that for the Membrane-lytic Activity
The total conductivity and oxygen permeation in (Ce1-xZrxO2)0.9(CaO)0.1 solid solutions were measure das a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Empirically, σ at given x and T was expressed essentially by σ=σo2+σeo Po2-1/4, where σo2 and σeo are constant. Applying a standard defect model in which major defects are Cace", Cece' and Vo in ideal solution, we can assign σo2 as the oxide ion conductivity decreases while the electronic conductivity increases with the increase in Zr content. Using the oxide ion and electronic conductivities thus determined, the oxygen permeation flux was calculated for respective Po2 and T conditions at which the measurements were made. The calculated values were found to agree with the observed ones.
Mg-Zn-RE alloys had a novel lond period stacking ordered (LPO) structure. Their rapidly solidified powder metallurgy (RS P/M) alloys exhibited a combination of high strength and god ductility (tensile yield strength above 550 MPa and elongation above 5%). The LPO Mg-Zn-RE RS P/M alloys had high elevated temperature strength (tensile yield strength above 380 MPa at 473 K) and exhibited a high-strain-rate superplasticity at higher temperatures. In Japan, a national project for developing high strength LPO Mg-Zn-RE RS P/M alloys has started at 2003 for 5 years, which is founded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan. In the national project, project targets in materials performances have been achieved. The developed LPO Mg-Zn-RE RS P/M alloys exhibited higher tensile yield strength, fatigue strength and corrosion resistance than high strength aluminum alloys of extra-super-duralumin (7075-T6).
日本語讀解學習支援システム『リ―ディング·チュウ太』(http://language.tiu.ac.jp/)は、1999年からWeb上での無償公開を開始した。『リ―ディング·チュウ太』には入力された文章に含まれる單語の辭書引きを自動で行う辭書引きツ―ルや舊日本語能力試驗の出題基準に準據して文中の單語や漢字の難易度を自動判定するレベル判定ツ―ルなどが搭載されている。公開以來、アクセス數はすでに150万件を超えている。現在では、1日平均1,500件以上の利用があり、世界の日本語學習者や敎育關係者が利用している。一方、世界各國の學習者から母語で書かれた日本語辭書がほしいという强い要望を受け、2003年にはチュウ太の辭書ツ―ル多言語化プロジェクトがスタ―トした。2004年からは、各言語版の編集チ―ムが、すでに完成した日日辭書をもとにそれぞれの言語版の日本語辭書の編集を開始している。辭書編集者は、Web上に置かれた編集システムを利用して、各言語版辭書の編集を行う。それぞれの言語で編集が完了した單語に關しては、逐次、多言語版Web辭書『チュウ太のWeb辭書』(http://chuta.jp/)として公開される仕組みになっている。本稿では、この『リ―ディング·チュウ太』と『チュウ太のWeb辭書』を利用した自律學習支援について紹介する。さらに、『リ―ディング·チュウ太』と『チュウ太のWeb辭書』に搭載されたレベル判定や辭書引きツ―ルを活用した敎材作成の事例として、外國人介護福祉士候補生のための敎材開發について報告するとともに、自律學習で語彙力を高めるためにはどのような指導が必要かに關する提言を行う。 This paper reports on the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Japanese language education. We have already developed a reading tutorial system called Reading Tutor, and a multi-lingual Japanese dictionary system called Reading Tutor``s Web Dictionary. These systems are available on line, and offer a learning environment on the Web for Japanese language learners. Using these systems, Japanese language teachers are also able to develop educational materials. In this paper, we introduce how to use the tutorial tools for Japanese language learning, and then how to develop educational materials. The materials reported on here are aimed specifically at foreign care works. This could be referred to as JSP, Japanese for Specific Purposes. Foreign care workers who come to Japan as part of EPA (economic partnership agreement) are tasked with successful completion of the national certificate examination within four years after they begin working at Japanese care facilities. Experts in the field point to the need for specifically designed study materials and effective methodology to learn. In order to meet this requirement, Reading Tutor``s Web Dictionary has incorporated multi-lingual mini-dictionaries containing lexical items specific to the care worker industry as part of this need. As the next step, we have built learning materials specifically for care workers studying for the national examination. This paper will explain the nature of the tools used to develop this material and the steps taken to develop appropriate materials. This explanation will be followed by suggestions for changes in teaching methodology to complement the use of Web based material. It is our sincere wish that both the materials and teaching methodology introduced here will positively affect Japanese language education in general, and more specifically, Japanese for specific purpose education.
The IMS Program is a global alliance of industry, academia and government and organization to conduct research in next generation of manufacturing technologies and processes, and promote a technological and organizational agenda to meet the needs of business and society for the 21^(th) century. Initiated formally on January 1, 1995, the world's leading advanced technological companies, universities and research institutions form six regions in the worked are pooling their knowledge and resources in cooperative research projects to explore the frontiers of knowledge in manufacturing. If successful, the IMS Program will change manufacturing as we know it today, shifting from mass production to mass customization. This key note address focus on two major themes. First, issues related to the current trends in the IMS Program will be discussed. They include the current and proposed projects, changing research scopes, admission of new participants, change in management structure, funding sources and research duplication. As the IMS Program grows and develops, changes inevitably will occur. Already several projects are seeing changes in research scopes and partners. Some of the new projects being proposed have a somewhat shorter term view. For example, SIMON is aimed to develop new and advanced methods of cutting and machining metal; Switzerland is considering proposing two new market-driven projects for the IMS Program that are of particular relevance to Swiss firms. Second, I will discuss the current status of the IMS Program in the United States. Unlike countries such as Japan and Canada, the U.S. IMS Program lacks a strong government support and this has been a major stumbling block for a more active participation of industry and academia. Another problem is competing national efforts in manufacturing and information technology such as ATP, NGM, and CALS. Despite these difficulties, we have made progress in the last two years. I will share with you some of the current activities within two IMS organization in the U.S. called CIMS and A-CAMS.