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• Group nearest-neighbor queries in the L<sub>1</sub> plane

<P>Let P be a set of n points in the plane. The k-nearest-neighbor (abbreviated as k-NN) query problem is to preprocess P into a data structure that quickly reports k closest points in P for a query point q. This paper addresses a generalization of the k-NN query problem to a query set Q of points, namely, the group k-nearest-neighbor query problem, in the L-1 plane. More precisely, a query is assigned with a set Q of at most m points and a positive integer k with k <= n, and the distance between a point p of P and a query set Q is defined as the sum of L-1 distances from p to all q is an element of Q. The maximum number m of query points Q is assumed to be known in advance and to be at most n. In this paper, we propose two algorithms, one based on the range tree and the other based on a data structure for segment dragging queries, and obtain the following complexity bounds: (1) a group k-NN query can be handled in O (T-min log n + (k + m(2))(log logn + logm)) time after preprocessing P using O(m(2)nlog(2)n) space, where T-min = min {k + m, m(2)}, or (2) a group k-NN query can be handled in O ((k + m)log(2) n + m(2)(log(is an element of) n + log m)) time after preprocessing P using O (m(2)n) space, where is an element of > 0 is an arbitrarily small constant. We also show that our approach can be applied to the weighted group k-nearest-neighbor query problem and the group k-farthest-neighbor query problem. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>

• Stoichiometric Layered Potassium Transition Metal Oxide for Rechargeable Potassium Batteries

<P>K-ion batteries are promising alternative energy storage systems for large-scale applications because of the globally abundant K reserves. K-ion batteries benefit from the lower standard redox potential of K/K<SUP>+</SUP> than that of Na/Na<SUP>+</SUP> and even Li/Li<SUP>+</SUP>, which can translate into a higher working voltage. Stable KC<SUB>8</SUB> can also be formed via K intercalation into a graphite anode, which contrasts with the thermodynamically unfavorable Na intercalation into graphite, making graphite a readily available anode for K-ion battery technology. However, to construct practical rocking-chair K-ion batteries, an appropriate cathode material that can accommodate reversible K release and storage is still needed. We show that stoichiometric KCrO<SUB>2</SUB> with a layered O3-type structure can function as a cathode for K-ion batteries and demonstrate a practical rocking-chair K-ion battery. In situ X-ray diffraction and electrochemical titration demonstrate that K<SUB><I>x</I></SUB>CrO<SUB>2</SUB> is stable for a wide K content, allowing for topotactic K extraction and reinsertion. We further explain why stoichiometric KCrO<SUB>2</SUB> is unique in forming the layered structure unlike other stoichiometric K-transition metal oxide compounds, which form nonlayered structures; this fundamental understanding provides insight for the future design of other layered cathodes for K-ion batteries.</P> [FIG OMISSION]</BR>

• Na+K-Cl 비율과 칼슘의 수준이 육계(肉鷄)의 능력 및 칼슘의 이용성, 혈액내 산염기(酸鹽基) 균형지수에 미치는 영향 : (1) Na+K-Cl 비율과 칼슘의 수준에 따른 육계(肉鷄)의 능력 (1) EFFECT OF Na+K-Cl RATIO AND CALCIUM LEVEL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN BROILER CHICKS

Na+K-Cl 비율과 Ca수준에 따른 Ca의 이용성 및 성장성적을 연구하기 위하여 두수준의 Ca(1.95%,1.20%) 와 네가지 수준의 사료전해질(0,150,370,450mEq/㎏)을 두어 2×4요인 배치로 실험을 실시하였다. 총252마리의 3일령 하이섹스 하이브로 병아리에게 28일간 실험사료를 급여하였으며 본실험에서 얻은 결과를 요약하면 아래와 같다. 1. 증체량은 Na+K-Cl 비율에 따라 차이를 보였으나 (P<0.05) Ca 첨가에 의한 영향은 나타나지 않았고 Ca과 Na+K-Cl 비율변화에 따라 유의적인 영향을 받았다 (P<00.01). Ca와 Na+K-G 비율의 상호작용은 서로 유의차를 보이지 않았다. 2. 사료섭취량은 Ca 첨가에는 무관하였으나, Na+K-Cl 비율변화에 따라 유의적인 영향을 받았다. (P<0.01). Ca와 Na+K-Cl 비율의 상호작용은 서로 유의차를 보이지 않았다. 3. Ca 첨가는 사료효율에는 영향을 미치지 않았고, Na+K-Cl 비율은 사료효율에 영향을 미쳤다(P<0.01). 4. Na+K-Cl 비율은 폐사율에 영향을 미쳤으나(P< 0.01), Ca 첨가와 두요인의 상호작용은 유의차를 보이지 않았다. 그러나 Na+K-Cl 비율이 높을 때 (450mEq/㎏)에는 폐사율이 높았다. 5. DM이용성은 Ca첨가에는 영향을 받았으나 (P<0.05), Na+K-Cl 비율과는 관계가 없었고, 두요인의 상호작용도 나타나지 않았다. N 축적과 Ca 축적은 Na+K-Cl 비율에 의해 영향을 받았고 (P<0.05), Ca 첨가에 의해서도 영향이 있었다 (P<0.01). An experiment was conducted with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement in order to study the effect of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio and calcium level on calcium availability and growth performance. The dietary treatments consisted of two levels of calcium (1.95% and 1.20%) and four levels of dietary electrolyte (0,150, 300, 450 mEq/㎏ in feed). A total number of 252 broiler chicks (3 days old Hisex-Hibro commercial chick) were fed the experimental diets for a period of 28 days. The results obtained in the present study are summarized as follow: 1. Body weight gain was markedly influenced by the level of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio (p <0.01), but dietary level of calcium with electrolyte was not significant. 2. Feed intake was influenced by the level of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio (p<0.01). 3. Dietary calcium levels did not affect the feed efficiency (p>0.05), but effect of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio was highly significant (p < 0.01). 4. The simple effect of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio markedly influenced the mortality (p < 0.01), but level of calcium did not affect mortality (p > 0.05). Interaction of calcium with electrolyte was not significant. High mortality was observed in the bird fed diet containing sodium bicarbonate (450 mEq/㎏). 5. Dry matter utilizability was influenced by dietary level of calcium (p <0.05), but no significant differences were observed by levels of electrolyte and interaction of calcium with electrolyte. Nitrogen retention and calcium retention were influenced by levels of electrolyte (p < 0.05) and levels of calcium (p < 0.01).

• General Formulas for Evaluation of Singular Modulus of the Complete Elliptic Integral

The complete elliptic integral of the first kind K(k) is defined for 0 < k < 1 by K(k) := π /2Ɵ=0dƟ/√1 − k2 sin2 ƟThe real number k is called the modulus of the elliptic integral. The complementary modulus is k' = √1 − k2 (0 < k' < 1). Let ⋋ be a positive integer. The equation K(k') = √K(k),defines a unique real number k(k') (0 < k' < 1) called the singular modulus of K(k). In this paper, we establish certain general formulas for evaluating k(λ), by employing Ramanujan's modular equation.

• Expression and N-glycan analysis of human 90K glycoprotein in Drosophila S2 cells

Human 90K (h90K; Mac-2-binding protein) glycoprotein is a potential pharmaceutical due to its inhibitory activity against cancer metastasis and expansion. Here, h90K glycoprotein was produced in insect Drosophila S2 cell system, and its N-glycan pattern was analyzed. A plasmid encoding h90K gene, fused with a hexahistidine tag under the control of Drosophila metallotionein promoter, was stably transfected into S2 cells. After copper sulfate induction, transfected S2 cells secreted recombinant h90K at a good expression level of 28mg/L in a 150-mL spinner flask culture. The purified recombinant h90K showed an apparent molecular weight of ~78kDa which was much smaller than that (~97kDa) of the natural h90K. Because de-N-glycosylated h90K appeared at ~60kDa protein band, it was suggested that the recombinant h90K from S2 cells has small N-glycans with about half the molecular weight (~18kDa) of N-glycans of the natural h90K. Through detail analyses using high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the S2-derived recombinant h90K was confirmed that it has simple paucimannosidic structures containing two or three mannose residues with core fucose as the major (~79%) N-glycans.

• Involvement of S6K1 in mitochondria function and structure in HeLa cells

The major biological function of mitochondria is to generate cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation. Apart from cellular respiration, mitochondria also play a key role in signaling processes, including aging and cancer metabolism. It has been shown that S6K1-knockout mice are resistant to obesity due to enhanced beta-oxidation, with an increased number of large mitochondria. Therefore, in this report, the possible involvement of S6K1 in regulating mitochondria dynamics and function has been investigated in stable lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells. Interestingly, S6K1-stably depleted HeLa cells showed phenotypical changes in mitochondria morphology. This observation was further confirmed by detailed image analysis of mitochondria shape. Corresponding molecular changes were also observed in these cells, such as the induction of mitochondrial fission proteins (Drp1 and Fis1). Oxygen consumption is elevated in S6K1-depeleted HeLa cells and FL5.12 cells. In addition, S6K1 depletion leads to enhancement of ATP production in cytoplasm and mitochondria. However, the relative ratio of mitochondrial ATP to cytoplasmic ATP is actually decreased in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells compared to control cells. Lastly, induction of mitophagy was found in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells with corresponding changes of mitochondria shape on electron microscope analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that S6K1 is involved in the regulation of mitochondria morphology and function in HeLa cells. This study will provide novel insights into S6K1 function in mitochondria-mediated cellular signaling.

• The classical and a non-classical pathways associated with NF-κB are involved in estrogen-medicated regulation of Calbindin-D9k gene in rat pituitary cells

Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) is a high affinity calcium binding protein that is highly expressed in the duodenum, kidney, uterus, and pituitary glands. Previous studies have shown that CaBP-9k expression is regulated by several steroid hormones, such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, glucocorticoids, 17β-estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4), in a tissue-specific manner. However, the promoter elements that mediate transcriptional regulation by these steroid hormones are not clearly understood, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate cell line expressing CaBP-9k. Recently it was shown that CaBP-9k was constitutively expressed in the rat pituitary gland, and is expressed in an E2-dependent manner in a pituitary gland tumor-derived cell line, GH3. In the current study, we examined the activity of the estrogen responsive element (ERE) in rat CaBP-9k gene in GH3 cells, using a luciferase gene reporter assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and mutagenesis. A nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding site in the CaBP-9k promoter region was identified (nucleotides -848 to -834 from the transcriptional start site), and we demonstrated that addition of an NF-κB blocker to GH3 cells reduced E2-induced CaBP-9k transcription. In the present study, we further showed a previously reported imperfect ERE (nucleotides +51 to +65) between exon I and intron A of CaBP-9k, indicating that the interaction of estrogen receptor (ER) α with this region is involved in the regulation of CaBP-9k promoter activity and its expression. Taken together, these results suggest that in GH3 cells, both the classical ERα-ERE pathway and a non-classical pathway involving NF-κB are involved in E2-mediatd regulation of CaBP-9k expression in the pituitary gland.

• TRIIODTHYRONINE (T<sub>3</sub>) ENHANCES THE STIMULATORY EFFECT OF 1, 25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D<sub>3</sub> ON CALBINDIN-D<sub>28k</sub> mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE KIDNEY AND INTESTINE BUT NOT IN CEREBELLUM OF THE CHICK

The present study was conducted to investigate the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of gene expression of calbindin-\$D_{28k}\$ (CaBP-D28K) in the chicken. By employing slot blot and RIA analyses, levels of CABP-D28K mRNA and CaBP-D28K protein in the intestine, kidney, cerebellum and liver were measured 6 and 12 h after i.m. injection of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin \$D_3\$ [1, 25 \$(OH)_2D_3\$; 250 ng/chick] and 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine (\$T_3\$; 500 ng/chick) in one-day-old chicks. The abundant messages of CaBP-D28K mRNA were detected in the intestine, kidney and cerebellum while there was little message in the liver. After 1, 25 \$(OH)_2D_3\$ treatment (6 + 12 hours), levels of CaBP-D28K mRNA increased in the intestine, but there was no change in the mRNA levels in the kidney and cerebellum. Although \$T_3\$ alone had no effect on CaBP-D28K mRNA levels, simultaneous administration of \$T_3\$ enhanced the 1, 25 \$(OH)_2D_3\$ effect of levels of CaBP-D28K mRNA in the intestine both 6 and 12 h post-treatment, and in the kidney 12 h post-treatment. At a protein level, co-treatment with 1, 25 \$(OH)_2D_3\$ and \$T_3\$ elicited a significant increase in CaBP-D28K expression in the intestine 12 h post-treatment, as compared to treatment with only 1, 25 \$(OH)_2D_3\$, whereas no differences were observed in the CaBP-D28K protein levels in the kidney and cerebellum. These results suggest that thyroid hormones may play a synergistic role with 1, 25 \$(OH)_2D_3\$ for CaBP-D28K gene expression in the intestine and kidney in chicks.

• PCR - RFLP 기법을 이용해 젖소개량을 위한 유전적 표지로서 K- Casein 좌위의 유전자형 분석

Genotypes of K-casein(K-CN) locus as a genetic marker linked to quantitative trait loci affecting traits of economic importance in dairy cattle were determined by PCR-RFLP method. Genomic DNA was prepared from blood of Holstein cows. The PCR was used to amplify an 874 by region between nucleotides 10592 and 11466 from exon IV to intron IV of the bovine K-CN gene using sense primer(5'-GTGCTGAGTAGGTATCCTAG-3') and antisense primer(5'GTAGAGTGCAACAACACTGG-3'). After amplification, PCR products were digested with four restriction enzymes, Hind III, Rsa I, Taq I, and Pst I, and the fragments were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis for RFLP analysis of K-CN locus. In addition to screening for the known Hind III and Rsa I restriction site polymorphisms of K-CN locus, we have found additional RFLPs specific for the K-CN A and B alleles in Taca I and Pst I enzymes. The amplified DNA product digested with each restriction enzyme generated specific RFLP pattern that allowed precise identification of K-CN AA, BB or AB genotypes. The K-CN genotypes determined for cows by the PCR-RFLP method agreed completely with the phenotypes obtained from milk samples of the same individuals. Thus, PCR amplification and RFLP analysis was shown to be a rapid and sensitive method for the discrimination of K-CN genotypes directly at the DNA level in dairy cattle of any age or sex. Consequently, the PCR-RFLP method presented in this study can be used as a valuable tool for early selection of AI bulls and calves with desirable K-CN B gene or K-CN BB genotype affecting superior milk production traits for genetic improvement of Holstein dairy cattle.

• Proposed mechanism in the change of cellular composition in the outer medullary collecting duct during potassium homeostasis.

<P>Potassium depletion (K?-D) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of collecting duct cells, and potassium repletion (K?-R) induces regression of these changes. The purpose of this study was to examine the time courses of the changes in cellular composition, the origin of intercalated cells (ICs) and the mechanism responsible for these changes. SD rats received K?-depleted diets for 1, 7, or 14 days. After K?-D for 14 days some of the rats received normal diets for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days. In the inner stripe of the outer medulla, K?-D increased significantly the number and proportion of H?-ATPase-positive ICs, but decreased the proportion of H?-ATPase-negative principal cells (PCs). However, proliferation was limited to H?-ATPase-negative PCs. During K?-R, the cellular composition was recovered to control level. Apoptosis increased during K?-R and exclusively limited in H?-ATPase-negative PCs. Double immunolabeling with antibodies to PC and IC markers identified both cells negative or positive for all markers during both K?-D and K?-R. Electron microscopic observation showed that ultrastructure of AE1-positive some cells were similar to AE1-negative some cells during K?-R. LC3 protein expression increased significantly and autophagic vacuoles appeared particularly in PCs on days 14 of K?-D and in ICs on days 3 of K?-R. These results suggest that PCs and ICs may interconvert in response to changes in dietary K+ availability and that autophagic pathways may be involved in the interconversion.</P>