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      • Na+K-Cl 비율과 칼슘의 수준이 육계(肉鷄)의 능력 및 칼슘의 이용성, 혈액내 산염기(酸鹽基) 균형지수에 미치는 영향 : (1) Na+K-Cl 비율과 칼슘의 수준에 따른 육계(肉鷄)의 능력 (1) EFFECT OF Na+K-Cl RATIO AND CALCIUM LEVEL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN BROILER CHICKS

        한인규,하종규,이학림,김대성 한국영양사료학회 1988 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.12 No.3

        Na+K-Cl 비율과 Ca수준에 따른 Ca의 이용성 및 성장성적을 연구하기 위하여 두수준의 Ca(1.95%,1.20%) 와 네가지 수준의 사료전해질(0,150,370,450mEq/㎏)을 두어 2×4요인 배치로 실험을 실시하였다. 총252마리의 3일령 하이섹스 하이브로 병아리에게 28일간 실험사료를 급여하였으며 본실험에서 얻은 결과를 요약하면 아래와 같다. 1. 증체량은 Na+K-Cl 비율에 따라 차이를 보였으나 (P<0.05) Ca 첨가에 의한 영향은 나타나지 않았고 Ca과 Na+K-Cl 비율변화에 따라 유의적인 영향을 받았다 (P<00.01). Ca와 Na+K-G 비율의 상호작용은 서로 유의차를 보이지 않았다. 2. 사료섭취량은 Ca 첨가에는 무관하였으나, Na+K-Cl 비율변화에 따라 유의적인 영향을 받았다. (P<0.01). Ca와 Na+K-Cl 비율의 상호작용은 서로 유의차를 보이지 않았다. 3. Ca 첨가는 사료효율에는 영향을 미치지 않았고, Na+K-Cl 비율은 사료효율에 영향을 미쳤다(P<0.01). 4. Na+K-Cl 비율은 폐사율에 영향을 미쳤으나(P< 0.01), Ca 첨가와 두요인의 상호작용은 유의차를 보이지 않았다. 그러나 Na+K-Cl 비율이 높을 때 (450mEq/㎏)에는 폐사율이 높았다. 5. DM이용성은 Ca첨가에는 영향을 받았으나 (P<0.05), Na+K-Cl 비율과는 관계가 없었고, 두요인의 상호작용도 나타나지 않았다. N 축적과 Ca 축적은 Na+K-Cl 비율에 의해 영향을 받았고 (P<0.05), Ca 첨가에 의해서도 영향이 있었다 (P<0.01). An experiment was conducted with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement in order to study the effect of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio and calcium level on calcium availability and growth performance. The dietary treatments consisted of two levels of calcium (1.95% and 1.20%) and four levels of dietary electrolyte (0,150, 300, 450 mEq/㎏ in feed). A total number of 252 broiler chicks (3 days old Hisex-Hibro commercial chick) were fed the experimental diets for a period of 28 days. The results obtained in the present study are summarized as follow: 1. Body weight gain was markedly influenced by the level of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio (p <0.01), but dietary level of calcium with electrolyte was not significant. 2. Feed intake was influenced by the level of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio (p<0.01). 3. Dietary calcium levels did not affect the feed efficiency (p>0.05), but effect of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio was highly significant (p < 0.01). 4. The simple effect of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio markedly influenced the mortality (p < 0.01), but level of calcium did not affect mortality (p > 0.05). Interaction of calcium with electrolyte was not significant. High mortality was observed in the bird fed diet containing sodium bicarbonate (450 mEq/㎏). 5. Dry matter utilizability was influenced by dietary level of calcium (p <0.05), but no significant differences were observed by levels of electrolyte and interaction of calcium with electrolyte. Nitrogen retention and calcium retention were influenced by levels of electrolyte (p < 0.05) and levels of calcium (p < 0.01).

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        General Formulas for Evaluation of Singular Modulus of the Complete Elliptic Integral

        K.,R.,Vasuki,G.,Sharath,N.,Bhaskar 장전수학회 2010 Advanced Studies in Contemporary Mathematics Vol.20 No.1

        The complete elliptic integral of the first kind K(k) is defined for 0 < k < 1 by K(k) := π /2Ɵ=0dƟ/√1 − k2 sin2 ƟThe real number k is called the modulus of the elliptic integral. The complementary modulus is k' = √1 − k2 (0 < k' < 1). Let ⋋ be a positive integer. The equation K(k') = √K(k),defines a unique real number k(k') (0 < k' < 1) called the singular modulus of K(k). In this paper, we establish certain general formulas for evaluating k(λ), by employing Ramanujan's modular equation.

      • KCI우수등재

        PCR - RFLP 기법을 이용해 젖소개량을 위한 유전적 표지로서 K- Casein 좌위의 유전자형 분석

        임태진,한상기,정의룡,김우태,최석호 한국축산학회 1995 한국축산학회지 Vol.37 No.1

        Genotypes of K-casein(K-CN) locus as a genetic marker linked to quantitative trait loci affecting traits of economic importance in dairy cattle were determined by PCR-RFLP method. Genomic DNA was prepared from blood of Holstein cows. The PCR was used to amplify an 874 by region between nucleotides 10592 and 11466 from exon IV to intron IV of the bovine K-CN gene using sense primer(5'-GTGCTGAGTAGGTATCCTAG-3') and antisense primer(5'GTAGAGTGCAACAACACTGG-3'). After amplification, PCR products were digested with four restriction enzymes, Hind III, Rsa I, Taq I, and Pst I, and the fragments were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis for RFLP analysis of K-CN locus. In addition to screening for the known Hind III and Rsa I restriction site polymorphisms of K-CN locus, we have found additional RFLPs specific for the K-CN A and B alleles in Taca I and Pst I enzymes. The amplified DNA product digested with each restriction enzyme generated specific RFLP pattern that allowed precise identification of K-CN AA, BB or AB genotypes. The K-CN genotypes determined for cows by the PCR-RFLP method agreed completely with the phenotypes obtained from milk samples of the same individuals. Thus, PCR amplification and RFLP analysis was shown to be a rapid and sensitive method for the discrimination of K-CN genotypes directly at the DNA level in dairy cattle of any age or sex. Consequently, the PCR-RFLP method presented in this study can be used as a valuable tool for early selection of AI bulls and calves with desirable K-CN B gene or K-CN BB genotype affecting superior milk production traits for genetic improvement of Holstein dairy cattle.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        TRIIODTHYRONINE (T<sub>3</sub>) ENHANCES THE STIMULATORY EFFECT OF 1, 25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D<sub>3</sub> ON CALBINDIN-D<sub>28k</sub> mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE KIDNEY AND INTESTINE BUT NOT IN CEREBELLUM OF THE CHICK

        Sechman,,A.,Shimada,,K.,Saito,,N.,Ieda,,T.,Ono,,T. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1996 Animal Bioscience Vol.9 No.1

        The present study was conducted to investigate the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of gene expression of calbindin-$D_{28k}$ (CaBP-D28K) in the chicken. By employing slot blot and RIA analyses, levels of CABP-D28K mRNA and CaBP-D28K protein in the intestine, kidney, cerebellum and liver were measured 6 and 12 h after i.m. injection of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ [1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$; 250 ng/chick] and 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine ($T_3$; 500 ng/chick) in one-day-old chicks. The abundant messages of CaBP-D28K mRNA were detected in the intestine, kidney and cerebellum while there was little message in the liver. After 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ treatment (6 + 12 hours), levels of CaBP-D28K mRNA increased in the intestine, but there was no change in the mRNA levels in the kidney and cerebellum. Although $T_3$ alone had no effect on CaBP-D28K mRNA levels, simultaneous administration of $T_3$ enhanced the 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ effect of levels of CaBP-D28K mRNA in the intestine both 6 and 12 h post-treatment, and in the kidney 12 h post-treatment. At a protein level, co-treatment with 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ and $T_3$ elicited a significant increase in CaBP-D28K expression in the intestine 12 h post-treatment, as compared to treatment with only 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$, whereas no differences were observed in the CaBP-D28K protein levels in the kidney and cerebellum. These results suggest that thyroid hormones may play a synergistic role with 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ for CaBP-D28K gene expression in the intestine and kidney in chicks.

      • KCI등재

        한국판 캘리포니아 언어학습검사(K-CVLT)의 표준화 연구

        김정기(Jung K . Kim), 강연욱(Yeon Wook Kang) 한국심리학회 1997 Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol.16 No.2

        본 연구는 언어기억검사인 한국판 캘리포니아 언어학습검사 (K-CVLT; 김정기와 강연욱, 1994)의 표준화연구로서 우리나라 인구의 성별/연령/학력별 분포에 비례하여 선정된 20세에서 79세까지의 서울과 충청, 경상지역에 거주하는 357명(남자 181명, 여자 176명)의 정상인 피검자들을 대상으로 K-CVLT를 실시하여 기억과 관련된 22개 척도들에 대한 성별, 연령별 규준을 산출하였다. 이와 함께 대학생들만을 대상으로 한 선행연구(김정기와 강연욱, 1994)에서 입증되었던 K-CVLT의 신뢰도와 타당도에 대한 재검증을 실시하였는데 신뢰도는 Spearman-Brown 반분신뢰도계수가 .97로서 매우 높은 것으로 재확인되었다. 구성타당도를 입증하기 위하여 요인분석을 실시한 결과, K-CVLT는 `일반적 언어학습능력,` `정/오반응변별력,` `순행간섭효과,` `계열위치효과,` `역행간섭효과` 및 `학습속도`의 6개 요인으로 구성되어 있음이 밝혀졌는데, 이는 CVLT와 K-CVLT의 선행연구결과들과 일치하는 것으로 K-CVLT가 기억과 관련된 다양한 과정들을 평가하는 유용한 기억검사임을 입증하는 결과로 해걱된다. 본 연구의 결과로 얻어진 22개 기억척도들의 규준이 임상신경심리학과 정신, 신경과학 등의 다양한 분야에서 유용하게 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대한다. As a standardization of the K-CVLT (Korean version of the California Verbal Learning Test: Kim & Kang, 1994), the present study examined the K-CVLT performances of 357 neurologically intact individuals (181 men and 176 women) who were selected by stratified sampling reflecting the recent Korean census data in terms of major demographic variables, such as gender, age, and education. Normative data were developed on the 22 memory indices seperately for gender and age group. The present study also replicated our previous work which had confirmed the reliability and the validity of the K-CVLT (Kim & Kang, 1994). The estimate of split-half reliability using the Spearman-Brown formula was .97. The validity of the K-CVLT was reconfirmed from the results of factor-analysis on the 19 K-CVLT variables, yielding 6 factors of general verbal learning ability, response discriminability, proactive interference effect, serial position effect, retroactive interference effect, and learning rate. The present result of factor analysis is also consistent with the original factor analytic study of the CVLT. The present results indicate that the K-CVLT is a useful tool for qualitatively assessing a complex cognitive function of verbal memory comprising multiple processes and parameters. We believe that our normative data on the K-CVLT`s various memory indices will be used widely in many fields, such as clinical neuropsychology, experimental cognitive psychology, and neuroscience.

      • KCI등재

        한국판 캘리포니아 언어학습검사 (K-CVLT) 제작을 위한 타당도 연구

        김정기(Jung K . Kim), 강연욱(Yeon Wook Kang) 한국심리학회 1994 Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol.13 No.1

        본 연구는 언어기억(verbal memory)을 측정하는 한국판 캘리포니아 언어학습검사(K-CVLT)의 개발을 위한 기초연구로서, 전체연령집단과 환자집단에 대한 표준화에 앞서서 일차적으로 대학생집단을 대상으로 그 신뢰도와 타당도를 탐색하기 위하여 수행되었다. 캘리포니아 언어학습검사(CVLT)는 기존의 기억검사들과는 달리 기억의 다양한 요소와 과정들을 연구하고 측정할 수 있도록 인지과정접근(cognitive process approach)의 입장에서 새로이 개발된 검사로서, 그 유용성과 타당도가 입증되어 현재 외국에서 널리 사용되고 있는 기억검사이다. 본 연구자들은 이러한 CVLT의 기존 제작원리를 기본으로 하되 문화와 언어상의 차이를 고려하여 한국인에게 사용할 수 있는 K-CVLT를 새로이 제작하였다. 이같이 만들어진 K-CVLT를 서울, 청주, 포항의 남녀 대학생 150명에게 실시하여 언어성 기억점수(Verbal Memory Score)및 기억과 관련된 다양한 지표들에 대한 표준점수를 제공하는 대학생규준을 산출하였다. Spearman-Brown 반분신뢰도계수는 .92로서 K-CVLT의 신뢰도는 매우 높은 것으로 나타났다. 구성타당도를 입증하기 위한 요인 분석결과, K-CVLT는 일반적 언어학습능력, 정/오반응변별력, 역행간섭효과, 순행간섭효과, 학습전략 및 학습속도의 6개 요인으로 구성되어 있음이 밝혀졌는데, 이는 CVLT에 대한 선행연구결과와 일치하는 것으로써 K-CVLT가 CVLT와 같이 기억과 관련된 다양한 과정들에 대한 평가를 가능하게 하는 유용한 도구임을 입증하는 결과로 해석되었다. 후속 표준화 연구를 통해서 다양한 연령층과 환자들에 대한 규준표의 작성과 기타 타당도 연구가 이루어지면 K-CVLT는 임상신경심리학과 정신신경과학 등의 다양한 분야에서 유용하게 활용될 수 있을 것이다. The present study explored the reliability and the validity of our newly constructed verbal memory test, the Korean version of the California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT). As a cognitive process approach to memory assessment, the CVLT differs from previous memory tests in that it measures various processes and paramemters of verbal memory in a single test. Despite its short history, the CVLTs validity has been confirmed in many studies involving various subject populations, and has been widely used in the U.S. and Europe. While following the basic principles of the CVLT, we constructed the K-CVLT considering the cultural and language differences between Korean and American people. We gave the K-CVLT to 150 college students in Seoul, Cheongju, and Pohang, and developed the college-student norms including the Verbal Memory Score(VMS) and the standard scores for various memory indices measured by K-CVLT. The estimate of split-half reliability using the Spearman-Brown formula was .92. The validity of the K-CVLT was investigated by factor-analyzing the 19 K-CVLT indices, yielding 6 factors of general verbal learning ability, response discriminability, retroactive interference effect, proactive interference effect, learning strategy, and learning rate. The present results indicate that the K-CVLT is a useful tool for qualitatively assessing various verbal memory processes, strategies, and errors. We believe that the K-CVLT will be of considerable value to many fields such as clinical neuropsychology, experimental cognitive psychology, and neuroscience, when the present study is followed by additional normative and validity studies involving various age- and clinical-subject groups.

      • KCI등재

        Relationship between Stress Gene Polymorphisms and Litter Size by AI in Pigs

        Jin,,H.J.,Kim,,I.C.,Wee,,M.S.,Yeon,,S.H.,Kim,,C.D.,Lee,,S.S.,Cho,,C.Y.,Cho,,S.R.,Son,,D.S.,Park,,C.K. 韓國受精卵移植學會 2007 한국동물생명공학회지 Vol.22 No.4

        This study was performed to investigate the relationship between PSS-HSP70 gene polymorphism and artificial insemination (AI) reproductivity in the pigs. The RFLP polymorphism of PSS and the SSCP polymorphisms of HSP70 K1, K3 and K4 PCR product were detected different patterns. In the experiment for AI of fresh semen, spring and fall season showed higher litter size born of 10.89 head than 10.47 head of summer season. Landrace was showed higher litter size of 9.96 head than that of Duroc and Yorkshire (p<0.05). Stress relating PSS and HSP70 polymorphism of PSS-Normal, HSP70 K1-BB, K3-AB, K4-AA showd a highest litter size born of 10.97 head and litter size born alive of 10.69 head than that of the other polymorphisms(p<0.05). In the experiment for AI of frozen semen, effects of season and pig breeds were not showed for litter size born. The stress relating polymorphism of PSS-Carrier, HSP70 K1-BB, K3-BB, K4-AB showed highest litter size born of 11.29 head and litter size born alive of 10.82 head and PSS-Normal, HSP70 K1-BB, K3-AB, K4-AA showed the lowest litter size born of 8.48 head and litter size born alive of 7.33 head than that of the other polymorphisms(p<0.05). These results suggest that AI litter size born for the stress of forzen thawed semen may be affected by PSS and HSP70 polymorphism in pigs.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Enrichment of Vitamins $D_3$, K and Iron in Eggs of Laying Hens

        Park,,S.W.,Namkung,,H.,Ahn,,H.J.,Paik,,I.K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2005 Animal Bioscience Vol.18 No.2

        An experiment was conducted to produce eggs enriched with vitamins $D_3$, K and iron in eggs. Six hundred 97-wk-old ISA Brown force molted hens were allocated to completely randomized block arrangement of six dietary treatments: T1; control (C), T2; C+4,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+2.5 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe, T3; C+8,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+5.0 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe, T4; C+12,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+7.5 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe, T5; C+16,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+10.0 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe, T6; C+20,000 IU vitamin $D_3$+12.5 mg vitamin K+100 ppm Fe. Fe was supplemented with Fe-methionine. Each treatment consisted of five replicates of ten cages with two birds per cage. Egg production and egg weight were highest in T2 and incidence of soft and broken egg was highest in T6. Haugh unit was not different among treatments although it tended to be increased as dietary vitamins $D_3$ and K increased. Eggshell strength was not different among treatment. Concentrations of vitamin $D_3$ and K in egg yolk increased and plateaued approximately 20 days after feeding supplemented diets. The level of these vitamins peaked at 12,000 IU/kg vitamin $D_3$ and 7.5 mg/kg vitamin K supplementation and then decreased at the higher than these supplementation levels. The peak concentrations of vitamin $D_3$ and vitamin K were 4.6 times and 4.8 times greater than the control, respectively. Supplementary Fe also increased Fe content in egg yolk. It is concluded that vitamin $D_3$ and K in eggs can be effectively enriched by proper supplementation time and level of these vitamins.

      • KCI등재후보

        Expression levels of three bacterial blight resistance genes against K3a race of Korea by molecular and phenotype analysis in japonica rice (O. sativa L.)

        Jung-Pil,Suh,Tae-Hwan,Noh,Ki-Young,Kim,Jeong-Ju,Kim,Yeon-Gyu,Kim,Kshirod,K.,Jena 한국작물학회 2009 Journal of crop science and biotechnology Vol.12 No.3

        Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a destructive disease of rice in the major rice growing countries of Asia. In 2003, a serious bacterial blight epidemic occurred in the southwestern coastal areas in Korea, causing significant yield loss due to the emergence of a new race, K3a. IR24 near-isogenic lines containing Xa4, xa5, Xa7 and Xa21 genes conferred different degrees of resistance to the most virulent K3a isolate, HB01009 in an inoculation experiment in the greenhouse. Expression levels of the resistance genes, Xa4, xa5 and Xa21 were studied in two F2 populations derived from the crosses between elite japonica cultivars and an advanced backcross breeding line possessing Xa4, xa5 and Xa21 genes. F2 progenies segregated for K3a resistance (R) and susceptible (S) phenotypes in a ratio of 3(R):1(S) indicated that K3a resistance was controlled by a major dominant gene. Three PCR markers tightly linked to the resistance genes Xa4, xa5 and Xa21 confirmed the presence of the genes and their interaction with each gene. This study demonstrated that the Xa21 gene dominantly contributed to K3a resistance. However, the Xa4 gene also contributed to the full expression of resistance. The level of expression of strong resistance to K3a race was attributed to the presence of Xa21 and Xa4 genes irrespective of the presence of xa5 gene. Our results suggest that the R-gene combinations of Xa4+Xa21 could be a useful and effective strategy toward improving resistance to K3a race of Korean japonica cultivars. Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a destructive disease of rice in the major rice growing countries of Asia. In 2003, a serious bacterial blight epidemic occurred in the southwestern coastal areas in Korea, causing significant yield loss due to the emergence of a new race, K3a. IR24 near-isogenic lines containing Xa4, xa5, Xa7 and Xa21 genes conferred different degrees of resistance to the most virulent K3a isolate, HB01009 in an inoculation experiment in the greenhouse. Expression levels of the resistance genes, Xa4, xa5 and Xa21 were studied in two F2 populations derived from the crosses between elite japonica cultivars and an advanced backcross breeding line possessing Xa4, xa5 and Xa21 genes. F2 progenies segregated for K3a resistance (R) and susceptible (S) phenotypes in a ratio of 3(R):1(S) indicated that K3a resistance was controlled by a major dominant gene. Three PCR markers tightly linked to the resistance genes Xa4, xa5 and Xa21 confirmed the presence of the genes and their interaction with each gene. This study demonstrated that the Xa21 gene dominantly contributed to K3a resistance. However, the Xa4 gene also contributed to the full expression of resistance. The level of expression of strong resistance to K3a race was attributed to the presence of Xa21 and Xa4 genes irrespective of the presence of xa5 gene. Our results suggest that the R-gene combinations of Xa4+Xa21 could be a useful and effective strategy toward improving resistance to K3a race of Korean japonica cultivars.

      • KCI등재SCIESCOPUS

        Comparison of the Effect of Vitamin K2 and Risedronate on Trabecular Bone in Glucocorticoid-Treated Rats: A Bone Histomorphometry Study

        Jun,Iwamoto,Hideo,Matsumoto,Tsuyoshi,Tadeda,Yoshihiro,Sato,James,K.,Yeh 연세대학교의과대학 2009 Yonsei medical journal Vol.50 No.2

        Purpose: To compare the effect of vitamin K2 and risedronate on trabecular bone in glucocorticoid (GC)-treated rats. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley female rats, 3 months of age, were randomized by the stratified weight method into 5 groups according to the following treatment schedule: age-matched control, GC administration, and GC administration with concomitant administration of vitamin K2, risedronate, or vitamin K2 + risedronate. GC (methylprednisolone sodium succinate, 5.0 mg/kg) and risedronate (10 μg/kg) were administered subcutaneously three and five times a week, respectively. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg) was administered orally three times a week. At the end of the 8-week experiment, bone histomorphometric analysis was performed on trabecular bone of the tibial proximal metaphysis. Results: GC administration decreased trabecular bone mass compared with age-matched controls because of decreased bone formation (mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate) and increased bone erosion. Vitamin K2 attenuated GC-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing GC-induced decrease in bone formation (mineralizing surface) and subsequently reducing GC-induced increase in bone erosion. Risedronate prevented GC-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing GC-induced increase in bone erosion although it also suppressed bone formation (mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate). Vitamin K2 mildly attenuated suppression of bone formation (mineralizing surface) and bone erosion caused by risedronate without affecting trabecular bone mass when administered in combination. Conclusion: The present study showed differential effect of vitamin K2 and risedronate on trabecular bone in GC-treated rats. Purpose: To compare the effect of vitamin K2 and risedronate on trabecular bone in glucocorticoid (GC)-treated rats. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley female rats, 3 months of age, were randomized by the stratified weight method into 5 groups according to the following treatment schedule: age-matched control, GC administration, and GC administration with concomitant administration of vitamin K2, risedronate, or vitamin K2 + risedronate. GC (methylprednisolone sodium succinate, 5.0 mg/kg) and risedronate (10 μg/kg) were administered subcutaneously three and five times a week, respectively. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg) was administered orally three times a week. At the end of the 8-week experiment, bone histomorphometric analysis was performed on trabecular bone of the tibial proximal metaphysis. Results: GC administration decreased trabecular bone mass compared with age-matched controls because of decreased bone formation (mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate) and increased bone erosion. Vitamin K2 attenuated GC-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing GC-induced decrease in bone formation (mineralizing surface) and subsequently reducing GC-induced increase in bone erosion. Risedronate prevented GC-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing GC-induced increase in bone erosion although it also suppressed bone formation (mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate). Vitamin K2 mildly attenuated suppression of bone formation (mineralizing surface) and bone erosion caused by risedronate without affecting trabecular bone mass when administered in combination. Conclusion: The present study showed differential effect of vitamin K2 and risedronate on trabecular bone in GC-treated rats.

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