http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
<B>SUMMARY</B><P>Extended-spectrum <I>β</I>-lactamase (ESBL) production has been very rare in serotype K1 <I>Klebsiella pneumoniae</I> ST23 strains, which are well-known invasive community strains. Among 92 ESBL-producing strains identified in 218 isolates from nine Asian countries, serotype K1 <I>K. pneumoniae</I> strains were screened. Two ESBL-producing <I>K. pneumoniae</I> isolates from Singapore and Indonesia were determined to be serotype K1 and ST23. Their plasmids, which contain CTX-M-15 genes, are transferable rendering the effective transfer of ESBL resistance plasmids to other organisms.</P>
Matsuda, M.,Chung, J.-H.,Park, S.,Sato, T. J.,Matsuno, K.,Aruga Katori, H.,Takagi, H.,Kakurai, K.,Kamazawa, K.,Tsunoda, Y.,Kagomiya, I.,Henley, C. L.,Lee, S.-H. Editions de Physique 2008 Europhysics letters Vol.82 No.3
<P>Recently, two consecutive phase transitions were observed, upon cooling, in an antiferromagnetic spinel GeNi<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>4</SUB> at <I>T</I><SUB><I>N</I>1</SUB>=12.1 K and <I>T</I><SUB><I>N</I>2</SUB>=11.4 K, respectively (Crawford M. K. <I>et al</I>., <I>Phys. Rev. B</I>, <B>68</B> (2003) 220408(R)). Using unpolarized and polarized elastic neutron scattering we show that the two transitions are due to the existence of frustrated minority spins in this compound. Upon cooling, at <I>T</I><SUB><I>N</I>1</SUB> the spins on the 〈111〉 kagome planes order ferromagnetically in the plane and antiferromagnetically between the planes (phase I), leaving the spins on the 〈111〉 triangular planes that separate the kagome planes frustrated and disordered. At the lower <I>T</I><SUB><I>N</I>2</SUB>, the triangular spins also order in the 〈111〉 plane (phase II). We also present a scenario involving exchange interactions that qualitatively explains the origin of the two purely magnetic phase transitions.</P>
Induction of bone formation by <i>Escherichia coli</i>‐expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein‐2 using block‐type macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate in orthotopic and ectopic rat models
<P><I>Park J‐C, So S‐S, Jung I‐H, Yun J‐H, Choi S‐H, Cho K‐S, Kim C‐S. Induction of bone formation by</I> Escherichia coli<I>‐expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein‐2 using block‐type macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate in orthotopic and ectopic rat models. J Periodont Res 2011; 46: 682–690. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S</I></P><P><B>Background and Objective: </B> The potential of the <I>Escherichia coli</I>‐expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein‐2 (ErhBMP‐2) to support new bone formation/maturation using a block‐type of macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (bMBCP) carrier was evaluated in an orthotopic and ectopic rat model.</P><P><B>Material and Methods: </B> Critical‐size (Φ 8 mm) calvarial defects and subcutaneous pockets in 32 Sprague–Dawley rats received implants of rhBMP‐2 (2.5 μg) in a bMBCP carrier or bMBCP alone (control). Implant sites were evaluated using histological and histometric analysis following 2‐ and 8‐wk healing intervals (eight animals/group/interval).</P><P><B>Results: </B> ErhBMP‐2/bMBCP supported significantly greater bone formation at 2 and 8 wk (10.8% and 25.4%, respectively) than the control at 2 and 8 wk (5.3% and 14.0%, respectively) in calvarial defects (<I>p</I> < 0.01). Bone formation was only observed for the ErhBMP‐2/bMBCP ectopic sites and was significantly greater at 8 wk (7.5%) than at 2 wk (4.5%) (<I>p</I> < 0.01). Appositional and endochondral bone formation was usually associated with a significant increase in fatty marrow at 8 wk. The bMBCP carrier showed no evidence of bioresorption.</P><P><B>Conclusion: </B> ErhBMP‐2/bMBCP induced significant bone formation in both calvarial and ectopic sites. Further study appears to be required to evaluate the relevance of the bMBCP carrier.</P>
<P> Martagon (<I>Lilium hansonii;</I> MM) and <I>Longiflorum</I> (LL) are two major groups under the family <I>Liliaceae</I>, used for modern breeding to introduce new inter-genomic lily cultivars. Interspecific F<SUB>1</SUB> hybrids (LM) introduced through cut-style method between two diploid <I>Lilium longiflorum (2n=2x=24)</I> and <I>Lilium hansonii (2n=2x=24)</I> were evaluated cytogenetically by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. However, GISH analysis of F<SUB>1</SUB> interspecific (LM) hybrids showed equal chromosomal contribution from both female <I>Lilium longiflorum</I> (LL) and male <I>Lilium hansonii</I> (MM). Each of the parent contributed 12 chromosomes except three crosses i.e., two of <I>L. longiflorum</I> 'White Tower' × <I>L. hansonii;</I> (2x-1) and one of <I>L. longiflorum</I> 'Bright Tower' × <I>L. hansonii;</I> (2x-1). Among 11 inter-genomic crosses, 3 crosses failed (False hybrid) and 8 crosses (True hybrids) showed different ploidy level i.e., 2n=2x=24, 2n=2x-1=23 and 2n=2x-1=23 respectively. Recombinant chromosome usually not found in F<SUB>1</SUB> interspecific lily hybrids. Most often, genomic recombination occurred in the cross between two genetically different parents. Chromosome pairing and crossing over normally occurred during meiosis in backcross progenies. However, in this study, genome analysis (GISH) of F<SUB>1</SUB> hybrids (<I>L. longiflorum</I> 'White Tower' × <I>L. hansonii</I>) showed four recombinant sites including two M/L and two L/M recombinant chromosomes that denotes high genetic relationship between <I>L. longiflorum</I> and <I>L. hansonii.</I> </P>
Enhanced adipogenic differentiation and reduced collagen synthesis induced by human periodontal ligament stem cells might underlie the negative effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein‐2 on periodontal regeneration
<P> <I>Song D‐S, Park J‐C, Jung I‐H, Choi S‐H, Cho K‐S, Kim C‐K, Kim C‐S. Enhanced adipogenic differentiation and reduced collagen synthesis induced by human periodontal ligament stem cells might underlie the negative effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein‐2 on periodontal regeneration. J Periodont Res 2011; 46: 193–203. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S</I> </P><P><B>Background and Objective: </B> Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein‐2 (rhBMP‐2) is a potent inducer for the regeneration of mineralized tissue, but has a limited effect on the regeneration of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL). The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of rhBMP‐2 on the <I>in vitro</I> and <I>in vivo</I> biologic activity of well‐characterized human PDL stem cells (hPDLSCs) and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of minimal periodontal regeneration by rhBMP‐2.</P><P><B>Material and Methods: </B> hPDLSCs were isolated and cultured, and then transplanted into an ectopic subcutaneous mouse model using a carrier treated either with or without rhBMP‐2. Comprehensive histologic, histometric and immunohistochemical analyses were performed after an 8‐wk healing period. The effects of rhBMP‐2 on the adipogenic and osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs were also evaluated. The effect of rhBMP‐2 on both soluble and insoluble collagen synthesis was analyzed, and the expression of mRNA and protein for collagen types I, II, III and V was assessed.</P><P><B>Results: </B> In the present study, rhBMP‐2 promoted both adipogenic and osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs <I>in vitro</I>, and the <I>in vivo</I> potential of hPDLSCs to form mineralized cementum and organized PDL tissue was down‐regulated following treatment with rhBMP‐2. Collagen synthesis, which plays a crucial role in the regeneration of cementum and the periodontal attachment, was significantly reduced, with associated modification of the relevant mRNA and protein expression profiles.</P><P><B>Conclusion: </B> In summary, the findings of the present study suggest that enhanced adipogenic differentiation and inhibition of collagen synthesis by hPDLSCs appear to be partly responsible for the minimal effect of rhBMP‐2 on cementum and PDL tissue regeneration by hPDLSCs.</P>
서울대학교 의과대학 내과학교실 및 방사성 동위원소 진료실에서 1960년 5월부터 1969년 10월까지 진료한 2,658명의 각종 갑상선 질환 환자에 대하여 131I에 의한 각종 갑상선 기능 검사 및 기능 항진증 환자에 대한 131I의 치료 성적을 종합 검토하여 아래와 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1) 2,658명의 갑상선 질환 환자중 독성 미만성 선종이 929명(34.9%)으로 가장 많고 비중독성 미만성 선종 및 비중독성 결절성 선종이 각각 762명(28.7%), 699명(26.3%)이며 기능저하가 210명(7.9%), 독성 결절성 선종이 58명(2.2%)였다. 2) 갑상선 질환의 성별 발생 빈도는 남자 300명(11.4%), 여자 2,358명(88.6%)로서 그 비는 1:8였다. 3) 연령별 발생 빈도는 20∼49세에서 전체의 79.1%인 2,102명이며 기능 항진증의 경우는 79.0%에 달하였다. 4) 각종 갑상선 기능 검사중 131I 섭취율, 131I 혈청내 방사능 BMR치등에 대한 고찰을 하는 한편 기능항진 및 저하증때 나타내는 각종 자학증세를 관찰하였다. 5) 갑상선 기능 항진증 환자 867명에 대하여 131I 치료를 하고 그 중 579명에서 47.8%의 초회 치료율을 확인하였다. 6) 131I 투여 후의 합병증인 기능 저하증의 발생 빈도는 초회 투여에서 6.75%였다. 7) 갑상선의 $quot; A summary of the clinical data of the (131)^I-thyroid function tests and the therapeutic results of 1(31I)^ among the 2,658 patients of various thyroid diseases treated over the past 10 years from May 1960 to Oct. 1969 at the Radioisotope Clinci and Laboratory, SNUH were presented and discussed. 1) The patients examined consisted of 929 cases (34.9%) of diffuse toxic goiter, 762 cases (28.7%) of diffuse nontoxic goiter, 699 cases (26.3%) of nodular nontoxic goiter, 58 cases (2.2%) of nodular toxic goiter and 210 cases (7.9%) of hypothyroidism. 2) There were 300 (11.4%) male and 2358 (88.6%) female, showing a ratio of 1:8. 3) The majority of patients (79.1%) were in the 3rd-5th decade of their lives. 4) The normal ranges, diagnostic values of (131)^I uptake test, 48 hrs serum activity, BMR and main subjective symptoms of various thyroid diseases were discussed. 5) In the 579 patients among 867 cases with hyperthyroidism treated with (131)^I, 47.8% were confirmed to be cured completely after single therapeutic doses. 6) The complications of 131I therapy were discussed and myxedema had developed in 6.75% of our patients. 7) The results of (131)^I thyroid function tests were analysed among the 160 cases of thyroid diseases which were confirmed the diagnosis with histopathological measures.
<P>S.-H. Kim, S.-O. Lee, I.-A. Park, S.J. Park, S.-H. Choi, Y.S. Kim, J.H. Woo, S.-K. Park, J.S. Park, S.C. Kim, D.J. Han. Diagnostic usefulness of a T cell-based assay for latent tuberculosis infection in kidney transplant candidates before transplantation.Transpl Infect Dis 2010: <B>12:</B> 113–119. All rights reserved</P><P>Background</P><P>The presence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) should be evaluated before kidney transplantation. Although a new T cell-based assay for diagnosing LTBI gave promising results, this assay has not yet been compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosing LTBI in renal transplant candidates before transplantation.</P><P>Patients and methods</P><P>All adult patients admitted to a single institute for renal transplantation over a 1-year period were prospectively enrolled. A clinically predictive risk of LTBI was defined as: (i) recent close contact with a person with pulmonary TB; (ii) abnormal chest radiography; (iii) a history of untreated or inadequately treated TB; or (iv) a new infection (i.e., a recent conversion of TST).</P><P>Results</P><P>Of 209 renal recipients, 47 (22%) had a positive TST≥5 mm, 21 (10%) had a positive TST≥10 mm, 65 (30%) had a positive T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test, and 25 (12%) had an indeterminate T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test. The induration size of TST was significantly associated with a high positivity rate on T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> (<I>P</I><0.001). Agreement between T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test and TST≥10 mm was fair (<I>k</I>=0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.11–0.36). However, neither univariate nor multivariate analysis showed any association between the clinical risk for LTBI and positivity on T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> or TST.</P><P>Conclusion</P><P>T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test was more frequently positive than TST in renal transplant candidates. However, further longitudinal studies are awaited to determine whether the ability of T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> assay to detect LTBI in renal transplant recipients can better predict the development of TB than can TST after transplantation.</P>
조기이유 (14±2일령) 자돈 사료에 roasting 처리를 한 대두박 (roasted soybean meal; rSBM)의 수준이 자돈의 성장에 미치는 효과를 알아보기 위하여 64마리의 14일령 조기이유자돈을 4처리로 나누어 시험을 실시하였다. Phase I (이유 후 0∼14일)에는 22.5%의 조단백질을 함유하는 시험사료에 처리별로 rSBM의 수준을 각각 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%로 하였고, phase II(14∼51일)에는 모든 돼지에게 20% 조단백질을 함유하며 22.5%의 rSBM을 함유하는 사료를 급여하였다. Phase I의 일당증체량, 일당사료섭취량은 유의적인 차이가 발견되지 않았으나, 사료효율은 20% rSBM을 급여한 구에서 5%, 10%, 15% rSBM구에 비해 각각 4.32%, 4.32%, 9.35%가 나쁜 것으로 나타났다 (P$lt;0.05). 그러나 phase II와 전체 사양기간을 고려했을 때 성장성적은 rSBM의 수준에 따른 영향을 받지 않는 것으로 조사되었다. 전체사양기간 중 가장 좋은 사양성적은 15% rSBM구에서 발견되었다. Phase I에서는 분에서 외관상 아미노산 소화율이 5%, 10%, 15% rSBM구가20% rSBM구보다 9.91%, 6.46%, 5.83% 높으나, phase II에서는 arginine을 제외하고는 차이가 발견되지 않았다. 건물, 조단백질, 조지방, 총에너지의 이용율은 5% rSBM구가 20% rSBM구보다 높은것으로 나타났으나(P$lt;0.05), rSBM 수준이 15% 이하에서는 통계적인 유의성이 발견되지 않았다. 본 시험의 결과는 조기이유자돈 사료내 rSBM의 수준이 20% 이하일 때는 조기이유자돈의 성장에 심각한 영향을 주지 않는다는 점을 시사하고 있으며, 적절한 rSbm 급여 수준은 15% 정도인 것으로 나타났다. Sixty-four pigs weaned at 14±2 days of age were allotted to one of four treatments with different levels of rSBM incorporated in the phase I high nutrient dense diets. From d 0 to 14 postweaning (phase I), piglets were fed diets formulated to 22% crude protein (CP), 1.6% lysine with graded levels of rSBM (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively). For the period of d 14 to 51 postweaning (phase II), all pigs fed a diet formulated to 20% crude protein and 1.35% lysine with 22.5% rSBM. During phase I, there was no significant difference in average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) among piglets fed diets with different rSBM levels, however, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of piglets fed diet with 20% rSBM was 4.32%, 4.32% and 9.35% higher than that of the piglets fed diets with 5%, 10% and 15% rSBM incorporation levels, respectively. However, during phase II and overall period, no evident effect was observed on ADG, ADFI and FCR among dietary treatments. But the highest ADG and the best FCR were obtained in piglets fed diet with 15% rSBM during the entire period. The fecal amino acid digestibilities of piglets fed fiets containing 5%, 10% and 15% rSBM were 9.91%, 6.46% and 5.83% higher, respectively, than that of piglets fed diet with 20% rSBM during phase I. For phase II, the difference was not significant in amino acid digestibility among treatments except proline whose digestibility was higher in piglets fed diet with 20% rSBM (P$lt;0.05) than in piglets fed diet with 5% rSBM. Digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and gross energy were higher in piglets fed diet with 5% rSBM than in the piglets provided the diet with 20% rSBM, but no significant difference was found among groups under 15% of rSBM incorporation level during phase I. During d 14 to 51 postweaning, trends were similar to that the phase I. However, digestibility of gross energy was almost same among dietary treatments. These data showed that there was no adverse effect of rSBM incorporation below 20% level on the growth performance of early-weaned (14 days of age) piglets in the phase I high nutrient dense diet. It appeared that the optimal rSBM incorporation level was 15% of the diet. The result of this experiment suggested that some amounts of rSBM ($lt;20%) incorporated in the phase I high nutrient dense diets did not adversely affect growth performance of piglets weaned at 14 d of age. rSBM incorporated in the phase I diet at ratio of 15% was favorable for growth performance of piglets. However, for piglets weaned at different days of age, the optimum level of rSBM incorporated in the phase I high nutrient dense diet still needs to be studies. This will be a valuable suggestion to decrease the cost in feeding piglets.
<P>We report the recent progress on critical temperature switch development for metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs). The superconducting planar coil of a micro-fabricated MMC is charged with a persistent current, which serves as the stable field current to magnetize the sensor material. Part of the Nb superconducting circuit is fabricated with an alloy of Nb and Ta (NbTa), another superconducting material with a transition temperature (<I>T</I> <SUB> <I>C</I> </SUB>) that is lower than that of Nb. A persistent current can be injected into the loop while lowering the temperature from above to below the <I>T</I> <SUB> <I>C</I> </SUB> of the NbTa switch. Resistance measurements of a sputtered film of a NbTa alloy with a Ta concentration of 62% showed a clear superconducting transition at 5.29 K. Using one of the completed MMC devices, the ability to use the <I>T</I> <SUB> <I>C</I> </SUB> switch for charging with a persistent current up to 120?mA was tested by means of magnetization measurements. The magnetization measurements recorded with a DC-SQUID were in good agreement with the calculated values in all tested cases with four different currents. These results indicate that an MMC can be charged with a persistent current as expected using the <I>T</I> <SUB> <I>C</I> </SUB> switch. This work is the first demonstration of the proposed <I>T</I> <SUB> <I>C</I> </SUB> switch in a complete MMC setup. Based on the present progress, future studies will investigate multi-channel operation and the development of a hybrid setup with an on-chip heater.</P>
Belle Collaboration,Chen, W.T.,Abe, K.,Abe, K.,Adachi, I.,Aihara, H.,Anipko, D.,Aulchenko, V.,Bakich, A.M.,Barberio, E.,Bay, A.,Bedny, I.,Bitenc, U.,Bizjak, I.,Blyth, S.,Bondar, A.,Bozek, A.,Bracko, M North-Holland Pub. Co 2007 Physics letters: B Vol.651 No.1
K<SUB>S</SUB><SUP>0</SUP>K<SUB>S</SUB><SUP>0</SUP> production in two-photon collisions has been studied using a 397.6 fb<SUP>-1</SUP> data sample collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB e<SUP>+</SUP>e<SUP>-</SUP> collider. For the first time the cross sections are measured in the two-photon center-of-mass energy range between 2.4 GeV and 4.0 GeV and angular range |cosθ<SUP>*</SUP>|<0.6. Combining the results with measurements of γγ->K<SUP>+</SUP>K<SUP>-</SUP> from Belle, we observe that the cross section ratio σ(K<SUB>S</SUB><SUP>0</SUP>K<SUB>S</SUB><SUP>0</SUP>)/σ(K<SUP>+</SUP>K<SUP>-</SUP>) decreases from ∼0.13 to ∼0.01 with increasing energy. Signals for the χ<SUB>c0</SUB> and χ<SUB>c2</SUB> charmonium states are also observed.