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      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Modulation of Tight Junctions does Not Predict Oral Absorption of Hydrophilic Compounds: Use of Caco-2 and Calu-3 Cells

        Kamath, Amrita V.,Morrison, Richard A.,Mathias, Neil R.,Dando, Sandra A.,Marino, Anthony M.,Chong, Sae-Ho 대한약학회 2007 Archives of Pharmacal Research Vol.30 No.8

        Permeability estimates using Caco-2 cells do not accurately predict the absorption of hydrophilic drugs that are primarily absorbed via the paracellular pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate whether modulation of tight junctions would help differentiation of paracellularly absorbed compounds. Tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers were manipulated using calcium depletion approaches to decrease the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of the monolayers, and permeability of hydrophilic compounds were measured under these conditions. Permeability of these compounds were also measured in Calu-3 cells, which have tighter junctions than Caco-2 cells. Calcium depletion loosened the tight junctions of Caco-2 cells to varying levels as measured by the decrease in TEER values of the monolayers. While the absolute permeability of all the model compounds increased as the tight junctions were loosened, the ratios of their permeability relative to mannitol permeability were similar. The permeability of these compounds in the tighter Calu-3 cells were also found to be similar to each other. Altering the tight junctions of Caco-2 cells to obtain leakier cell monolayers, or using a cell line with tighter junctions like Calu-3 cells, did not improve differentiation between well absorbed and poorly absorbed hydrophilic drugs. Mere manipulation of the tight junctions to increase or decrease transepithelial electrical resistance does not appear to be a viable approach to predict human absorption for hydrophilic compounds that are primarily absorbed via the paracellular pathway.

      • KCI등재

        Development of sensitive and specific multiplex PCR method for the detection of microcystin producing cyanobacteria in spirulina food supplements

        Kamath Mukund Manali,Rex Arunraj,Gautham Subramaniam Ramakrishnan,Mohandass Ramya 한국식품과학회 2019 Food Science and Biotechnology Vol.28 No.2

        Spirulina has emerged as the next-generationdietary supplement owing to its health benefits. Despite theadvantages, there have been reports of contamination bycyanotoxins such as microcystins that can adversely affecthuman health. Hence, there is a need to develop a robust,efficient, and cost-effective method to detect microcystinproducingcyanobacteria in these food supplements. In thisstudy, we have demonstrated a multiplex polymerase chainreaction (PCR) method for identification of microcystincontaminationin spirulina dietary supplements. Thismethod involves simultaneous amplification of phycocyaninand microcystin B encoding genes (pcb, mcyB). Thesensitivity of the multiplex PCR was assessed, and the limitof detecting mcyB along with pcb was found to be 250 fg/lL. The presence of microcystin was detected in five out ofseven fish food supplements indicating poor culture conditions. Hence, rigorous quality control is required formonitoring the spirulina food supplements.

      • KCI등재
      • Blockchain for Women Next Generation for Sustainable Development Goal 5

        Reshma Kamath 연세대학교 빈곤문제국제개발연구원 2018 Journal of Poverty Alleviation and International D Vol.9 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Blockchain For Women highlights the potential of Blockchain, a nascent technology, in revamping the role of Women, Children and Gender minorities through Identity, Ownership, and Access. It discusses the gender digital divide impacting SDG 5 and how Blockchain is overcoming this problem to meet the Goals. While applying Blockchain as a technology and its beneficial attributes applicable to SDG 5, the paper engages with how Blockchain is being piloted and tested by the United Nations, civil society, corporations and startups alike in various sectors impacting women. The paper bridges the gap between the theoretical potential of Blockchain to showing actualized, on-the-ground applications of Blockchain technology in meeting SDG 5 Goals.

      • KCI등재

        Binary logistic regression analysis of hard palate dimensions for sexing human crania

        Venkatesh Kamath,Muhammed Asif,Radhakrishna Shetty,Ramakrishna Avadhani 대한해부학회 2016 Anatomy & Cell Biology Vol.49 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Sex determination is the preliminary step in every forensic investigation and the hard palate assumes significance in cranial sexing in cases involving burns and explosions due to its resistant nature and secluded location. This study analyzes the sexing potential of incisive foramen to posterior nasal spine length, palatine process of maxilla length, horizontal plate of palatine bone length and transverse length between the greater palatine foramina. The study deviates from the conventional method of measuring the maxillo-alveolar length and breadth as the dimensions considered in this study are more heat resistant and useful in situations with damaged alveolar margins. The study involves 50 male and 50 female adult dry skulls of Indian ethnic group. The dimensions measured were statistically analyzed using Student’s t test, binary logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve. It was observed that the incisive foramen to posterior nasal spine length is a definite sex marker with sex predictability of 87.2%. The palatine process of maxilla length with 66.8% sex predictability and the horizontal plate of palatine bone length with 71.9% sex predictability cannot be relied upon as definite sex markers. The transverse length between the greater palatine foramina is statistically insignificant in sexing crania (P=0.318). Considering a significant overlap of values in both the sexes the palatal dimensions singularly cannot be relied upon for sexing. Nevertheless, considering the high sex predictability of incisive foramen to posterior nasal spine length this dimension can definitely be used to supplement other sexing evidence available to precisely conclude the cranial sex.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        THE DEPENDENCE OF MARKET RETURN VOLATILITY ON TRADING VOLUME IN KOREA AND THAILAND

        Ravindra Kamath,Jirayuth Chusanachoti People&Global Business Association 2000 Global Business and Finance Review Vol.5 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The objective of this paper is to examine if the heteroskedasticity in stock market return data can be explained by incorporating trading volume as a mixing variable in the conditional variance equation. This study relies on daily returns and volumes of two developing markets in Asia, namely, the Korean Stock Exchange and the Stock Exchange of Thailand over the 9-year tumultuous period of 1990-1998. The results strongly suggest that the GARCH model adequately describes the two index return series in the absence of volume as a mixing variable. However, the introduction of volume does not succeed in eliminating or for that matter significantly reducing the ARCH and GARCH effects.

      • KCI등재

        A Simple Real-Time DMPPT Algorithm for PV Systems Operating under Mismatch Conditions

        Aniruddha Kamath M.,Jayanta Biswas,Anjana K. G.,Mukti Barai 전력전자학회 2018 JOURNAL OF POWER ELECTRONICS Vol.18 No.3

        This paper presents a distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT) algorithm based on the reference voltage perturbation (RVP) method for the PV modules of a series PV string. The proposed RVP-DMPPT algorithm is developed to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) for each PV module operating under all atmospheric conditions with a reduced hardware overhead. To study the influence of parameters such as the controller reference voltage (Vref) and PV current (Ipv) on the PV string voltage, a small signal model of a unidirectional differential power processing (DPP) based PV-Bus architecture is developed. The steady state and dynamic performances of the proposed RVP DMPPT algorithm and small signal model of the unidirectional DPP based PV-Bus architecture are demonstrated with simulations and experimental results. The accuracy of the RVP DMPPT algorithm is demonstrated by obtaining a tracking efficiency of 99.4% from the experiment.

      • KCI등재

        Blood Transfusion Rates as a Primary Outcome Measure: The Use of Predetermined Triggers and Display of Clinical Indications in Providing Accurate Comparative Transfusion Rates: In Reply

        Atul F. Kamath,Daniel C. Austin,Peter B. Derman,R. Carter Clement,Jonathan P. Garino,Gwo-Chin Lee 대한정형외과학회 2017 Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery Vol.9 No.1

        We thank the readers for their letter to the editor, and for interest in our manuscript published in 2014. Issues surrounding blood management continue to be an important part of the global care of total joint arthroplasty patients as we move into 2017. In addition to our group’s multiple studies on the use of bipolar sealing devices in joint arthroplasty, 1,2) we continue to examine our blood management and transfusion practices. We now routinely employ the use of tranexamic acid, which has further allowed a reduction in transfusion requirements. This may account for some of the differences between contemporary rates of transfusion, and historical rates presented before the routine use of tranexamic acid. We thank the readers for inquiring about the transfusion reduction rates as presented in our manuscript. The absolute reduction in transfusion rate was 83% to 55%, a difference of 28% points. The relative reduction as a percentage of the original transfusion rate of 83% would be approximately 35%. In a simpler comparison, for example, if the transfusion rate was reduced from 10% to 5%, we would have stated that there was an absolute reduction of 5% but a 50% reduction from the baseline rate (5%/10% = 0.5). In our manuscript, we acknowledge some of the limitations discussed by the readers’ letter to the editor. This study was not a prospective randomized controlled trial, and therefore issues of blinding and randomization do not apply. Rather, our study has important applications for real-world transfusion scenarios based on clinical scenario and patient comorbid conditions. We thank the readers for sharing their own data and algorithm for management, which, like our practice, involves careful evaluation of “comorbidity and cardiorespiratory risk, ongoing blood loss, and symptoms related to anaemia.” Likewise, confounders of age and dilutional anaemia are important considerations in any study of blood management, but are not controlled for in our clinical practice review. Again, we thank the readers for their letter to the editor, as well as their own institutional efforts to examine transfusion thresholds, understand adjunctive tools in blood management, and further the perioperative care of total joint patients.

      • KCI등재후보

        Reappraising the neurosurgical significance of the pterion location, morphology, and its relationship to optic canal and sphenoid ridge and neurosurgical implications

        Venkatesh G. Kamath,Milan Hande 대한해부학회 2019 Anatomy & Cell Biology Vol.52 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Frontolateral craniotomy procedures have advanced from conventional craniotomy to mini-craniotomy, and to contemporary keyhole surgery. In this context, it is important for the neurosurgeon to precisely locate the pterion. The distance of the pterion center from midpoint of zygomatic arch and posterolateral margin of frontozygomatic suture was studied bilaterally in 50 whole adult skulls in Indian ethnic group. The depth of optic canal and sphenoid ridge from the pterion was recorded bilaterally in fifty cut adult skulls and fifteen three-dimensional computed tomography scans. The suture length, thickness, and morphology were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, two-tailed Student’s t test, binary logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve for sexual dimorphism. The pterion center was located at a mean distance of 37.02 mm above the midpoint of zygomatic arch, 28.20 mm behind the posterolateral margin of frontozygomatic suture, 42.73 mm lateral to the optic canal and 10.59 mm from the sphenoid ridge. The location did not exhibit sexual dimorphism. In 20% cases the pterion center was 40 mm or more above the midpoint of the zygomatic arch and in 5% cases 35 mm or more posterior to the posterolateral margin of frontozygomatic suture. The mean suture length was 10±3 mm. The mean thickness at the center of the pterion was 3.52±1.45 mm. The commonest variety was sphenoparietal followed by frontotemporal, epipteric, and stellate types. A thorough knowledge of these dimensions has innumerable neurosurgical implications in resection of sellar, parasellar, and paraclinoid tumors and circulatory aneurysms.

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